Shoulder Rehabilitation Exercises

Pain in the shoulder joint can have completely different reasons, but almost always the therapy of this phenomenon is complex. An important measure of it is the exercises for the shoulder joint, which are aimed at restoring the functionality of the joints in injuries, after dislocations and operations, with arthrosis and arthritis. Gymnastics helps to increase joint mobility, strengthen the muscle corset, reduce intraarticular edema and normalize physical activity.

The content of the article
  1. Gymnastics for the shoulder joint: basic rules
  2. Shoulder joint exercises
  3. Therapeutic gymnastics for the shoulder joint Evdokimenko
  4. Shoulder Rehabilitation Exercises
  5. Video gymnastics for the shoulder joints
  6. Shoulder dislocation: treatment, rehabilitation, exercises
  7. The benefits of exercise therapy in the rehabilitation of the shoulder joint
  8. Complex of exercises
  9. Immobilization stage
  10. After a period of immobilization
  11. Recovery Recommendations
  12. Contraindications
  13. Shoulder exercises after surgery and injuries
  14. Shoulder exercises after surgery or injury
  15. External rotation isometric exercises for the shoulder
  16. Isometric Internal Rotation Exercises
  17. Stick exercises:
  18. Shoulder exercises for external rotation with resistance (with expander):
  19. Features of the restoration of the shoulder joint after dislocation, exercises to strengthen the shoulder muscles, the goals of physiotherapy and rehabilitation features
  20. Causes
  21. Conservative treatment and diagnosis
  22. Why rehabilitation is needed
  23. Rehabilitation activities and exercises
  24. When can I return to sports activities?
  25. Shoulder Rehabilitation
  26. Rehabilitation after a shoulder injury
  27. Shoulder dislocation rehabilitation
  28. Shoulder fracture rehabilitation
  29. Shoulder arthroscopy rehabilitation
  30. Shoulder endoprosthetics rehabilitation
  31. How to treat and strengthen the shoulder joint, blockade, rehabilitation and development
  32. Conditions leading to pathologies of the shoulder joint
  33. Shoulder joint treatment
  34. Headbands
  35. Drug therapy for pain
  36. Blockade of the shoulder joint
  37. Conservative events
  38. Physiotherapeutic treatment
  39. Massage
  40. How to develop a shoulder joint
  41. Alternative Methods
  42. Conclusion

Gymnastics for the shoulder joint: basic rules

The shoulder joint is surrounded by a muscular skeleton, which provides its functionality and the ability to move in all planes. But constant, uniform movements can provoke atrophy of some muscles that are not involved. Exercises to strengthen the shoulder joint help to achieve positive results, but there are a number of rules that you must adhere to:

  • Timeliness. Regularity and timeliness are important rules of success. Gymnastics must be performed in accordance with a clearly developed scheme and at a specific time.
  • Security. To prevent additional injuries, classes must be conducted with maximum safety and an individual approach. It is necessary to take into account the condition of the ligaments, the presence of diseases and their symptoms.
  • Moderation. To prevent overloads and restore the functionality of the muscle corset, it is important that the load on the shoulder symptom is distributed correctly. Reduce it if you feel very tired.
  • Gradualness. It is important to gradually increase the load. In the process of doing the exercises, do not be nervous, take your time, do not fuss, because a lot depends on your emotional state. It is important not to increase the load until the muscles gain a normal tone. When you get the desired result, do not abruptly stop the load. It must be reduced smoothly and gradually.

Shoulder joint exercises

Exercises for pain in the shoulder joint can be performed independently, together with the instructor. They will be useful not only if a person suffers from pain and limited mobility of the joints, but also for the prevention of such problems. They contribute to effective stretching and warming up the muscles.

Therapeutic exercises for the shoulder joint are usually performed in an upright position. Every day you need to perform the exercises below 10 times:

  • Both hands need to be raised by turning their palms towards each other. Then stretch your fingers well, turn your palms forward and stretch your hands alternately, raising your shoulders. Do the exercises for 3-5 minutes, depending on how you feel. After pulling up, smoothly proceed to further actions.
  • Spread your arms to the sides, then turn left, stretch the fingers of your right hand, slightly turn your head and look up. Then do the same for the other side. This exercise helps to restore the normal movements of the cervico-shoulder region. It must be performed at least ten times.
  • Hold your hands parallel to a flat surface, slightly bend your palms towards you and make a circular motion with your hands, involving the shoulder girdle. Do 5 reps back and forth.
  • The hands remain in the same position, but you need to take them back a little and lower them so that the hands are located below the shoulders. Squeeze your fists and unclench them, to the maximum open your palm and stretch your fingers. This exercise is useful for a diagnosis of brachial osteochondrosis.
  • Arms a little apart, clench your fist and rotate the brush forward and back five times.
  • Raise your arms and bend them at the elbow joint. Grasp the left elbow with the palm of your right hand, and then vice versa. The shoulders alternately stretch upward so you can feel the stretching and warming up of the muscles.

The gymnastic complex must be performed every day – only then you will get stable results and you can improve your condition.

Therapeutic gymnastics for the shoulder joint Evdokimenko

There is also gymnastics developed by the resuscitator P.V. Evdokimenko, who is the author of a large number of books on joint health. His approach demonstrates effectiveness, therefore, is popular. The author of the technique insists that the main attention should be paid to the individual characteristics of the patient. There is both a simplified version of the gymnast (if the patient has limited movements) and a standard one.

