The active substance of the drug is ampicillin trihydrate. This is a component of semi-synthetic production, which is part of the penicillin group. The substance acts on the cell membrane of dividing microorganisms and disrupts peptide bonds in the membrane. As a result, the bacterial cell becomes unstable, ceases to divide and undergoes lysis (dissolution).
The pharmaceutical preparation interferes with the division and spread of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms: Pfeiffer sticks, staphylococci, streptococci, shigella, salmonella, protein, Escherichia coli, pertussis sticks, clostridia, gonococci and others. Infectious pathogens are resistant to ampicillin.
This allows you to effectively use the medication in tablet form and in the form of suspensions for oral administration.
Pharmacists have proposed combined versions – a combination of ampicillin and sulbactam. Sulbactam protects the antibacterial substance from destruction by bacterial enzymes and helps to destroy resistant strains of microbes.
The maximum concentration of ampicillin in the blood is observed 2 hours after taking the tablets. 70-80% of the components are excreted in the urine, traces are found in bile and in breast milk.
Form of issue
Pharmacological companies offer ampicillin in 4 formats:
- White cylindrical tablets – 250 mg of ampicillin trihydrate per 1 pill;
- Round capsules in two dosages – 250 mg and 500 mg in 1 capsule;
- Powder or granules in vials with a measuring spoon for the preparation of children’s suspension – 250 mg of the substance per 5 ml of liquid;
- White hygroscopic powder for the preparation of injection solutions – dosages of 1000 and 2000 mg per bottle.
The decision to use this or that form of antibiotic release is made by the doctor. The individual characteristics of the patient, weight, age, pathogenesis and severity of the course of the infectious disease are taken into account.
The shelf life of the drug is 24 months. The suspension is allowed to be stored for a maximum of 8 days, and solutions for injection are used immediately and are not subject to storage.
The instructions for the use of the drug indicate the following indications associated with a certain localization of the infection:
- Respiratory organs – bronchitis, pneumonia, including those accompanied by abscesses;
- The upper respiratory tract and ENT organs – tonsillitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis;
- Urinary tract – pyelitis, cystitis, pyelonephritis;
- Gastrointestinal tract and abdominal cavity – Salmonella lesions, cholecystitis, cholangitis, typho >
Instructions for use
The tactics of treatment with ampicillin will depend on the location of pathogenic microorganisms, the severity of the infectious process and the type of pathogen. Before use, a laboratory study is carried out on the sensitivity of the isolated pathogen to ampicillin and the tolerance of the active substance to the patient (allergy test).
The tablets and capsules of the drug are used for oral use. The average daily dose for adult patients is from 1000 to 2000 mg per day, which is divided into 4 doses. The maximum daily dose of an antibiotic is 4 g.
For the treatment of gonococcal urethritis, the medicine is taken once in an amount of 3,5 g. All antibiotics in the form of tablets and capsules are taken 1 hour before a meal.
Ampicillin liquid solution is intended for intravenous or intramuscular administration. To reduce the pain from intramuscular injections, adding 2 ml of novocaine or lidocaine to the antibiotic vial will help. In the presence of allergic reactions to anesthetics, ampicillin powder is diluted with water for injection.
For introduction into a vein, the composition is dissolved in 10 ml of an isotonic solution or glucose. Large dosages (more than 2 mg once) suggest an intravenous drip infusion based on 250 ml of saline at a rate of 1 drop per second.
How to take ampicillin in children
A special form of ampicillin has been developed for young patients, which should be taken in the form of a suspension. For its preparation, the granules contained in the vial are poured with drinking water to the indicated risks and shaken vigorously until a uniform consistency is formed. Dosing the medicine is very convenient with a measuring spoon, which is sold in a package with ampicillin. Take the drug before meals with a little water.
Children who can swallow tablets can take the medicine in tablet form – it is used regardless of the meal and washed down with water.
In severe cases, the child may be prescribed ampicillin by injection, and with sore throats, gargling with ampicillin powder diluted with water helps well. The procedure can be performed for children over 5 years old, who understand what rinsing is.
For children whose body weight is less than 20 kg, the norm is reduced to 12,5-25 mg of ampicillin per 1 kg of weight. The entire daily dose is divided into several doses – from three to six.
Contraindications and side effects
It is forbidden to take ampicillin with:
- Infectious mononucleosis;
- Colitis associated with taking antibacterial medications;
- Lymphocytic leukemia;
- The presence of allergic reactions to penicillin.
Ampicillin-based drugs are not prescribed for children under 1 month of age.
Of the side effects most often observed:
- Changes in the skin – itching, peeling, hyperemia, urticaria, rarely erythema, dermatitis, maculopapular rash;
- Nasal flow and rhinitis;
- Quincke’s edema and anaphylactic shock as allergy manifestations;
- Signs of dyspepsia are diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, a change in taste, enterocolitis;
- Stomatitis and glossitis;
- Mental disorders – depression, aggressiveness, anxiety;
- Shifts in blood counts – a decrease in the concentration of leukocytes, platelets;
- Impaired renal function;
- Fungal lesions of the vagina.
An overdose of penicillin is characterized by dyspeptic disorders (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) with a combination of mental arousal and seizures.
Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.
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