Prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is an increased fragility of bones, which leads to their frequent fractures. Usually, the disease is activated in old age, but its premises are formed long before the onset of old age. And only timely prevention of osteoporosis is able to prevent the development of the disease and maintain bone health for a long time.

Throughout life, in the human body there are continuous processes of formation (osteogenesis) and destruction (resorption) of bone tissue: young cells replace old ones, and old ones die and decay. Normally, these processes are in equilibrium: the volume of the newly formed bone substance is equal to the volume of the destroyed. And if bone resorption takes precedence over osteogenesis, osteoporosis develops, which, unfortunately, many only pay attention to when it goes too far. Therefore, preventive measures are important both at a young and middle age, until the disease began to actively “raise its head”.

After 70 years, every person is subject to age-related osteoporosis

The content of the article
  1. Who is threatened with osteoporosis?
  2. 1. Healthy lifestyle
  3. 2. Food
  4. 3. Preparations
  5. 4. Physical Education
  6. 5. Sunbathing
  7. 6. Treatment of chronic diseases
  8. 7. Medical supervision
  9. Prevention of osteoporosis
  10. The content of the article:
  11. Risk groups: who is at risk of osteoporosis
  12. Ways of prevention: exercises to prevent osteoporosis, pills, diet
  13. Физическая активность
  14. Products and vitamins for the prevention of osteoporosis and general principles of nutrition
  15. Preparations and vitamins for prevention
  16. Preventive medical examinations
  17. General recommendations for a healthy lifestyle
  18. Conclusion
  19. Prevention of osteoporosis: nutrition correction, exercise, medication
  20. Who is more at risk of osteoporosis?
  21. What to do to avoid osteoporosis
  22. Identification of possible causes
  23. Lifestyle change
  24. Power correction
  25. Prevention of osteoporosis: types and methods, drugs, as well as dangerous symptoms of pathology
  26. Who will prescribe competent prevention of osteoporosis?
  27. Who is at risk?
  28. Types of prophylaxis
  29. Primary prevention
  30. Secondary measures
  31. How is prevention done?
  32. Bisphosphonates
  33. Vitamins and minerals
  34. Useful exercises
  35. Sun baths
  36. Traditional recipes
  37. Dangerous Symptoms
  38. Prevention of osteoporosis
  39. The content of the article:
  40. Risk groups: who is at risk of osteoporosis
  41. Ways of prevention: exercises to prevent osteoporosis, pills, diet
  42. Физическая активность
  43. Products and vitamins for the prevention of osteoporosis and general principles of nutrition
  44. Preparations and vitamins for prevention
  45. Preventive medical examinations
  46. General recommendations for a healthy lifestyle
  47. Conclusion
  48. Osteoporosis
  49. Overview
  50. Types of Osteoporosis
  51. Causes of Osteoporosis
  52. Diagnosis of osteoporosis
  53. Treatment of osteoporosis

Who is threatened with osteoporosis?

One of the first preventive measures is to assess the risk of developing the disease. To compile it, it is necessary to take into account a number of factors: constitution, heredity, general health, lifestyle, diet and the level of the most important hormones in the body (estrogen, calcitonin, the thyroid hormone, and parathyroid hormone, the parathyroid hormone).

The risk group includes:

  • fragile women – their bone mass is constitutionally not high and is wasted faster;
  • people who survived a hungry childhood, because their bones in the phase of active growth did not accumulate a sufficient supply of minerals;
  • women with estrogen deficiency;
  • women who have entered menopause early — their stage of bone resorption begins earlier;
  • people of both sexes living in conditions of lack of sunlight (vitamin D deficiency in the body);
  • those who use substances that disrupt or excrete calcium from the body: some drugs (for example, synthetic corticosteroids), coffee, alcohol, tobacco and others;
  • women whose mothers suffered from osteoporosis;
  • patients suffering from impaired calcium absorption or excessive excretion of it from the body.

If you do not belong to a risk group, this does not mean that this pathology does not threaten you – simply the chances of its development are reduced. Therefore, it is desirable for everyone to engage in the prevention of osteoporosis.

In more detail about the disease itself, its causes, consequences, etc., we spoke in the article “Osteoporosis of bones”.

With reduced bone density, spinal fractures can occur even under the influence of body weight

1. Healthy lifestyle

No matter how much has been said on this subject, maintaining health is the most important preventive measure for osteoporosis, starting from childhood and adolescence, at a time when bones must accumulate the largest possible supply of minerals. Therefore, good nutrition and rejection of bad habits can save you from many troubles in the future. So, even small doses of alcohol reduce osteosynthesis (the formation of new bone cells) and disrupt the absorption of calcium. Smoking causes a prolonged spasm of capillaries, thereby preventing the flow of minerals into the bone, especially into the spine. Coffee helps remove calcium from the bones and remove it from the body through the kidneys.

2. Food

Prevention of osteoporosis through diet is based primarily on calcium intake. Its lack of food during the period of active growth can affect the condition of the bones after many years.

In addition to calcium, food should be rich in magnesium and phosphorus – that is, a complex of minerals necessary for nutrition of bones, as well as vitamin D. All this is in excess contain fermented milk products (especially various types of cheeses), egg yolk, liver, sea fish, fresh herbs and sprouted cereals. Cereals, especially soy, also contain natural natural estrogen – an analogue of the female sex hormone estrogen, which prevents the resorption (destruction) of bone tissue.

Not only diseases and bad habits, but also a diet with a low fat content can interfere with the normal absorption of minerals. Therefore, girls and young women who are on diets for the sake of harmony, run the risk of letting this insidious and serious disease into their body.

Excess salt in food can contribute to increased leaching of calcium from bones and excretion of it from the body with urine. Therefore, if osteoporosis is already “knocking on your door”, the amount of salt consumed must be strictly controlled.

