Powerful immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin

Cyclosporin is a drug with an immunosuppressive effect. It is a cyclic polypeptide based on unique eleven amino acids. When active substances enter the human body, powerful reactions occur in it. First of all, immunity to an allograft is suppressed, sensitivity is significantly reduced.

Indications for use

Cyclosporin is a unique drug that has an extremely powerful effect on the body. Keep in mind that prescribing this drug can only be attending physicians. Before starting therapy with the drug, the patient must undergo an extended diagnostic examination.

Typically, cyclosporin is prescribed in the following cases:

  1. For the prevention of rejection of transplanted internal organs or tissue sites. To enhance the effectiveness for such purposes, the drug is taken with glucocorticosteroid drugs.
  2. To stop the rejection process that may occur during transplantation of internal organs.
  3. For the treatment of autoimmune diseases: atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, neurodermatitis, uveitis, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis.
  4. For the treatment of inflammatory and infectious processes in the eyes.

Side effects

Cyclosporin is a fairly safe drug that rarely causes any side effects. Most often, their occurrence is associated with improper use of the drug. Some people may experience the following problems due to improperly designed therapy:

  • Malignant process in the skin, lymphoma;
  • Itching, rash, burning, peeling, redness, anaphylactic shock;
  • Spasms in the bronchi, tides to the upper body;
  • Lowering blood pressure, arrhythmia, tachycardia, nephropathy;
  • Gingival hyperplasia, hypomagnesemia, hepatoxicity;
  • Increased levels of bilirubin and other liver enzymes;
  • Headache, dizziness, epileptic syndrome;
  • Sore muscles, weight gain;
  • Deterioration of visual acuity, impaired consciousness and coordination;
  • Anemia of various natures, renal or liver failure.

Overdose

The use of too large doses of cyclosporine can trigger the development of an overdose. This is an extremely dangerous condition that requires immediate treatment by a treating specialist. This phenomenon can be recognized by exacerbation of all side effects. To ease his condition at home, the patient is recommended to drink as much clean water as possible and drink several tablets of activated carbon. This will reduce the concentration of active substances in the body, accelerate their withdrawal from it.

If the symptoms of an overdose become unbearable, you should immediately call your doctor. It must be borne in mind that it is impossible to alleviate the patient’s condition with hemodialysis or hemoperfusion. The greatest danger of an overdose is its consequences.

Instructions for use

It is strictly forbidden to prescribe Cyclosporin treatment yourself. If used incorrectly, this drug can easily cause serious complications. Before starting treatment with this drug, the patient must undergo an extended diagnostic examination. Only an experienced specialist will be able to choose an effective treatment regimen. There is a generally accepted practice that the use of intravenous administration of cyclosporine should be discarded as soon as possible.

If you have been prescribed Cyclosporine for internal administration, then it must be prepared exclusively in glass containers. The fact is that the castor oil that is part of the composition is capable of reacting with polyvinyl chloride. This causes the formation of toxic substances that adversely affect the condition of the body. To dilute the drug, physiological solutions of sodium chloride or glucose are used. The dosage is calculated by the attending specialist. Keep in mind that such a medicine is administered extremely slowly – within 2-6 hours.

To speed up implantation transplanted bone marrow, then cyclosporine therapy is started a few hours before surgery. In order to minimize the likelihood of an exacerbation of an allergic reaction, antihistamines are prescribed in parallel with the patient. On average, the duration of such treatment for bone marrow transplantation is 2 weeks.

Cyclosporin is a drug that, when interacting with the body, can release a number of toxic substances into it.

To stop the likelihood of negative consequences, it is recommended to take a blood test regularly. if a specialist diagnoses any abnormalities, treatment with this drug is stopped or the dosage is reduced.

Eye emulsion

Cyclosporin is available as an emulsion for the eyes. Before using it, shake the bottle with the product thoroughly so that all active substances can dissolve. After this, you can open the ampoule, bury the medicine in the eyes. It is strictly forbidden that the tip of the bottle touch the eye or any other object. If you treat dry eyes, then during the treatment you should refuse to wear lenses. Keep in mind that treatment with Cyclosporine reduces visual acuity, so you should refuse to drive vehicles.

Using cyclosporin in the form of an ophthalmic emulsion is very simple. We strongly recommend that you read the instructions for use before use. It says that the drug should be instilled 1 drop twice a day. It is best that there is a 12 hour break between sets. Keep in mind that active ingredients do not accumulate in the blood. Already after 10 hours of the trace of any active substances are absent.

Injection method

It must be borne in mind that it is necessary to prescribe a dosage of cyclosporin individually. This parameter is influenced by several factors at once. Usually, treatment with this agent is carried out in a hospital setting. This is the only way the doctor manages to constantly monitor changes in chemical components in the blood. In this case, the patient needs to be tested for a long time after the end of the drug. Usually, doctors adhere to the following treatment regimen for cyclosporine.