Most exercises are performed while sitting, and only two are done while standing. Typically, the following exercises are recommended for the shoulder joint:

  • While sitting on a chair, put your hands on your belt and relax. Then do smooth circular movements back and forth with both shoulders – 1,5 minutes in each direction.
  • The same starting position, relax your shoulders as much as possible. Take them back, tightening the muscles, and then bring them together. Repeat 5-7 times.
  • Sitting on a flat surface, place the palm of a healthy hand on the opposite elbow, and place the other palm on the other shoulder. Relax as much as possible, very carefully pull the diseased limb up, holding it by the elbow, which does not come off the shoulder. This action is aimed at achieving maximum shoulder abduction when the muscles are sufficiently tense, but there will be no pain. Lock the shoulder in this position for 10-15 seconds, then slowly return to its original position. Repeat the complex at least five times.
  • In the prone position, take your hand to the side, slightly raising it above the surface, and strain for 5-10 seconds, then relax. The palm should be as wide as possible, and the shoulder should be on the edge of the surface.

Shoulder Rehabilitation Exercises

After dislocation and trauma of the shoulder joint, as well as after an operation performed on it, exercises are needed to treat, rehabilitate and restore its mobility and strengthen muscles. First, as simple and easy movements as possible that do not require stress within the boundaries of the preserved mobility should be performed.

Exercise helps the muscles to begin to provide an adequate response to tissue resistance over time and overcome it. They are performed in three positions: lying on your back, sitting on a chair and standing.

In the supine position, the following exercises are performed:

  • Squeeze your hand into a fist and unclench your fingers after half a minute. Finish each exercise by shaking your fingers.
  • Bend the bows in the elbow and perform circular movements with brushes.
  • Straighten your arms along the body, make up and down strokes with your hands.
  • Hands need to be bent at the joint, reach and touch the shoulder joint with your fingers. Repeat 5-10 times.
  • Bend your elbows and pull to the sides, then press them back to the body.
  • Use your fingers to reach your shoulders, then move your elbows to the sides.
  • Stretch your arms along the torso, move them to the sides and again return to the starting position.
  • Raise your straight arms one at a time.
  • Press your palms to the floor several times with effort.

Exercises for the shoulder joint are performed in several approaches, 5-10. After completing the complex, take your hands to the sides and relax. It is recommended to rest for 2-5 minutes, then do the exercises while sitting on a chair.

The sitting complex includes such exercises:

  • Bend your arms at your elbows and perform their swings without extending your elbows.
  • Raise a straight hand, then lower it, perform circular movements along the body.
  • Take your hand behind your back, then try to reach the opposite shoulder blade.
  • Place your hands on your shoulder, raise your right knee and try to reach it with your left elbow. Then repeat the same for the opposite elbow and knee.
  • Get up from the chair, spread your arms to the sides, then sit down again.

The third approach for developing the shoulder joint is performed in a standing position:

  • With straight arms, make circular motions along the body, first forward, then back.
  • Spread your arms to the sides, take them back as far as possible, then lower them behind your back.
  • Extend your right hand in front of you, perform a circular swing with your left, change hands, and repeat the exercise.
  • Perform hand swings with small amplitude, similar to walking.

First, do each exercise 3-4 times, then increase the number of sets. During the day, it is recommended to perform complexes in all positions three times. In this case, therapeutic exercises will help restore joint mobility and muscle strength.

A correctly selected complex in combination with other necessary medical measures can significantly improve the patient’s condition. When you get rid of existing problems, you can not cancel the gymnastics, but periodically perform it for prevention – this will help prevent a number of problems in the future. We suggest watching a video demonstrating the implementation of the relevant exercises.

Video gymnastics for the shoulder joints

Shoulder dislocation: treatment, rehabilitation, exercises

The joint of the shoulder girdle is the most mobile in the human body. Its unique structure allows movement in completely different planes. But this advantage has a downside, because the shoulder joint is subjected to great stress and is often damaged. The shoulder area is attached to the sternum of the sternum by the clavicular joint, and the shoulder blade is connected only by muscle tissue.

Muscles not only generate movements, but also stabilize the dynamics of the shoulder girdle. In this case, “arthrosis” or “osteochondrosis” may gradually develop. Pain appears in the shoulders as a result of rupture of the rotator cuff, resulting in the need for surgical intervention applied to the tendons.

After this, a long recovery and rehabilitation after surgery on the shoulder joint is necessary. There are many programs and complexes of therapeutic exercises that can improve the healing of the shoulder girdle and accelerate the functionality and full performance of the upper limbs.

The benefits of exercise therapy in the rehabilitation of the shoulder joint

The human body is a complex and unique system with unlimited possibilities. And even a short immobilization of body parts will lead to discord in the general contracture. But at the same time, too active actions after the operation or injury, leads to an increase in the healing time of damaged tissues and the formation of additional problems during recovery.

In order to compensate for these completely different actions, rehabilitation is also applied after dislocation or fracture of the shoulder joint.

Doctors have to perform operations on the shoulder girdle, with:

  • Instability of the joint itself;
  • Impediment Syndrome;
  • Fractures of the shoulder joint;
  • Rotary cuff injuries.

Rehabilitation during arthroscopy of the shoulder joint allows you to quickly restore the efficiency of the hand, although in this case the process can drag on for six months.

The time of exercise therapy depends on many factors:

  • The size and extent of damage;
  • The scope of the operated area;
  • The duration of the tissue regeneration period;
  • Education or lack of complications;
  • The age and general condition of the patient.