3. Preparations

If the intake of calcium with food does not reach the daily norm, it is necessary to introduce preparations containing easily digestible forms of calcium salts (gluconate, lactate and others) into the diet. Taking such drugs for osteoporosis is both treatment and prevention, since it is impossible to restore bones without a normal amount of minerals. It is advisable to choose preparations containing a balanced mineral complex, including potassium, phosphorus and magnesium – a complete set of substances necessary for bones will provide them with better nutrition.

Women during menopause are shown products containing estrogens – female sex hormones. Preferred drugs with phytoestrogens – plant analogues of estrogen, which are able to compensate for its lack without negative consequences.

A promising direction of prevention is the use of bisphosphonates – drugs that inhibit the activity of osteoclasts (cells that destroy bone tissue). Such funds are highly effective and convenient to use (some of them must be taken only once a month).

There are also biologically active additives with herbal analogues of thyroid and parathyroid hormones that favorably affect calcium metabolism. Since these drugs are not medicines, the dose of the active substance in them is lower than the therapeutic and does not have side effects on the body. They can be taken without a doctor’s prescription.

4. Physical Education

Physical activity also helps maintain bone density. Moreover, giving physical education time after osteoporosis has developed can be useless – physical activity is useful for prevention, since muscle inaction promotes bone demineralization. So, bed rest for 3-4 months reduces bone mass by 10-15%. And regular physical education for the same period of time is able to make up for the loss of only 1-2%.

Physical activity for the prevention of osteoporosis should be moderate. It can be not only sports training, but also dancing, fitness, aerobics . Moderate strength exercises on exercise machines are useful. The main thing is that physical activity is regular, because if you devote time to your health from time to time, you can not get the desired result at all.

A very effective preventive measure will be classes in special therapeutic exercises for osteoporosis (even if you do not have it).

5. Sunbathing

Everyone knows about the benefits of sunlight, and if you live in regions where there is little sun, it is advisable to travel at least once a year to where your skin can be saturated with sunlight and vitamin D. If this is not possible, there is an alternative – tanning under ultraviolet quartz lamps, but with all precautions and without fanaticism.

6. Treatment of chronic diseases

Those who suffer from pathologies that lead to a violation of calcium absorption or its increased excretion, it is necessary to take all measures to get rid of these diseases. Such diseases are hormonal status disorders, some diseases of the liver, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract. If it is not possible to fully recover, substitution therapy with mineral preparations is prescribed. Also, replacement therapy is prescribed to those people who are forced to take medications for a long time – calcium antagonists *, for example, hormones, phosphates, fluorides in large doses.

* Antagonists are substances that bind to cellular receptors and reduce their response to the body’s natural signals, read more about them here.

7. Medical supervision

In the photo, densitometry procedure

Preventive measures aimed at preventing osteoporosis are undoubtedly necessary for everyone. But for those at risk of developing this disease, regular medical supervision is especially important. If the result of densitometry (a special method of radiography with which the mineral density of bones is measured) shows that the bones begin to lose density, the doctor will tell you how to prevent osteoporosis and prescribe preventive treatment. Women over 40 need to determine the condition of the bones once a year.

Prevention of osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a disease in which bone tissue becomes porous and brittle. The causes of its occurrence are described in detail in our article “What is osteoporosis?”. Here we will focus on the description of effective ways to prevent osteoporosis.

The content of the article:

Risk groups: who is at risk of osteoporosis

Practically every person needs to take measures to prevent osteoporosis. We all experience the influence of at least several predisposing factors: a sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, poor heredity, pregnancy and childbirth, breastfeeding, a variety of systemic diseases, the most common of which are disorders in the thyroid gland.

Briefly about groups and risk factors:

  1. Female. With the onset of menopause, women are rapidly losing bone density. It is believed that women with low weight, blond hair, blue eyes and short stature are especially prone to osteoporosis.
  2. Age. The older the person, the higher the risk of getting sick. According to recent studies, bone loss begins as early as 30 years.
  3. Low body weight. Scientists have proven that reducing the amount of adipose tissue in women leads to bone loss. This is due to the fact that fat contains aromatases, enzymes that are needed for androgens to turn into estrogens. Deficiency of the latter leads to osteoporosis.
  4. Sedentary lifestyle. A study was conducted in which young people participated. They were in a prone position for a week. And this led to a decrease in bone density of 0,9%.
  5. The lack of the required level of insolation, which is characteristic of our latitudes.
  6. People who sweat a lot during sports, work, or because of illness. Then calcium comes out.
  7. Negative heredity. Prevention of osteoporosis should be especially carefully addressed to those women whose mothers after 50 years experienced frequent fractures.
  8. Heavy smoking and even passive in large quantities.
  9. The abuse of alcohol, which removes potassium and magnesium and affects the enzymes of the digestive tract, which makes it difficult to digest food and absorb nutrients from it.

Ways of prevention: exercises to prevent osteoporosis, pills, diet

Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologistShishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.

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Физическая активность

Let’s start with the recommendations for gymnastics to prevent osteoporosis, here are some basic exercises.

Important! All training should begin with a small load, gradually increasing it, but not bringing it to excess.

Exercise with load strengthens bones because it stimulates the cells responsible for the mineralization and production of bone tissue. They are called osteoblasts. There are a lot of load options – these are playing sports, running, walking, aerobics, swimming, exercising on simulators, cycling, exercises with elastic bands and dumbbells, Nordic walking, swimming. If these types of activities are not suitable for you, you can do gymnastics at home by choosing a few exercises from the ones described below. The most important thing is regularity, you need to perform exercises every day.

One leg lies on the floor, extended. Bend the second and pull it to the chest. Hold for 5-10 seconds, then repeat with the other leg.