StateПриемDuration
With a bone marrow transplant2-6 mg / kg of weight, when used with glucocorticoids, the dose can be reduced2 weeks before and after surgery. Reduced doses are used for another six months
When transplanting the remaining internal organs10-15 kg / kg per day12 hours before surgery and 1-2 weeks after it.
With rheumatoid arthritis3 mg / kg, if necessary increase to 6 mg / kg.6-12 weeks, if necessary, change the drug
With nephrotic syndrome5 mg / kg, which are divided into 2 doses3 months, if there is no result, the drug is replaced by another
With atopic dermatitis2,5 mg / kg, if necessary increase to 54 weeks, after which the dose is gradually reduced. This avoids withdrawal syndrome.
With psoriasis2,5 mg / kg, if necessary 5. In rare cases, the daily dose may be increased to 7 mg / kg, but it is used only a few days6 weeks, after which the disease falls into remission
With uveitis5 mg / kg, after which the dose is gradually reducedUp to 3 months

Use of pills

Cyclosporin is an extremely powerful drug, which can be taken exclusively under the supervision of the attending physician. Most often, he is prescribed while the patient is in the hospital. It is important that the drug is delivered correctly. If you were prescribed Cyclosporine in tablets and allowed to take it at home, carefully listen to the words of the doctor. He will tell you how to properly treat this drug. If you have any questions, be sure to contact a specialist.

Such changes can provoke serious and extremely dangerous complications for the body. If for a long time no improvement has occurred, be sure to inform your doctor.

Contraindications

Cyclosporin – Pretty a powerful drug that often causes serious side effects. Use of this drug is strictly prohibited in the following cases:

  1. Children under 1 year old;
  2. Pregnant and lactating women;
  3. With skin diseases that can cause cancer;
  4. With malignant tumors;
  5. With an allergic reaction;
  6. With increased sensitivity to the components of the drug or their individual intolerance.

The use of cyclosporine in the presence of contraindications can cause serious complications. It is also permissible to carry out treatment with this medicine with extreme caution in the following cases:

  • With renal and liver failure;
  • With hypertension;
  • With bleeding disorders;
  • In case of violation of the intestinal absorption process;
  • With herpetic infections;
  • With infectious and viral processes;
  • With an increased level of potassium in the blood;
  • With recently transferred vaccination with live microorganisms.

special instructions

Cyclosporin is an extremely powerful drug that can easily lead to the development of serious negative consequences. It is best to undergo therapy with this drug in a hospital, where the patient will be under the constant supervision of the attending physician.

If the patient began to appear the first signs of an allergic reaction, treatment with Cyclosporine should be immediately interrupted. In this case, he is given antihistamines that stop any pathogenic reaction. Doctors recommend as soon as possible to refuse intravenous administration of the drug and switch to oral administration of tablets. It should be borne in mind that therapy with this immunosuppressive agent rarely causes the development of infectious processes.

People who were held liver transplant, you need to constantly monitor the level of monoclonal antibodies. Any use of Cyclosporine can cause them to multiply rapidly, which causes extremely serious consequences. During therapy, the condition of the kidneys and liver, the level of certain chemical elements in the blood should be constantly monitored. if there is a rapid increase, the dosage of cyclosporin is significantly reduced. With an increase in blood pressure, symptomatic therapy is performed.

Drug Interactions

When ingested, cyclosporin immediately enters into a chemical reaction. In the course of interaction with other drugs, reactions may occur that must be monitored by the attending physician. Experts recommend remembering the following rules:

  1. The active components of Cyclosporine increase the effectiveness of theophylline, sodium valproate, quin />
  2. The tool accelerates the withdrawal of prednisolone, this must be taken into account when they are used together;
  3. The use of statins significantly increases the likelihood of acute renal failure and rhabdomyolysis;
  4. The use of colchicine in the treatment of cyclosporine causes headaches and muscle pain;
  5. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can lead to increased levels of calcium in the blood and the development of renal failure;
  6. Simultaneous treatment with trioxalenes, activated carbon or methoxalen can cause the development of malignant neoplasms on the skin;
  7. Due to the simultaneous use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in humans, renal pathologies can occur: they decrease the rate of glomerular filtration, which is why their function is suppressed. Because of this, it is necessary to carefully monitor renal function;
  8. It is not recommended to vaccinate with live microorganisms during treatment with Cyclosporine – this can easily cause a rapid spread of infection throughout the body. It is better to wait a few months, only after which you can start treatment.
Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologistShishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.

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Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews. It specializes in the treatment of diseases in orthopedic, traumatological, vertebrological profiles

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