The use of exercises for sequential rehabilitation during joint treatment has the following advantages:

  • Strengthening the muscles and reducing their reflex overvoltage;
  • Restores the strength and coordination of movements of the damaged upper limb;
  • A clearly distributed load allows you to quickly restore mobility of the hand after surgery on the shoulder girdle without overloading it.

Complex of exercises

Rehabilitation after arthroscopy of the shoulder joint can be figuratively divided into two periods.

Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologistShishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.

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Immobilization stage

In the first time after the operation, that is, at the initial stage of immobilization.

Exercise therapy should be started immediately when the arm is still in a retaining bandage. Then use a healthy upper limb and parts not affected by surgery. Only after a week is it allowed to strain the injured shoulder a little.

Consider some exercise options:

  • They contract the muscles and tendons of the hand without applying limb movement. The shoulder girdle needs to be tensioned and held in this state for about 10 seconds, then it is relaxed and fingers are squeezed;
  • Using an expander made of rubber, it is recommended to lower and raise the shoulder blades, as well as to raise and rotate the shoulders.

Since the site of damage will not move for about 1 month, the use of gymnastics helps to eliminate myogenic contracture, while keeping the scar intact, preventing the seams from diverging. Rehabilitation after surgery on the shoulder joint stimulates a more active blood flow in the immovable limb.

After a period of immobilization

In the first moments, the muscles are in tension, and the exercise in most cases causes discomfort and a feeling of pain. But you should not stop using gymnastics, as it is aimed at developing control over reflex contractions.

To train the body during rehabilitation, use the following actions performed at 4-6 weeks after surgery:

  • The upper body is tilted and fed forward, the upper limbs are relaxed, allowing them to just hang, move their hands in an arbitrary direction. The amplitude of the magnitude should not be too large and be accompanied by a sensation of pain;
  • They take a stick for gymnastics, cover it with hands and with effort press a healthy limb onto the patient;
  • Throw the rope through the block and try to pull from one hand to another;
  • Lean on a vertical surface with a limb and lift up, sliding along the wall;
  • Rotate hands, putting the brush on the shoulders;
  • Make sliding movements with your fingers on a horizontal surface.

In addition to the aforementioned exercises, rehabilitation of the shoulder joint, including after endoprosthetics, includes additional quite mundane actions: imitation of washing, an attempt to comb your hair on your own, and pull yourself up on a rope.

If the patient begins to feel that the damaged arm is restoring its functionality, the range of movements and the intensity of the loads can begin to increase, but do it consistently.

Each procedure should be repeated about 15 times, depending on the individual characteristics of the body, conducting exercises 3 times a day.

Do not neglect massage and physiotherapeutic actions during rehabilitation. It is worth considering the severity of the operation, and whether there were other surgical interventions at the same time.

In some cases, shoulder damage is not caused by injuries, but has a congenital character. The anatomical features of an individual person may be affected when the head of the humerus does not match the location of the articular cavity of the scapula. In this case, this pathology is corrected using arthroscopy, after which exercise therapy is used.

Below are examples of possible exercises – click on the pictures to enlarge them:

Recovery Recommendations

Much attention should be paid to dosing the load and tracking dynamics daily. Each movement should be worked out as much as possible. Do not neglect the usual actions, such as throwing the ball, sticks or bats, swinging a racket for playing tennis.

Temporary inoperability of the shoulder girdle restores its functionality faster, with the addition of the rehabilitation gymnastics complex with manual massage, physiotherapeutic procedures, and the use of specialized simulators.

Another way to carry out rehabilitation is stretching, which increases the elasticity of tendons and allows you to quickly develop a damaged limb. All actions must be performed slowly, without sudden movements. Exercises are performed in an upright position of the body, legs slightly apart:

  • One of the arms rises, bends at the elbow, gets into the area behind the back, and the fingers try to reach the opposite scapula. After you should change the limbs. Actions are repeated 4-5 times;
  • Tilts are made, holding hands on the back of the chair. When bending, you need to delay, and stay in this position for a few seconds;
  • Both limbs come down behind. Hands are taken to the maximum possible height, after which they are lowered to their original position. Repeat 4 times;
  • To complete the exercise, use a towel, rope, or jump rope. Any of the accessories is taken at the ends, extended, and hands are raised to the top, while leaning back and not bending to the elbows, then lower at a slow pace.


It is not always possible to exercise gymnastics in physiotherapy during rehabilitation in full. At some points in the training and the carding itself, the acceleration of recovery can aggravate the existing problem.

It is worth resorting to exercise therapy only if the following contraindications have not been identified:

  • Sensation of severe pain in the shoulder girdle, which only intensifies with any movement;
  • The presence of infectious diseases present during exacerbation;
  • A sharp increase in temperature caused by hyperthermia;
  • The detection in a person of a disease such as diabetes;
  • If the anamnesis shows the presence of a cardiological disease, because all the loads make the heart work in a faster rhythm.

Rehabilitation in case of damage to the shoulder of the trunk is an indispensable condition for a more rapid restoration of the functionality and performance of the injured limb, allowing you to return to your normal lifestyle in the shortest possible time.

Shoulder exercises after surgery and injuries

Shoulder exercises after surgery or serious injury (fracture of the shoulder, dislocation, etc.) are aimed at restoring joint mobility and strengthening weakened muscles.