Lying on his stomach, arms parallel to the floor, bent at the elbows

Strain with your whole body, slightly raise the top of the torso and arms, slowly move the body to the left and right, relax.

Sitting on my knees

Bend your chest to the floor as low as possible, arms extended, hold this position for 5-10 seconds.

Lying on your back, lower back pressed to the floor, legs straight

Raise one leg 15 cm from the floor, pulling the sock towards you, hold the position for 10-15 seconds.

Lying on your back with bent legs shoulder width apart

Slowly raise the pelvis and hips, tighten the buttocks and abdomen.

Raise the shoulder blades on inspiration, hold for 5-7 seconds, on the exhale – return to the starting position.

3-8 with a break of 10 seconds

Standing with the left side to the back of the chair, the left hand lies on the back, the right hand is stretched forward, the right leg is laid back and put on the toe

3-8 for each side

Tighten the knees to the stomach, press and clasp your hands, maintain this position for 10-15 seconds.

2-5 times in 10 second intervals

Standing on all fours

Raise your head, bend your back, hold for up to 10 seconds, then bend your back and lower your head, holding at the same time.

Raise legs alternately, then both legs and hold for 5 seconds.

Circular swings with the leg bent at the knee.

5-10 for each leg

On inspiration, take your hands back, bend, connecting the shoulder blades, on the exhale, return to the sitting position.

On inhale, stretch your arms up, on exhale – lower your hands.

Products and vitamins for the prevention of osteoporosis and general principles of nutrition

You need to consume enough calcium and vitamin D, which allows it to be better absorbed. For bones, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, and boron are also important.

The most useful foods are pork, beef, cod liver, dairy and sour-milk products, homemade cheeses, fatty fish, any greens, and sprouted cereals. Soy is important for women because it contains phytoestrogen, a plant-based analogue of estrogen.

The main sources of calcium are salmon, green vegetables and fruits, white cabbage, skim milk and yogurt. Calcium-fortified orange juice, which is also rich in vitamin C, is doubly beneficial.

Important! Salt, alcohol and caffeine lead to leaching of calcium and a number of other important substances. They need to be reduced to an absolute minimum.

Vitamin D levels can be maintained by walking for 30 minutes every day in the dim sun. However, in our latitudes this is not always possible. Therefore, you need to eat foods rich in this vitamin and / or include supplements in the form of tablets. It could be Calcium D3 Nycomed “,” Ultra-D “, etc. Food sources of vitamin D are egg yolks, cod liver, fatty fish, and fortified milk.

It is necessary to include sources of vitamins A, C, K, as well as B groups, and folic acid in the diet.

You can not abuse the protein, because it violates the function of absorption in the digestive tract, provokes the fermentation process. The daily norm is 100-150 g.

It is necessary to eliminate or minimize sweet and / or carbonated drinks, packaged juices, vinegar, sour vegetables, fruits, berries, sorrel, rhubarb, spinach, sugar and salt, grain and instant coffee. It is important to maintain a balance of vitamin C, because its excess is also harmful.

Preparations and vitamins for prevention

Preparations and vitamin complexes should be prescribed by a doctor. Self-prevention can even hurt, because by taking one, you can upset the balance of the other.

For prevention, vitamin D is prescribed (the recommended daily dose is 400 IU), calcium preparations, thiazides, bisphosphonates, HRT. When prescribing any drugs, the dosage is important, because an excess of something is as harmful as a lack.

If there was a long course of glucocorticosteroids, “Risedronate”, which is also indicated for menopausal women, can be prescribed. It is a bisphosphonate that slows down or completely stops bone loss, increasing bone density. In the postmenopausal period, the doctor may prescribe Raloxifene. This is a new generation prophylactic drug that has a beneficial effect on calcium metabolism and bone mass.

Preventive medical examinations

You need to do ultrasound or X-ray densitometry on a regular basis, once a year. This is the most informative, quick and comfortable study. X-ray technique is indicated for examination of the femoral neck, spine, radial bone. It reveals hidden fractures in the scan mode of the whole body.

It is necessary to donate blood once a year for calcium, especially during therapy with hormones and glucocorticosteroids.

General recommendations for a healthy lifestyle

It is necessary to observe an adequate level of physical activity, do gymnastics, walk more. Scandinavian walking is very useful. The best form of prevention is swimming.

Stop smoking or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked by at least half. Alcohol can be consumed, but not enough. Maximum – a glass of wine per day or 50 ml of a strong drink. Coffee is also limited to 1 or 2 cups per day. At the same time, against the background of other caffeinated drinks, including black tea, coffee should be completely abandoned.

It is important to maintain normal weight, eat at least 500 g of fresh vegetables and fruits per day, focusing on those that are rich in calcium, vitamin D, A, C, K.

Elderly people should definitely prevent falls. For this purpose, it is worth even discussing with the doctor the possibility of canceling dizziness-causing drugs.

Conclusion

Thinking about prevention is never too late. Especially considering the grave consequences of osteoporosis. He is able to significantly reduce the quality of life, change the social role and nullify the mood of life. If prophylaxis is started on time, then the risk of fractures will decrease by more than 50%. And the main rule of prevention is constancy. Even 5 minutes of exercise daily, for example, will be more useful than one hour in the gym once a week. Moderate physical activity and a healthy lifestyle as a whole will not only positively affect the condition of the skeleton, but also strengthen the body as a whole, increase vitality and even life expectancy.

Prevention of osteoporosis: nutrition correction, exercise, medication

Do you know that the older a person is, the higher is his chance to get a fracture from the slightest impact? And not always the case can end with a broken forearm or brush. Sometimes osteoporosis – namely, it is the culprit of such fragility of bones in the elderly – leads to a fracture of the femoral neck, which makes a person lying down and can cause life-threatening complications. Fortunately, such dangers can be avoided if the prevention of osteoporosis is addressed as early as possible. We’ll talk about her.

