Osteochondrosis is a chronic pathology, dangerous for its recurrent course. Irreversible degenerative changes occur in the vertebrae and intervertebral discs, provoking the occurrence of pain and stiffness of movements. Therapy of thoracic, cervical or lumbar osteochondrosis is aimed at improving blood circulation in damaged tissues and preventing the spread of the disease to healthy vertebrae. Patients are advised to take medications, physiotherapy, acupuncture, massage, balneological treatment. One of the most effective ways to deal with osteochondrosis is regular gymnastics. At the initial stage of the pathology, daily training at home will allow it to be reversed.
The basic principles of physiotherapy
The intervertebral disc of a healthy person is able to withstand significant loads. Its rupture will occur under the influence of a compression force exceeding 0,5 tons. At the same time, a disk affected by osteochondrosis will rupture even with a compression force of 0,2 tons. Under the influence of external or internal negative factors, an insufficient amount of nutrient and biologically enter the intervertebral discs active substances. The resulting deficit becomes the cause of flattening and softening of bone tissues, the appearance of radial cracks in the fibrous rings. The distance between adjacent vertebrae decreases, they begin to shift in relation to each other.
So far, no preparations have been synthesized whose use would help restore the destroyed tissues of the intervertebral discs. The leading method of therapy is gymnastics for the back with osteochondrosis. Why regular training is much more effective than a course medication:
- the muscle corset is strengthened, supporting the vertebrae in the anatomically correct position, the load on the entire spinal column is reduced;
- improves blood supply to tissues with molecular oxygen;
- the supply of vertebrae and discs with nutritious and bioactive compounds is being restored;
- excretion of inflammatory products, toxins and other toxic substances from tissues is accelerated.
Destruction of the vertebrae often provokes damage to nearby soft tissue structures – muscles, ligaments, tendons. When performing special gymnastic exercises, they can not only be restored, but also significantly strengthened. A powerful muscle corset avoids further trauma to the intervertebral discs.
Doctor S. Bubnovsky developed a special simulator that accelerates the rehabilitation of patients with any pathology of the musculoskeletal system. On it you can train in a clinic or purchase it for home use. Dr. Bubnovsky patented a method of kinesitherapy that allows you to treat diseases without taking drugs.
Basic rules for doing exercises
Osteochondrosis is localized in various parts of the spine. At the beginning of treatment, exercise therapy doctors recommend performing exercises to strengthen the muscles of the back area where injuries were detected. After a few weeks, you can begin to practice gymnastics, which helps to completely stabilize the condition of the entire spinal column. What else should be learned before training:
- with osteochondrosis, an inflammatory process may occur in the spinal column. With its exacerbation, gymnastics is strictly prohibited because of the increased risk of tissue injury. Training is conducted only at the remission stage;
- if the exercise recommended by the doctor causes discomfort, this should not be a signal for its cancellation. It is necessary to reduce the number of approaches to 5-10 and train not at full strength;
- but with the appearance of severe pain, the exercise cannot be performed. A doctor should be informed about this, who will correct the complex;
- Do not train to exhaustion, trying to speed up recovery. This will lead not to tissue repair, but to abrasion of the surfaces of the intervertebral discs. The movements should be slow, smooth, and the number of approaches should be as recommended by the doctor.
There are many videos on the Internet with exercises for the spine, including those that help with osteochondrosis. They can be used for preventive rather than therapeutic purposes.
The first rehabilitation measures are carried out only by a physical therapy doctor. He develops a complex individually for each patient, taking into account the stage of the pathology, the degree of damage to the vertebral tissues, the age of the patient, the presence of a history of chronic pathologies. Contraindications to therapeutic exercises for osteochondrosis are:
- acute respiratory and intestinal infectious pathologies;
- severe diabetes mellitus;
- fever, fever;
- gastrointestinal disorders;
- malignant tumors of any localization;
- high or too low blood pressure;
- severe diseases of the cardiovascular system.
The remaining chronic pathologies are not included in the list of contraindications, but the exercise therapy doctor takes into account their presence and excludes from the complex exercises that can harm the patient. After 3-5 workouts, under the supervision of a specialist, you can do it at home.
One of the most effective methods of treating diseases of the musculoskeletal system is sparing Gitt training. The doctor recommends that patients do not intensive exercises, but performing exercises with a small amplitude. For example, you cannot sharply turn your head, but you should only tilt it a little. Frequent exercise helps improve blood circulation, but at the same time completely eliminates the abrasion of the disc.
The most effective exercises for osteochondrosis
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Before doing gymnastics for the back, a warm-up is required. Warm shower, which improves blood circulation and prepares muscles for intense loads, will not hurt. The warm-up consists of walking in place, bending, and turning with small amplitude. In the clinic, at the preparatory stage, the rehabilitologist performs a massage of the entire spinal column.