In the early period of rehabilitation, it is advisable to use a mechanotherapy apparatus that raises, lowers and rotates the shoulder in different directions and provides a physiologically correct mode of soft tissue recovery. This, in turn, reduces the risk of developing contractures and restores the amplitude of movements. More about the apparatus of mechanotherapy for the shoulder Arthromot C3 (Artromot S3)

It is recommended to strengthen the soft tissues of the shoulder by isolating each muscle group and selectively training this muscle. The subscapularis muscle is the front stabilizer of the rotator cuff and is responsible for the internal rotation of the shoulder. It is best to train her by holding her arm bent 90 degrees and pressing her shoulder to the body, the forearm and hand are perpendicular to the body. The exercise consists in bringing the hand inward to your body until it is touched, then pulling the forearm back.

Exercise can be performed while lying on your back, with your elbow bent 90 degrees. Lift the weight (1-2 kg) until the hand points to the ceiling and then slowly lower it until the fingers touch the floor. Slowly lift the weight so that your arm is above your head. Stop if you feel pain at any stage of the movement, since the rotator cuff is in this position at maximum tension.

Shoulder exercises after surgery or injury

External rotation isometric exercises for the shoulder

2. The external rotation in the supine position: the starting position is lying on the side of a healthy arm, the injured arm lies on top and is bent 90 degrees. While pressing your elbow to your body, raise your forearm up to the ceiling and hold it for 2 seconds. Slowly lower your hand. Do 2 sets of 15 times. In the absence of pain, weighting agents can be taken.

Isometric Internal Rotation Exercises

3. The position is the same as in exercise No. 1, but the palm presses on the door jamb inward. Hold for 5 seconds, do 2 sets of 15 reps.

Stick exercises:

4. Shoulder exercise after surgery or flexion injury: Stand straight and hold the stick in both hands with the palms down. Pull your arms, raising them up above your head, keep your arms straight. Hold in the up position for 5 seconds and return to the starting position. Repeat 10 times.

5. Shoulder extension exercise: stand straight and hold the stick in both hands with your palms down behind your back. Raise your hands behind your back away from your back. Hold in the up position for 5 seconds and return to the starting position, repeat 10 times.

6. Lead and shoulder exercises: in a standing position, hold the stick with both hands, palms away from you. Hold the stick across from your hips. Press with your healthy (non-injured) hand away from you to the side and up – as high as possible. Straighten your hands, hold for 5 seconds. Repeat 10 times.

7. Shoulder abduction exercise in a lying position: lie on your back and grab a stick in both hands, palms up. Your forearms should be on the floor with elbows bent 90 degrees. Use a healthy hand to put pressure on the operated hand away from the body. Keep the elbow of the injured hand close to you while pressing on it. Continue pressure for 5 seconds, repeat 10 times.

Shoulder exercises for external rotation with resistance (with expander):

8. Exercise for external rotation: stand sideways to the doorway so that the injured arm is further from the door. Tie the expander at one end so that it extends at waist level. Hold the other end with your injured hand. Hold your injured arm across your abdomen. Holding the elbow near the body, rotate your hand outward from the waist. Slowly return your hand to its original position. Check: the elbow should be bent 90 degrees, and the forearm should be parallel to the floor. Repeat 10 times, do 2 sets.

9. Internal rotation exercise: starting position – sideways to the doorway so that the injured arm is further from the door. Fasten the expander with one end to something stable and position the expander at waist level. Hold the other end of the expander by the handle, bend your elbow 90 degrees. Keep the elbow pressed to the body and rotate the forearm from the body, and then back to the starting position. It is important that the forearm is parallel to the floor. Do 2 sets of 8-12 reps.

10. Raising arms: stand with arms down along the body, elbows straightened. Raise your hands slowly to eye level. When your hands are raised – spread them apart so that they are at an angle of about 30 degrees to the body. Point your thumbs towards the ceiling. Hold for 2 seconds, slowly lower your hands down. Do 2 sets of 15 times. As your muscles strengthen, begin to do light weight exercises and increase them when the exercise becomes too light.

11. Horizontal abduction: lie on your stomach closer to the edge of the bed so that your injured arm hangs down over the edge. Raise your hand outward and to the side, with your thumb pointing to the ceiling. Raise until the arm is parallel to the floor. Hold for 2 seconds and slowly lower. Start lifting without weight, add weighting materials as you progress. Do 2 sets of 15 times.

12. Push-ups: start from the starting position in which the arms and knees are on the floor. Keep your arms shoulder-width apart and lift your legs off the floor. Bend your back as far as possible and round your shoulders. Bend your elbows and lower your body to the floor. Return to the starting position. Do 2 sets of 15 times.

Features of the restoration of the shoulder joint after dislocation, exercises to strengthen the shoulder muscles, the goals of physiotherapy and rehabilitation features

Dislocation of the shoulder joint (synonym: dislocation; abbreviation: CHD) – displacement of the joint surfaces of the shoulder relative to each other, which leads to serious complications. In this article, we will analyze exercises for the restoration of the shoulder joint after a dislocation.

Marked UPU

Attention! In the international classification of diseases of the 10th revision (ICD-10), CHD is indicated by code S43.0.


The shoulder is one of the most sensitive, but also the most flexible joints. However, this mobility carries a high risk of injury. Dislocation may occur after an accident or a fall. Shoulder dislocation is accompanied by severe pain and limits the amplitude of shoulder movements.

With a dislocation as a result of a strong blow, the shoulder head pops up from the hip. Typically, this condition occurs due to falling on an outstretched or twisted arm. Age-related signs of wear also increase the risk of dislocation.