Osteoporosis is a chronic process, caused mainly by insufficient intake of calcium in bone tissue. It leads to a change in the structure of all bones, as a result of which they become porous and can easily break. It is the fractures and the complications arising from them, such as pressure sores, congestive pneumonia, thromboembolism and blood poisoning, that put osteoporosis in 3rd place in mortality.

The most dangerous thing is that the disease is asymptomatic. If you wait for any signs indicating a change in the structure of the bones, you can only wait for a “strange” at first glance, fracture: arising as a result of a minor blow, when jumping or due to a turn of the leg. Therefore, the prevention of osteoporosis should be started immediately as soon as you get in touch with your parents.

Who is more at risk of osteoporosis?

A change in the structure of bones, the appearance of their porosity in most women begins already at the age of 45, when the first signs of menopause appear. In men, these processes start a little later.

All people are susceptible to osteoporosis, but in these categories of people the disease can begin before the age of 40 and have a severe course. It:

  • fragile women: they are distinguished by a small amount of bone mass. Since after 45 ladies begin to lose about 1 kg of bone tissue per year, it is obvious that the “reserves” of such women are running out faster;
  • smoking women: as a result of a bad habit, estrogen reserves in the body are depleted. Namely, this hormone protects bones from destruction;
  • women and men who abuse alcohol. The latter disrupts the absorption of vitamin D, which, in turn, is responsible for the absorption of calcium from food into the blood. It is in this way that calcium can enter the bones;
  • people who exclude fats from food, especially animals. It also makes it difficult to absorb vitamin D and, consequently, improve bone mineralization;
  • women living in stress. Constant nervous tension affects the functioning of the endocrine organs, as a result, the ovaries begin to produce less estrogen;
  • ladies whose menopause began before the age of 45;
  • people living in conditions of insufficient sunlight, the ultraviolet part of which stimulates the production of vitamin D in the skin;
  • elderly people who in their youth, during the period of active growth, received an insufficient amount of mineral substances;
  • those whose relatives suffered from osteoporosis;
  • older women and men who lead a sedentary lifestyle;
  • having diseases of the thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, diabetes mellitus.

If your parents belong to these categories, then they need the prevention of osteoporosis to be started as early as possible.

What to do to avoid osteoporosis

In order for an elderly relative to be able to avoid osteoporotic fractures, and with them other dangerous complications (pneumonia, pressure sores, pulmonary embolism and stroke), prevention of osteoporosis is needed. It consists of 8 points, which we will consider in detail.

Identification of possible causes

The first thing to do for your elderly parent is to help him undergo a medical examination. So, you will need to find out:

  • in what condition is its mineral balance. To do this, blood levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium are determined. Any specialist can give a referral for analysis, but it is best to visit an endocrinologist or therapist;
  • bone destruction state – as defined by deoxypyridinoline in urine and C-terminal peptides in the blood;
  • bone formation – by analyzing the level of osteocalcin in the blood;
  • Does he suffer from diabetes, including its latent forms. To do this, you need to not only determine the glucose level, but also perform a glucose tolerance test. These tests are prescribed by the endocrinologist;
  • how his parathyroid glands work. For this, the endocrinologist directs blood donation to the level of parathyroid hormone;
  • in a woman – in what condition is the function of the ovaries. This is clarified by determining the concentration of estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, which, if a woman still has menstruation, give up on the 3-5 day cycle. These tests are prescribed by the endocrinologist, he also recommends visiting a gynecologist and performing pelvic ultrasound in order to be sure that the woman does not have oncological diseases;
  • thyroid function. For this, blood is donated to determine the hormones TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) and T4 (thyroxine), calcitonin;
  • intestinal condition, which is involved in the absorption of both vitamin D and calcium. To do this, you need to visit a gastroenterologist who, based on a conversation with an elderly person about the nature of his diet and the state of physiological functions, will prescribe the necessary studies.

According to these studies, if something deviates from the norm, the endocrinologist will prescribe treatment. Without it, all other measures: physical exercise, diet, the use of calcium tablets – will not be effective enough.

This study is painless, it does not require any special preparation, except for stopping the use of calcium preparations (see below) and foods rich in calcium (we will also talk about them) the day before the test. What densitometry is needed: ultrasound, x-ray, computer resonance or magnetic resonance – say the endocrinologist or therapist.

Lifestyle change

It includes such aspects:

  1. Increase in time of walks in the fresh air (not less than 15 minutes a day). Thus, the skin increases the production of its own vitamin D, which helps to absorb calcium. In addition, active walking improves blood circulation in the lower extremities as a whole, including in the tibia and femur.
  2. Annual examinations of a gynecologist (despite even the absence of menstruation), therapist and dentist, fluorography. So it will be possible to detect and begin treatment of many diseases in time, and, therefore, to avoid the accumulation of toxic substances in the body that negatively affect internal organs.
  3. Eradication of bad habits. So, stopping alcohol will stop the toxic effect on osteoblast cells that create bone tissue, and also restore the absorption of vitamin D in the intestine. Getting rid of the smoking habit: 1) will stop the ingestion of nicotine and cadmium toxic for bones, 2) eliminate vascular spasm, so internal organs, including endocrine glands, will begin to eat better.
  4. The cessation of any mono-diets or diets lacking fats, including animal origin, due to which fat-soluble vitamin D is not absorbed. In addition, the loss of large amounts of adipose tissue, which is a kind of endocrine gland, in women leads to a decrease in estrogen levels.
  5. Eliminate sitting habits
  6. The exception is lifting heavy weights or traumatic physical exertion. Such effects lead to an acceleration of the development of degenerative processes in the bones of the spine: osteochondrosis, osteoarthritis. Against their background, osteoporosis develops more actively.