For the treatment of cervical osteochondrosis, exercises are used to help strengthen the muscular corset not only of the neck, but also of the shoulders, forearms, and upper back. Training is carried out in a standing position, but you can also sit down when you feel tired.
In the treatment of cervical osteochondrosis, static loads are practiced that do not provoke displacement of the intervertebral discs, the contact of their surfaces. A typical mistake of patients who neglect medical care is to perform circular head movements. If disks are displaced in the cervical region, then such training can cause serious complications. The greatest therapeutic efficacy is characteristic of the following exercises:
- place the palm of your right hand on your right cheek. Tilt your head to the right, trying to overcome the resistance, trying not to strain the neck muscles too much. Repeat the exercise 20-30 times, and then do the same with the opposite part of the face;
- put your palms on top of each other under the chin. Try to lower your head down, showing resistance with your hands. Perform the exercise 20-30 times;
- to twist the fingers of the hands on the lower part of the back of the head and try, overcoming the resistance of the hands, throw the head back. Perform 15-20 approaches, stop when pain of any intensity appears;
- in a standing position, lift one shoulder first, then the other. Repeat the exercise, lifting both shoulders at once 20-30 times;
- in a sitting position, pull your head up, and then try to squeeze it into your shoulders 15-20 times.
During training, the back should be kept straight, when fatigue appears, crouch and press it to the back of the chair. Only such exercises can be performed with cervical osteochondrosis. Turns from side to side, intense inclinations back and forth, undoubtedly accelerate blood circulation, but at the same time provoke the destruction of cartilage tissue.
Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.
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This type of pathology is very rarely diagnosed due to the low mobility of the thoracic spine, the lack of loads and a strong attachment with ribs. If the disease is still detected, then the doctor makes up a set of exercises for building the muscle corset of the entire chest, including the ribs. During training, you can not bend much, otherwise an even greater displacement of the vertebral discs may occur.
What exercises are recommended by doctors for breast osteochondrosis:
- sit on a stool and slowly bend from side to side, shifting the torso by 20-30 cm. When tilted to the right side, the right arm is raised up and vice versa. At the final stage, cross your arms over your head and shake them slightly, as if relieving stress. Perform 20 inclinations in each direction;
- lie on your back, slowly raise your hands up. Cross them, try to lift the upper part of the body. In this case, only the shoulder girdle should be tensed, and not the neck. At the beginning of training, it is enough to do 10 trips, with the strengthening of the muscular corset – 20-30;
- lie on your stomach, relax, slowly stretch. Without helping yourself with your hands, bend slightly. During the exercise, the muscles of the lower back should be tensed. Sagging, raise your head and arm. Repeat from 15 to 20 times;
- stand on all fours, bend your back while inhaling. Hold in that position for 30 seconds. Then exhale and take a starting position. Make 20-25 sets.
The thoracic spine is not flexible, so the first training can be difficult. Discomfort of slight intensity is allowed. In this case, the number of approaches should be temporarily reduced.
Small of the back
Exercises for the back with lumbar osteochondrosis are of two types. This is a stretch that allows you to increase the distance between the damaged vertebrae, and strength training aimed at strengthening the muscles. Rehabilitologists recommend that patients purchase a crossbar and hang on it several times a day. If age, excess weight interfere with such training, then you can stretch in another way. You should sit on a hard surface, take the pose of the embryo and swing back and forth.
It helps to prevent exacerbations of lumbar osteochondrosis and the following exercises:
- lie on your back, stretch your arms along the body, relax. Slowly lift first the right, then the left foot 20-30 cm above the floor, trying to hold them for 7 seconds in this position. Perform 30 times;
- lying on your back, bend your knees, and then spread them as far as possible, then reduce them. Make 20-25 approaches;
- lie on your stomach, stretch your arms along the body with your palms down. Lift the upper body first, then the legs. You should not try to raise them to a great height – 20 cm is enough. Repeat the exercise 20-30 times;
- lie on your back and bend one leg at the knee. Lift the other 10-20 cm above the floor surface. Try to strain the legs when doing the exercise, not the lower back. Do 20 sets.
Gymnastics with lumbar osteochondrosis is very well combined with massage, including classic. When the lumbosacral spine is affected, scoliosis often occurs, posture is disturbed, and the gait changes. When combining training with massage, these external manifestations of the pathology disappear much faster.
Physiotherapy exercises and gymnastics are a conservative method of therapy, indicated for various diseases. But regular training is most relevant in the treatment and prevention of pathologies of the musculoskeletal system. Classes do not cancel the administration of pharmacological preparations and physiotherapy. But with their help, you can significantly reduce the dose of painkillers, minimize their side effects.