Distinguish between front, rear and lower shoulder dislocation. Whether shoulder surgery is required depends on the type of injury and the patient’s symptoms. If capsules and ligaments are damaged due to dislocation, surgery may be required.

Dislocation and subluxation of the shoulder causes a high degree of pain, which is accompanied by swelling and bruising. The patient can no longer move his shoulder without restrictions. Dislocation of the shoulder affects the surrounding components of the shoulder joint. Often the surrounding nerves are severely damaged, the bones break and the vessels, as well as the ligaments, break. The degree of injury is critical when choosing a treatment method. Especially in young patients, surgery is often required.

Conservative treatment and diagnosis

Imaging procedures, such as an X-ray of the shoulder, indicate the degree of damage. The doctor will immobilize the shoulder joint as quickly and carefully as possible, until further studies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are performed. The shoulder is examined to exclude or confirm sensory impairment, damage to the nerve or blood vessels.

In case of dislocation, hand movements should be avoided, for this immobilization is carried out. Local cooling can reduce pain and inflammation.

If nerves (especially the axillary nerve) or blood vessels are damaged due to dislocation, the disorder can lead to serious complications. The guidelines recommend acting without a preliminary radiograph. With long-term transportation to the nearest hospital, blood circulation problems, damage to the neuromuscular nerve and other disorders should be considered.

In any case, if pain occurs, the patient should receive analgesics during transportation. With analgesics, you can take muscle relaxants and other drugs that help reduce pain. In severe cases, even a brief anesthesia with complete muscle relaxation may be required to alleviate the patient’s condition.

Indications for surgical treatment are complications (damage to blood vessels, nerves or muscles) and recurrent dislocation. Your doctor may prescribe arthroscopy or open surgery. The operation is currently performed only in rare cases and under general anesthesia. You can eliminate the dislocation without surgery. Professionals with the necessary experience gently push the shoulder head back into the nest. This treatment option requires additional analgesic therapy.

Why rehabilitation is needed

After the operation, the doctor will recommend certain exercises. This often requires patience, since a full recovery takes an average of 3-6 months. Patients are helped to improve shoulder mobility. This is followed by muscle building. Stretching exercises should not cause pain.

4-6 weeks after shoulder surgery, you can perform your own exercises to develop muscles and joints. Shoulder muscle strengthening exercises help the healing process. Patients who undergo rehabilitation courses have fewer complications.

Rehabilitation activities and exercises

Physiotherapy exercises can be used to counteract or prevent shoulder pain. Often the cause of the pain is muscle imbalance. In some cases, the imbalance is caused by poor posture and back muscles.

Even with an existing shoulder injury, physiotherapy can promote healing. Especially after surgery, it is important to regularly perform a set of appropriate exercises.


To prevent shoulder injury, you must regularly perform exercises that strengthen the muscles of the back. Care should be taken not to create a one-sided load. Office workers should avoid curving their back for hours. A straight vertical posture has a positive effect on the muscles of the shoulder. Bodybuilders must perform the exercises correctly during weight training.

Weak back muscles can be strengthened with physiotherapeutic exercises. With daily training, pain in the joint area is reduced. This process can take up to several months after a shoulder injury, and also requires patience and perseverance. Not all injuries require surgery. It is important to strengthen the muscle group responsible for the wrong position.

After reducing the symptoms and improving the mobility of the shoulder, a complete healing of the shoulder joint is possible, even with a progressive disease. The success of a physiotherapeutic treatment depends on the prescribed medication, exercise program, and the patient’s active collaboration. The following exercises support the shoulder muscles and have a preventive effect. If there is a shoulder injury, exercise should be discussed with your doctor.

  1. In a standing position you need to reach for your socks. The muscles of the arm should be relaxed. During an exercise, a bottle filled with water can be placed on a damaged arm.
  2. Sitting right in the chair, you need to lower your hand down. The hand should be pulled to the ground, and the head tilted to the opposite shoulder.
  3. Also, in the sitting position, it is recommended to extend both shoulders to the level of the neck.
  4. Standing upright with an injured hand, grab a healthy shoulder, elbow, or chin. It is recommended to sip your hand a little in different directions.

If the doctor or physiotherapist agrees, the shoulder muscles can be strengthened with a special training program or wearing plaster. It is important not to exert strong pressure on the shoulder. During classes, you can use elastic bandages of various thicknesses that help prevent injuries. Exercises should be carried out 2-3 times a week.

When can I return to sports activities?

Shoulder injury is usually associated with prolonged treatment. Depending on which component of the shoulder is affected, it will depend on how severe the injury is and how the healing process goes. Forecasts vary greatly. In most cases, the patient is prohibited from playing sports for a period of 3 to 9 months. The doctor allows sports only when the wound has healed. Sports activities of any kind should be discussed with your doctor. Slight movement that does not burden the shoulder is usually permitted shortly after surgery.


The duration of the rest phase depends on the severity of the injury and, above all, on sports. If there is an increased risk of injury, a sports break will take longer. You can return to jogging or other low-risk sports after a six-week or three-month break. The more severe the injury, the longer the patient recovers. You can return to football, boxing, basketball or tennis only nine months later or even a year after the injury.