Power correction

To prevent osteoporosis, eating habits may also need to be changed. No big deprivation on the part of the elderly person is foreseen: he will need to follow only a few rules that will not only improve the condition of his bones, but also the body as a whole.

The basic rule is to provide the body with the necessary amount of calcium. It is this element that is used by osteoblast cells to renew our bone tissue, and its lack affects bone strength.

So, you need the necessary amount of calcium to enter the body:

Initial positionDescription of the exerciseNumber of repetitions
Age and physiological characteristics of a personThe need for calcium per day, mg
Women 45-65 years old, in the postmenopausal period1500
Postmenopausal women who take estrogen medications1000
Men 45-65 years old1000
Women and men over 651500

Based on this need, you need to create a diet so that it includes calcium-rich foods:

ProductCalcium (mg) per 100 g
Hard cheese (such as cheddar, eddam, Russian)750 – 1000
Swiss cheese800
Soft cheese (processed, brie, feta cheese)530
Sardines in oil500
Condensed milk300
White chocolate280
Almonds230
Milk chocolate220
Yogurt without additives200
walnuts funduk170
White bread170
Curd150
Fruit Yogurt136
Milk120
Ice cream100
Black bread100
Cream90
Cream90
Porridge of barley80
Orange medium70
Oatmeal65
Egg medium55

You need to get used to such a diet, combine these products with those that are consumed all the time. So, if one cheese is not tasty, you can use it to make sandwiches. If drinking milk alone is not possible, add it to coffee. In kefir and yogurt, you can put jam or sugar, but – in a small amount even if an elderly person has not found diabetes. If this disease is detected, fructose can be used as a sweetener.

Oxalic acid is found in sorrel, kale, rhubarb and spinach. And if you make a cheese sandwich, do not put any of these leaves in it.

Prevention of osteoporosis: types and methods, drugs, as well as dangerous symptoms of pathology

Osteoporosis is characterized by a decrease in bone density and a decrease in the strength of the skeleton. This disease is experienced by many people, especially the elderly. Prevention of osteoporosis will help minimize the risk of developing this pathological process.

Who will prescribe competent prevention of osteoporosis?

The outcome of treatment depends on the stage at which osteoporosis affects the patient.

Many people go to a therapist to prevent osteoporosis. He can independently recommend preventive measures, and send for consultation to other specialists. The second option is observed more often, since other doctors are involved in diagnostic measures in this case.

Consultations of a rheumatologist, traumatologist, orthopedist and endocrinologist are required. In some cases, consultation with other specialists, such as a nutritionist and gastroenterologist, may be required. Each of these doctors can give personal recommendations on the prevention of osteoporosis, but the most complete advice on this matter can be obtained from a rheumatologist and traumatologist.

Who is at risk?

The following categories of citizens are most likely to get osteoporosis:

  • Abusers of smoking and alcohol.
  • Leading a sedentary lifestyle.
  • Long-term medications that promote calcium excretion.
  • Those who eat an unbalanced diet.
  • Having a hereditary predisposition.
  • Drinking a lot of coffee.
  • Having a deficiency of fluoride, calcium and vitamin D.

Types of prophylaxis

Prevention in osteoporosis is divided into two varieties: primary and secondary. The primary is aimed at preventing the development of the disease, the secondary – at eliminating its consequences.

Primary prevention

It involves the following measures:

  • Limit coffee. If you drink more than 2 cups a day, then this provokes the removal of calcium from the body.
  • Maintain a balanced diet. It is necessary to regularly eat foods rich in calcium and phosphorus.
  • Spend time in the sun. Being under the sun is necessary to obtain vitamin D, but its time should be limited so that there are no negative consequences.
  • To refuse from bad habits. The poisons contained in tobacco and alcoholic beverages contribute to the removal of calcium and other beneficial substances from the body.
  • Engage in physical activity. Physical education should be moderate in order to minimize the risk of injuries, especially often in the elderly.

All of these measures are aimed at maintaining normal levels of calcium and phosphorus, as well as strengthening bones. A healthy lifestyle helps keep your bone tissue in good condition.

Secondary measures

Secondary prevention of osteoporosis is aimed at inhibiting bone loss and reducing the risk of fractures. This type of prophylaxis should begin after 35 years, when bone strength is gradually reduced.

In this case, special medications are used, diet, hormone replacement therapy, and bone metabolism regulators are recommended. Since this type of prophylaxis involves taking medication, you should consult a specialist before starting it.

How is prevention done?

For bone strength, water and organic matter are critical.

Special preventive measures will help prevent the development of osteoporosis. It is imperative to approach the issue in a comprehensive manner; the implementation of one of the items presented will not be enough.

General nutritional recommendations will be as follows:

  • Drink enough water – 1,5-2 liters per day.
  • Include in the diet those foods that are rich in vitamins A and D, as well as folic acid, calcium and phosphorus.
  • Nutrition should make up for the daily calories. Deficit and surplus are not recommended.
  • The diet should be fractional and include 4-5 meals in small portions.
  • Eliminate alcohol, and minimize the use of salt.
  • Exclude those foods that interfere with calcium absorption.
  • Most of the diet is recommended to be consumed fresh.

Allowed and prohibited products will be presented in the table below.

Permitted productsProhibited products
Rye and wheat bread, dairy products, seafood, lean meat, vegetables, fruits and greens (both fresh and after heat treatment), nuts, dates, raspberries, blackcurrants, buckwheat, rice, chicken and quail eggs, olive and butter.Lamb fat, mayonnaise, fatty meats, sauces, canned and pickled products, chocolate, cocoa, pastries, rhubarb, sorrel, alcohol and carbonated drinks, chips and crackers, unrefined oils, coffee.

A healthy diet will help not only minimize the risk of osteoporosis, but also prevent other serious diseases. Foods rich in calcium and other beneficial elements have a beneficial effect on the condition of the whole organism.

