Diagnosis is based on the results of a physical as well as instrumental examination. In 80-85% of cases, the main complaint of patients remains a cosmetic defect.
Hygroma of the knee joint in children can sometimes be difficult to visual diagnosis, which requires verification of pathology using auxiliary methods.
- Ultrasound examination of the neoplasm. Ultrasound will allow you to assess the amount of fluid inside the hygroma and its localization.
- Puncture of the tumor. This method allows you to study the internal contents of the tumor under a microscope, as well as to exclude the development of more serious pathologies.
In rare cases, radiography of the affected joint is used for diagnosis. However, the procedure is not informative with small neoplasms.
Hygroma is a pathology that does not always need to be treated. In the early stages of the problem, with the exclusion of provoking factors, a regression of symptoms is possible. However, in the absence of positive dynamics, the patient requires therapy.
Improvement traditionally begins with a manual treatment option, which is popularly called flattening. A surgeon or traumatologist, applying force, presses on the tumor, literally flattening it. Despite the dubious form of the procedure, the effectiveness of the technique reaches 85-90%. However, this manipulation is carried out only with small sizes of hygroma (up to 1-2 cm).
Good therapeutic results are demonstrated by physiotherapy. The following procedures are used in practice:
- ultrasound and magnetic therapy;
- paraffin baths.
If conservative methods are ineffective, the patient is advised to radically remove the tumor. For this purpose, a puncture of the hygroma with pumping out the liquid and the subsequent introduction of anti-inflammatory drugs can be used. It is important to consider that after the described method of healing, the chance of cyst recurrence in 25-30% of children remains.
More reliable is the surgical removal of the neoplasm. Radical excision of the hygroma of the popliteal fossa or hand in a child provides a low risk of relapse – up to 5%. Surgical treatment in infants is performed with caution. For children under 10 years old, all surgical interventions are performed under general anesthesia. At a later age, local anesthesia is allowed.
Prevention of the corresponding problem in children is to minimize the influence of provoking factors. The child should not be overloaded with physical exercises (basketball, wrestling sections, etc.), but a sedentary lifestyle should not be allowed. If a cyst occurs, it is recommended to seek help from a doctor for the early elimination of pathology.
Hygroma developing in children is a non-dangerous neoplasm that does not affect the general well-being of the child. However, to prevent active tumor growth, it is worth consulting a doctor on time.
Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.
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