It is important to follow the advice of your doctor and not act independently. Even if there is no pain or discomfort, it is not recommended to return to sports activities at an early date. Not only the injury should be completely treated, but also the corresponding area of ​​the shoulder. The shoulder is the most flexible joint of the human body, which is held and supported almost exclusively by tendons, ligaments and muscles. It is important to first restore weakened and damaged muscles. Sufficient patience is needed so that you do not have to pause again due to injury.


To prevent re-injury, it is recommended to strengthen the muscles even after full recovery. Physiotherapeutic exercises and therapeutic exercises increase the stability of the joint and reduce the risk of separation of the shoulder head from the socket. With regular training, the risk of re-injury is reduced. It is also important to consult a specialist for any symptoms in order to prevent complications in time.

Regular physical activity (especially swimming in the pool) helps strengthen the muscles and improves the well-being of the patient. However, before performing it is always necessary to consult with experienced physiotherapists, since some exercises can aggravate the course of the disorder. You can return to professional activity only after obtaining the approval of a specialist. It is necessary to give up sports for a while, so as not to interfere with tissue regeneration and not to complicate the condition.

Shoulder Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation – a necessary measure to restore the joint of the shoulder

Rehabilitation of the right or left shoulder joint is a necessary measure to restore the shoulder joint if it has undergone various injuries, and also underwent surgery after serious illness or stapling.

Rehabilitation is prescribed in almost all cases when the shoulder suffered a severe bruise, shock, suffered from sprain, partial or complete ruptures of muscle tissue, tendons or ligaments. Rehabilitation is especially indicated in cases where a shoulder injury has led to ruptures of the articular lip, synovial membrane, or hyaline cartilage.

Rehabilitation is a mandatory measure of recovery after cracks and fractures of bone tissue. The joint is also subject to restoration if it has undergone endoscopic surgery or endoprosthetics.

As a rule, rehabilitation is understood as a set of measures, which are physical therapy exercises for the rehabilitation of the shoulder joint, as well as physiotherapy.

Rehabilitation after a shoulder injury

Injuries are a common cause of loss of motor ability

Injuries are the most common reason why a joint loses its normal motor ability. The main types of injuries that require rehabilitation include:

  • Shoulder bruises, bumps, direct fall on an outstretched arm;
  • Microcracks, partial or complete ruptures of all soft tissues: ligaments, tendons and muscles;
  • Cracks and fractures of the bones of the shoulder;
  • Dislocations of the shoulder joint;
  • Sprains.

In addition, injuries are further aggravated by numerous injuries of the menisci, articular lips, capsules, and cartilage. In this case, patients are first offered arthroscopy, that is, rehabilitation will involve recovery from surgery.

Shoulder dislocation rehabilitation

Dislocation is one of the most common causes that can permanently deprive the shoulder and upper limb of normal activity. With dislocations, the posterior or anterior displacement of the humerus with its exit from the clavicular cavity is characteristic. Dislocations are complicated by the fact that often they additionally injure the hyaline cartilage, break the tendons and damage the muscles.

Exercises with dumbbells for rehabilitation of the shoulder joint

The primary treatment for dislocation involves the immobilization of the shoulder joint with the help of fixatives, for example, orthoses, sling dressings, elastic dressings, plaster or calipers. Clamps are worn by the patient for at least 2-3 weeks, and sometimes gypsum for more than one month. All this negatively affects the tone of the muscles, which during this period manage to weaken and atrophy. Also, ligaments and tendons lose their natural elasticity, therefore, rehabilitation is provided after dislocation of the shoulder joint.

  • Exercises with dumbbells. To carry out the raising of arms above the head and their full lowering. The number of repetitions is 10-15 times for each hand. Exercise with an arm extended forward and bending the arm in the elbow joint is also effective; you can support the elbow with a healthy hand (repeat 10-15 times).
  • Throw exercises. For the exercise, you can take the ball or imagine that you throw the ball into the basket. In this case, to change the hand to throw. Perform 10-15 times for each hand.
  • Rotational movements of the shoulder. Rotate clockwise and then counterclockwise.
  • Exercises with the withdrawal of arms behind the back and the formation of a “castle”.
  • Fast squeezing and unclenching the fingers of a brush into a fist.

Shoulder dislocation rehabilitation treatment may also include visits to physiotherapy procedures and a massage room. They effectively tone the muscles, normalize the flow of blood and lymph, help the ligaments restore elasticity, while strengthening the joint.

Shoulder fracture rehabilitation

Fracture of the shoulder joint requires the application of plaster. Gypsum fixes the shoulder in its natural position, helping the bones to heal faster, and also completely removing the load from the arm and shoulder. Wearing gypsum can drag on from 3 weeks to 1,5 months. During this time, the muscles are completely immobilized, the ligaments and tendons do not stretch, blood circulation is slowed down due to some compression of the vessels. All this leads to atrophy of the muscles, their weakness, loss of ligaments and tendons of their ability to stretch, the general innervation of the arm.

That is why rehabilitation after a fracture of the shoulder joint is longer, more complex, it is carried out in stages, as muscle tone and activity of the shoulder joint are restored. In general, an exercise is initially prescribed for clenching your fingers into a fist, performing rotational and flexion-extensor movements in the elbow joint. Further, the intensity of the loads should increase, for this they are prescribed to use dumbbells.

Shoulder arthroscopy rehabilitation

Arthroscopic surgery on the shoulder joint

The shoulder joint is subject to rehabilitation and restoration if arthroscopic surgery was performed. Arthroscopy involves minimal surgical invasion of the shoulder joint with the ability to diagnose and treat the joint. In this case, the shoulder joint is examined using a special camera that reproduces the image on the monitor.
As a rule, this operation helps to stitch small tears of the soft tissues of the joint using video on the monitor.