Bisphosphonates

Among the medicines used in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis, bisphosphonates are often used. This group got its name due to the presence of 2 phosphonates. Pyrophosphonates affect the process of regulating calcium in the body. This group of drugs is based on the attraction of calcium ions back to the bone tissue.

Currently, there are 3 generations of such drugs. In the treatment of osteoporosis, two of them are used:

  • Nitrogen free.
  • Aminobisphosphonates containing nitrogen.

The drugs are used not only in the treatment of osteoporosis, they are also prescribed in the presence of metastases in the bones, bone formation disorders and myeloma. They are easily tolerated by patients, but are not recommended in the presence of liver and kidney diseases. Among the possible side effects, the following are distinguished:

  • Allergic reactions, manifested by skin rashes.
  • Violations of the digestive tract.
  • Pain in the muscles.
  • The likelihood of developing a stomach ulcer.
  • General weakness.

The pluses of bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteoporosis include the following:

  • Lack of hormones.
  • It is allowed to take in the presence of malignant neoplasms.
  • Do not provoke cardiovascular disease.

Vitamins and minerals

It is used in the prevention of osteoporosis, as well as in the treatment and prevention of calcium deficiency or cholecalciferol

For the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, it is necessary to take vitamin complexes that contain vitamin D, as well as minerals such as calcium and zinc. The best known calcium supplements for osteoporosis are the following:

  1. Calcium Lactate
  2. Vitrum Osteomag.
  3. Calcium D-3 Nycomed.
  4. Osteoporin.

Calcium is the basis of bone tissue, its deficiency can lead to serious disorders. Osteoporosis is characterized by a lack of this mineral in the body, so it is necessary to take it additionally. Calcium-containing foodstuffs cannot by themselves contribute to the restoration of bone tissue, since the percentage of element content in them is much lower than in balanced complexes.

Taking calcium for prevention helps prevent the development of diseases associated with degenerative changes in bone tissue.

Useful exercises

Exercise will help prevent the development of osteoporosis. But such activity should be in moderation. When performing exercises, health should not deteriorate. With osteoporosis, it is recommended to do aerobics, perform strength and exercises for balance. With a tendency to this disease, the following exercises are contraindicated:

  • Sharp twisting of the body.
  • Flexion of the limbs with a load.
  • Exercises where there is a chance of a fall.
  • Sharp limb movements.

Charging time should not exceed 60 minutes. All exercises must be performed carefully, at a slow pace.

Sun baths

Vitamin D is necessary for the normal absorption of calcium. It is produced under the influence of sunlight, so sunbathing is an effective prevention of osteoporosis.

Improper exposure to the sun can cause unpleasant consequences such as heat stroke and burns. To avoid this, the following measures must be observed:

  1. Use sunscreen. These include cosmetic products with SPF, sunglasses, and a hat.
  2. Moderate in the sun. Excessively long stay can negatively affect human health.
  3. Correctly choose the time for sunbathing. The most optimal time is considered from 9 to 11, and also after 16 hours.

If a sunburn nevertheless happened, then it is necessary to timely use the means aimed at eliminating it.

Traditional recipes

A rich plant source of silicon for osteoporosis – field horsetail

Traditional medicine is widely used not only for treatment, but also for the prevention of osteoporosis. The following methods are considered the most effective:

  • Eating eggshells. It must first be turned into powder, then add 1 teaspoon to the food.
  • Reception of tinctures from walnuts. Consume 50 ml daily.
  • Dried fruits compote. Figs, prunes and dried apricots are poured with boiling water without adding sugar. You can use in any quantity.
  • Horsetail grass. It is necessary to pour boiling water, insist, consume 100 ml daily.
  • Beekeeping products. Their regular use favorably affects bone tissue, but it is worth considering a possible allergic reaction.

Traditional medicine is effective when used as an additional method. In the absence of other measures, the result will be poorly expressed.

Dangerous Symptoms

If the prevention of osteoporosis did not bring the proper result, then the disease is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • The appearance of aches in the joints.
  • Pain that progresses as osteoporosis develops.
  • Stoop and humpiness.
  • Decrease in human growth.
  • Periodontal disease of the gums.
  • Leg cramps appearing at night.
  • The nails exfoliate and become brittle.

Prevention of osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a disease in which bone tissue becomes porous and brittle. The causes of its occurrence are described in detail in our article “What is osteoporosis?”. Here we will focus on the description of effective ways to prevent osteoporosis.

The content of the article:

Risk groups: who is at risk of osteoporosis

Practically every person needs to take measures to prevent osteoporosis. We all experience the influence of at least several predisposing factors: a sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, poor heredity, pregnancy and childbirth, breastfeeding, a variety of systemic diseases, the most common of which are disorders in the thyroid gland.

Briefly about groups and risk factors:

  1. Female. With the onset of menopause, women are rapidly losing bone density. It is believed that women with low weight, blond hair, blue eyes and short stature are especially prone to osteoporosis.
  2. Age. The older the person, the higher the risk of getting sick. According to recent studies, bone loss begins as early as 30 years.
  3. Low body weight. Scientists have proven that reducing the amount of adipose tissue in women leads to bone loss. This is due to the fact that fat contains aromatases, enzymes that are needed for androgens to turn into estrogens. Deficiency of the latter leads to osteoporosis.
  4. Sedentary lifestyle. A study was conducted in which young people participated. They were in a prone position for a week. And this led to a decrease in bone density of 0,9%.
  5. The lack of the required level of insolation, which is characteristic of our latitudes.
  6. People who sweat a lot during sports, work, or because of illness. Then calcium comes out.
  7. Negative heredity. Prevention of osteoporosis should be especially carefully addressed to those women whose mothers after 50 years experienced frequent fractures.
  8. Heavy smoking and even passive in large quantities.
  9. The abuse of alcohol, which removes potassium and magnesium and affects the enzymes of the digestive tract, which makes it difficult to digest food and absorb nutrients from it.

Ways of prevention: exercises to prevent osteoporosis, pills, diet

Физическая активность

Let’s start with the recommendations for gymnastics to prevent osteoporosis, here are some basic exercises.

Important! All training should begin with a small load, gradually increasing it, but not bringing it to excess.

Exercise with load strengthens bones because it stimulates the cells responsible for the mineralization and production of bone tissue. They are called osteoblasts. There are a lot of load options – these are playing sports, running, walking, aerobics, swimming, exercising on simulators, cycling, exercises with elastic bands and dumbbells, Nordic walking, swimming. If these types of activities are not suitable for you, you can do gymnastics at home by choosing a few exercises from the ones described below. The most important thing is regularity, you need to perform exercises every day.

One leg lies on the floor, extended. Bend the second and pull it to the chest. Hold for 5-10 seconds, then repeat with the other leg.

Lying on his stomach, arms parallel to the floor, bent at the elbows

Strain with your whole body, slightly raise the top of the torso and arms, slowly move the body to the left and right, relax.

Sitting on my knees

Bend your chest to the floor as low as possible, arms extended, hold this position for 5-10 seconds.

Lying on your back, lower back pressed to the floor, legs straight

Raise one leg 15 cm from the floor, pulling the sock towards you, hold the position for 10-15 seconds.

Lying on your back with bent legs shoulder width apart

Slowly raise the pelvis and hips, tighten the buttocks and abdomen.

Raise the shoulder blades on inspiration, hold for 5-7 seconds, on the exhale – return to the starting position.

3-8 with a break of 10 seconds

Standing with the left side to the back of the chair, the left hand lies on the back, the right hand is stretched forward, the right leg is laid back and put on the toe

3-8 for each side

Tighten the knees to the stomach, press and clasp your hands, maintain this position for 10-15 seconds.

2-5 times in 10 second intervals

Standing on all fours

Raise your head, bend your back, hold for up to 10 seconds, then bend your back and lower your head, holding at the same time.

Raise legs alternately, then both legs and hold for 5 seconds.

Circular swings with the leg bent at the knee.

5-10 for each leg

On inspiration, take your hands back, bend, connecting the shoulder blades, on the exhale, return to the sitting position.

On inhale, stretch your arms up, on exhale – lower your hands.

Products and vitamins for the prevention of osteoporosis and general principles of nutrition

You need to consume enough calcium and vitamin D, which allows it to be better absorbed. For bones, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, and boron are also important.

The most useful foods are pork, beef, cod liver, dairy and sour-milk products, homemade cheeses, fatty fish, any greens, and sprouted cereals. Soy is important for women because it contains phytoestrogen, a plant-based analogue of estrogen.

The main sources of calcium are salmon, green vegetables and fruits, white cabbage, skim milk and yogurt. Calcium-fortified orange juice, which is also rich in vitamin C, is doubly beneficial.

Important! Salt, alcohol and caffeine lead to leaching of calcium and a number of other important substances. They need to be reduced to an absolute minimum.

Vitamin D levels can be maintained by walking for 30 minutes every day in the dim sun. However, in our latitudes this is not always possible. Therefore, you need to eat foods rich in this vitamin and / or include supplements in the form of tablets. It could be Calcium D3 Nycomed “,” Ultra-D “, etc. Food sources of vitamin D are egg yolks, cod liver, fatty fish, and fortified milk.

It is necessary to include sources of vitamins A, C, K, as well as B groups, and folic acid in the diet.

You can not abuse the protein, because it violates the function of absorption in the digestive tract, provokes the fermentation process. The daily norm is 100-150 g.

It is necessary to eliminate or minimize sweet and / or carbonated drinks, packaged juices, vinegar, sour vegetables, fruits, berries, sorrel, rhubarb, spinach, sugar and salt, grain and instant coffee. It is important to maintain a balance of vitamin C, because its excess is also harmful.

Preparations and vitamins for prevention

Preparations and vitamin complexes should be prescribed by a doctor. Self-prevention can even hurt, because by taking one, you can upset the balance of the other.

For prevention, vitamin D is prescribed (the recommended daily dose is 400 IU), calcium preparations, thiazides, bisphosphonates, HRT. When prescribing any drugs, the dosage is important, because an excess of something is as harmful as a lack.

If there was a long course of glucocorticosteroids, “Risedronate”, which is also indicated for menopausal women, can be prescribed. It is a bisphosphonate that slows down or completely stops bone loss, increasing bone density. In the postmenopausal period, the doctor may prescribe Raloxifene. This is a new generation prophylactic drug that has a beneficial effect on calcium metabolism and bone mass.

Preventive medical examinations

You need to do ultrasound or X-ray densitometry on a regular basis, once a year. This is the most informative, quick and comfortable study. X-ray technique is indicated for examination of the femoral neck, spine, radial bone. It reveals hidden fractures in the scan mode of the whole body.

It is necessary to donate blood once a year for calcium, especially during therapy with hormones and glucocorticosteroids.

General recommendations for a healthy lifestyle

It is necessary to observe an adequate level of physical activity, do gymnastics, walk more. Scandinavian walking is very useful. The best form of prevention is swimming.

Stop smoking or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked by at least half. Alcohol can be consumed, but not enough. Maximum – a glass of wine per day or 50 ml of a strong drink. Coffee is also limited to 1 or 2 cups per day. At the same time, against the background of other caffeinated drinks, including black tea, coffee should be completely abandoned.

It is important to maintain normal weight, eat at least 500 g of fresh vegetables and fruits per day, focusing on those that are rich in calcium, vitamin D, A, C, K.