Arthroscopy is mandatory if there is a suspicion of injury to the hyaline cartilage, if ruptures of the articular menisci are suspected, as well as in the case of damage to the articular lip and synovial membrane.

Rehabilitation after arthroscopy of the shoulder joint

Rehabilitation after arthroscopy of the shoulder joint includes a phased increase in the intensity of the loads on the shoulder, based on the implementation of flexion and extensor movements, abduction and adduction movements of the shoulder to the head, and abduction of the arm behind the back.

  • Extend your arm forward, take dumbbells weighing 1 kg and slowly bend your arm at the elbow joint. To start, the exercise is repeated 7-10 times. After 10 days of execution, you can take heavier dumbbells.
  • Exercises with dumbbells weighing 1 kg with a complete raise of the arm above the head and its full lowering. Perform from 7-10 times, then you can increase the number of repetitions by weighting the dumbbells.
  • Press the hand to the chest without bending in the elbow joint so that the hand touches the shoulder of the other limb. With a healthy hand, press a little in the area of ​​the elbow joint (to stretch the ligaments and muscles).
  • Clutching hands to the castle behind.
  • Quickly squeeze your fingers into a fist and unclench them.

Shoulder joint rehabilitation video on the Internet with a complex of physical therapy will help to collect additional information about the exercises.

Shoulder endoprosthetics rehabilitation

Endoprosthetics is a complex operation to replace a joint that is injured or destroyed by a disease, with complete or partial replacement. In this case, an endoprosthesis is implanted in place of the shoulder joint. Such a procedure requires a long rehabilitation, which can stretch for more than 15 weeks.

In this case, the recovery is divided into periods:

  • Up to 3 weeks after surgery.
  • Recovery at 4-8 weeks.
  • Exercises at weeks 9-11.
  • Exercise therapy at 12-15 weeks.

In the first weeks after arthroplasty, the patient should focus on finger movements and try to master movements below the elbow joint. Then, rehabilitation after endoprosthetics of the shoulder joint gradually covers the load directly on the muscles of the back and neck. This course is carried out for 9-11 weeks, when the patient is obliged to perform bends and drives of the shoulder to the head, to carry out rotation of the shoulder. At the 15th week, the patient is required to perform general strengthening exercises with 1 kg dumbbells with flexion and extension of the arm, as well as its lifts.

How to treat and strengthen the shoulder joint, blockade, rehabilitation and development

The uniqueness of the shoulder joint lies in its ability to carry out hand movements in 3 planes and with large amplitude.

After injuries or as a result of existing diseases, the joint loses its former mobility, which is accompanied by pain and a decrease in the available range of motion. The pain attacks to which the shoulder is exposed have different intensities. Sometimes the pain is so severe that the only way to get rid of the torment is to inject the drug diprospan.

Ignoring pathological symptoms and the lack of proper treatment often lead to loss of working capacity and disability. In this case, there is only one way out for the patient – replacement of the shoulder joint. In order not to bring the situation to a critical point, when pain occurs, you must consult a specialist.

The doctor will tell you how to treat the shoulder joint, prescribe the necessary medications, advise the course of exercise therapy, choose the right painkiller ointment and anti-inflammatory drugs.

Conditions leading to pathologies of the shoulder joint

There are many reasons for the appearance of pain in the shoulder. They have a completely different etiology and, accordingly, treatment methods. The following is a list of the most common pathological conditions:

  • inflammatory processes (arthritis, tendonitis, capsulitis, bursitis)
  • injuries (fractures, dislocations, sprains)
  • degenerative-dystrophic changes (arthrosis)
  • humeroscapular periarthritis
  • ligament calcification
  • somatic diseases
  • neuritis, etc.

Shoulder joint treatment

For effective treatment, it is first necessary to establish the source that causes the appearance of pain and leads to various kinds of damage to the components of the joint. A correctly established cause of the disease is the key to successful treatment. To understand how to cure the joint, the doctor will collect an anamnesis, detailing the patient, will prescribe tests and diagnostic tests (X-ray, CT or MRI of the shoulder joint).

Based on the results obtained, a specialist develops a treatment regimen. Although the final therapy will be selected depending on the identified pathological source, it is always comprehensive and includes several mandatory basic principles:

  1. treatment of the underlying disease
  2. symptomatic therapy aimed at reducing pain
  3. rehabilitation measures to restore shoulder function

The arsenal of techniques used includes conservative and surgical treatment. In most cases, a complex of conservative measures is sufficient, but sometimes only the replacement of the shoulder joint can correct the situation. Very often, surgical intervention is resorted to involuntarily, and it is of an emergency nature.

The cause is injuries leading to damage to the shoulder joint and its constituent elements. In case of injuries, a joint is necessarily fixed, for which a spike-shaped bandage on the shoulder joint is used. Scheduled surgery on the shoulder joint is performed for arthrosis, dislocation, purulent arthritis and other diseases.

A large percentage of operations is the replacement of the shoulder joint, caused by degenerative-dystrophic changes in it.


With open injuries and dislocations, a kerchief bandage is applied to the shoulder joint, which is easy to apply and comfortable to wear. Ensuring immobilization and limiting the movements of the shoulder joint after surgery or injury is achieved through the application of elastic dressings and the use of orthopedic products (bandage, corset, orthoses).