Elderly people should definitely prevent falls. For this purpose, it is worth even discussing with the doctor the possibility of canceling dizziness-causing drugs.

Conclusion

Thinking about prevention is never too late. Especially considering the grave consequences of osteoporosis. He is able to significantly reduce the quality of life, change the social role and nullify the mood of life. If prophylaxis is started on time, then the risk of fractures will decrease by more than 50%. And the main rule of prevention is constancy. Even 5 minutes of exercise daily, for example, will be more useful than one hour in the gym once a week. Moderate physical activity and a healthy lifestyle as a whole will not only positively affect the condition of the skeleton, but also strengthen the body as a whole, increase vitality and even life expectancy.

Osteoporosis

Overview

The disease, which is characterized by loss of elasticity and strength of the bones, thinning and brittleness, which leads to the fact that they can easily break, is called osteoporosis, which means “rarefied bone”. Osteoporosis is the fourth largest in the world in prevalence, after cardiovascular and oncological diseases, as well as diabetes.

The disease has a pronounced age-related nature, that is, women and men over 55 are at risk. It is this disease that causes the femoral neck fracture, which is often observed in women after 60 years. Osteoporosis occurs in cases of dysregulation of the content of minerals, primarily calcium in the bones. With osteoporosis, the bones break even with minor injuries, for example, when falling in the winter, and the vertebrae can fracture even as a result of lifting weights. Fractures grow together very poorly. Complications of osteoporosis often lead to disability.

With normal development, the bone is constantly destroyed and restored again, and if the destruction occurs faster than renewal, then osteoporosis develops.

Types of Osteoporosis

The most common classification of the disease is based on which minerals or substances are missing in the body, which leads to the development of the disease.

According to this classification, the following types of osteoporosis are distinguished:

  • postmenopausal, which is caused by deficiencies in the body of a woman’s hormone estrogen, which is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism;
  • senile (or senile) occurs with age-related calcium deficiency, usually after 70 years;
  • secondary osteoporosis occurs as a result of other diseases, for example, with chronic renal failure, hormonal imbalances, diabetes mellitus, radiation injuries and long-term use of certain drugs (corticosteroids, anticonvulsants).

Bone fractures caused by osteoporosis affect every third woman over the age of 60. There are several factors that contribute to the development of the disease. Among them are women over the age of 65 who have relatives suffering from this disease. As well as having some endocrine diseases, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, hyperthyroidism, chronic renal failure, low weight (less than 60 kg) and fragile physique, early menopause and low bone mineral density. Also, risk factors include smoking, excessive consumption of alcohol and coffee, low physical activity, vitamin D deficiency, taking certain medications, mainly hormonal drugs.

Causes of Osteoporosis

There are a lot of factors that affect the development of the disease. Among them, the following causes of osteoporosis are distinguished:

  • low motor activity, sedentary lifestyle;
  • malnutrition, lack of vitamins;
  • disorders of the pancreas and thyro >Usually, a decrease in bone density occurs slowly, and the disease is asymptomatic (especially senile osteoporosis). However, patients may be disturbed by bone pain with changing weather, changes in posture, brittle nails and hair, and tooth decay.

The main symptoms of osteoporosis appear when the bone is already very thin. They may be bothered by “aching” pains in the lumbar and thoracic region when performing static work (when sitting), a decrease in growth due to subsidence of the vertebrae, which leads to a change in posture, periodontal disease, early graying, intervertebral hernia, tachycardia, stratification and fragility of nails, at night leg cramps. The so-called “widow’s hump” may also appear, i.e. forward spinal curvature. With such symptoms, without waiting for fractures, it is best to consult a doctor.

The spine and hip joint are particularly prone to fractures. Fractures of the femoral neck, bones of the forearm, wrists are most common. Fractures usually occur with the smallest injuries, and heal very slowly. Fractures are usually accompanied by acute pain, swelling, impaired motor activity.

Diagnosis of osteoporosis

Typically, the patient consults a doctor with a fracture, and the diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on the examination of the fracture site and the results of an X-ray examination of the bone. X-ray data can determine osteoporosis when more than 20% of bone tissue is lost.

However, a diagnosis can be made even before a fracture by evaluating bone density. The most accurate method for measuring bone density is X-ray absorptiometry. It is performed by women at risk of developing osteoporosis, it is completely painless and consists in irradiation with lower doses than with conventional radiography. It can be used to measure the mineral content in bones.

Osteodensitometry makes it possible to evaluate bone density, and computed tomography – to assess its condition, and these studies help to identify the disease in the early stages, while there are no fractures. The results of these studies help the attending physician choose the appropriate effective treatment.

Treatment of osteoporosis

Preventing the disease is much easier than treating it. Treatment is much more expensive than the prevention of osteoporosis, and it can only improve the condition of the skeletal system with calcium preparations in combination with vitamin D. For the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, bisphosphonates, fluorides and calcitonin are prescribed.

Bisphosphonates (Aklast, Bonviva, Alendronate-Sodium) are quite expensive drugs that are effective in the treatment of osteoporosis. Women can also be prescribed treatment for osteoporosis with replacement therapy, estrogen, which can stop the development of the disease. Calcitonin (Miacalcic) is administered intramuscularly or as an aerosol to those who have had vertebral fractures. Fluorine compounds affect bone density, but this tissue is quite fragile. Teriparatide enhances bone formation, and strontium salts have beneficial effects on bones. Men are prescribed calcium and vitamin D.

For fractures of the wrist, gypsum is applied, and for fractures of the thigh, a femur prosthesis is usually performed. If the vertebrae are broken, immobilization and physiotherapy are prescribed, but often the pain remains for a long time. In addition to drug therapy, the use of corsets that support the back is prescribed.

Shishkevich Vladimir

Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews. It specializes in the treatment of diseases in orthopedic, traumatological, vertebrological profiles

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