For fixation, an orthopedic dressing on the shoulder joint is widely used. It has a high degree of extensibility, helps fight edema, has compression properties and a warming effect.

Drug therapy for pain

The choice of tactics for treating the underlying disease depends on the results of the examination, can be lengthy and not always successful. Therefore, such a significant role is assigned to the fight against pain, which significantly reduces the quality of life of the patient and often causes severe suffering.

The fastest and most effective way to combat pain are NSAIDs – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, nimesulide, ibuprofen, meloxicam, ketoprofen, indomethacin, etc.), which, together with the relief of the pain syndrome, successfully fight the focus of inflammation.

They are available in tablet form and as solutions for injection. For external use, an ointment or gel is used. This variety of dosage forms allows you to affect the focus of inflammation in a complex and with a high degree of effectiveness. With severe pain, resort to drugs based on betamethasone: phlosterone and diprospan.
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An ointment with a locally irritating effect based on bee / snake venom and capsaicin (red pepper) helps to relieve pain. It dilates blood vessels at the site of application, improves blood circulation and tissue trophism, has a warming effect. This tool can not be used during acute inflammatory processes.

When the complex of conservative measures is not effective, the disease progresses, severe pain persists, the patient loses working capacity, resort to surgical intervention, one of the varieties of which is the replacement of the shoulder joint.

Blockade of the shoulder joint

If the patient is tormented by constant severe pain, which cannot be controlled with NSAIDs, glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory drugs (GCS) based on betamethasone are used: phlosterone and diprospan. These are hormonal drugs that are available as an injection. They have a powerful analgesic effect.

Usually, an injection is given to the shoulder joint or its cavity at certain intervals.

The dose of the drug, the number of injections and the interval between them are selected individually and depend on the patient’s condition.
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In severe cases, blockade of the shoulder joint is performed, for which diprospan is combined with novocaine or lidocaine. Joint blockade helps relieve intense pain and prevent the development of pain contracture.

Prolonged pain contracture causes muscle atrophy and limited range of motion. This dysfunction persists after the elimination of pain, and to eliminate it will require a long development of the shoulder joint.

The blockade has quite a long-term effectiveness – up to 4 weeks. If necessary, repeat the procedure. During the respite, techniques are used to eliminate the underlying disease.

Conservative events

The greatest effect of drug treatment is when combined with conservative methods that are part of complex therapy. These include physiotherapy, exercise therapy and massage.

Physiotherapeutic treatment

Physiotherapy for the shoulder joint is prescribed during the period of remission. The treatment program is based on the underlying pathology. It includes:

  • UHF
  • magnetotherapy
  • laser
  • shock wave therapy
  • electrophoresis
  • postisometric relaxation
  • phonophoresis and others

Successful treatment requires regularity and consistency – the patient must undergo a full course of procedures prescribed by the doctor.


Massage is an important component of the rehabilitation period. It improves blood circulation and stimulates the outflow of lymph, due to which tissues receive a sufficient amount of nutrients. Improving tissue trophism, in turn, contributes to the activation of regeneration processes at the cellular level.

Physiotherapy exercises is an integral part of the treatment process, its goal is the restoration of shoulder functions. It improves blood circulation in the tissues, increases the elasticity of the muscle frame, helps to develop the joint. The exercise program is compiled by a specialist depending on the pathology and degree of damage to the joint.

Regular exercises will increase mobility in the joint, strengthen muscles and resume range of motion.

The integrated lesson includes exercises to develop the flexibility of the shoulder joint and power loads. As auxiliary equipment, a gymnastic stick, an expander and dumbbells are used.
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How to develop a shoulder joint

After a fracture or surgery, when the shoulder was in a fixed position for a long time, there is a need for its development. The warm-up of the shoulder joint implies the return of the lost flexibility of the joint and the amplitude of the movements of the upper limb. For these purposes, a set of exercises is compiled, which is selected individually taking into account the patient’s condition.

Movements aimed at strengthening the shoulder joint should be carried out progressively, taking into account individual capabilities. If the exercises cause severe discomfort, you do not need to do them through force. The rehabilitologist should talk about his condition so that he picks up lighter exercises.

Rehabilitation after a fracture or surgery includes a smooth increase in stress, a gradual increase in the time and intensity of training. Exercise therapy does not imply performing exercises through strength and to exhaustion.

Very often, shoulder development begins with a minimum. It takes time for the muscles to gain strength, their shape improves. Exercises should be performed for both hands to avoid imbalance when developing a sore shoulder.

Alternative Methods

Non-traditional methods of treatment include osteopathy, hirudotherapy, apitherapy, acupuncture, homeopathy. Treatment of the shoulder joint with folk remedies includes homemade ointment from dandelion oil, from propolis and beaver interior fat.

Dandelion juice is rubbed into a sore spot and drunk, mixing with carrot. It is recommended to drink decoctions of herbs, make vinegar and onion compresses, rub the affected shoulder with alcohol tinctures of thyme, saberfish, hot pepper, burdock root.


Pain in the shoulder joint is the main symptom that signals its defeat. Human joints are designed in such a way that inflammation, violation of the integrity or structure of their components is always accompanied by pain.

If you feel soreness in the joint area, you do not need to self-medicate.

The sooner you see a doctor, the sooner you will be able to establish the source of the pathology and begin treatment. Timely diagnosis will avoid complications and loss of performance.

Shishkevich Vladimir

Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews. It specializes in the treatment of diseases in orthopedic, traumatological, vertebrological profiles