Fracture of the shoulder joint

Injuries such as shoulder fractures are more common in the elderly and in children. Damage is divided into types of localization, as well as closed and open. The condition is accompanied by pain, limited mobility, swelling, deformation of the limb. The victim should immediately give first aid and consult a doctor to avoid complications. The specialist will be able to diagnose and prescribe effective treatment.

The content of the article:
  1. Why does injury occur?
  2. What types of damage are there?
  3. Symptoms: how to recognize an injury?
  4. Surgical intervention
  5. Shoulder fracture rehabilitation
  6. Physiotherapeutic methods
  7. Therapeutic exercise
  8. Complications
  9. Causes of a shoulder joint fracture, treatment and rehabilitation after an injury, types of shoulder fracture
  10. Causes of fractures
  11. Symptoms
  12. Diagnostics
  13. First aid
  14. Treatment
  15. Rehabilitation methods
  16. Possible complications
  17. Ways to treat a fracture of the humerus and difficulties that may arise
  18. Features of a shoulder fracture
  19. First aid
  20. Therapies
  21. Conservative therapy
  22. Surgical intervention
  23. Skeletal traction
  24. Rehabilitation period
  25. Shoulder fracture – a popular injury
  26. Symptoms
  27. First a >
  28. Rehabilitation
  29. Physiotherapy
  30. Some exercise therapy exercises
  31. Forecast
  32. Fracture of the shoulder joint
  33. Causes and symptoms
  34. Types of fractures
  35. Diagnostics
  36. Treatment
  37. First a > If a person received a shoulder injury, first aid must be provided before the ambulance arrives or is transported to the emergency room. If the victim shows an open wound, bleeding must be stopped and a clean dressing applied to the wound. Help involves applying a splint to the shoulder joint. The arm is fixed with a tire from the elbow to the shoulder joint, in the elbow it should be bent at an angle of 45 degrees and with a bandage fixed on the neck.
  38. Massage
  39. Bone fracture
  40. Why does injury occur?
  41. What types of damage are there?
  42. Symptoms: how to recognize an injury?
  43. Surgical intervention
  44. Shoulder fracture rehabilitation
  45. Physiotherapeutic methods
  46. Therapeutic exercise
  47. Complications

Why does injury occur?

Fractures of the humerus with and without displacement of bone fragments occur due to the following adverse factors:

  • falling on the elbow or outstretched arm;
  • a direct blow to the shoulder with a heavy object;
  • dislocation, in which there is a separation of a large tubercle;
  • extreme sports or martial arts;
  • industrial and motor vehicle accidents;
  • diseases that provoke fragility of bone tissue;
  • malnutrition and lack of calcium.

What types of damage are there?

The classification of fractures is determined by the location of the injury as follows:

  • Injury to the proximal upper third, in which the surgical neck and humeral head breaks.
  • Diaphyseal, when the integrity of the body of the bone in the middle is violated. A fragmentation fracture may be accompanied by a violation of the integrity of the vessels and the radial nerve.
  • Fracture of the lower end is characterized by damage to the capitate elevation, internal epicondyle, medial condyle. Transdermal fracture of the shoulder joint is more common in children.

Symptoms: how to recognize an injury?

Impression fracture of the shoulder has the following symptoms:

  • Injury in the upper part is accompanied by weak swelling and limited mobility.
  • A fracture of the body of the humerus is characterized by unnatural mobility, as well as the inability to bend the fingers.
  • The intercondylar and supracondylar fracture is combined with a dislocation, limb deformity, subcutaneous hemorrhage.

Injury to the humerus can be open and closed. The nature of the fracture is helical or lateral, as well as transverse. How the injury manifests itself depending on the type is shown in the table:

The tool will relieve pain and inflammation.

If the hand is very sore, the use of analgesics is recommended – “Analgin”, “Nurofen”, “Ibuprofen”. During the recovery period of the right or left limb, you can use the following anti-inflammatory liniments:

Drugs can be applied only if there are no wounds on the skin.

Surgical intervention

Surgical treatment is often required if a closed comminuted fracture of the arm with displacement is diagnosed. An operation is performed with a plate, a metal synthesis tool, with which bone fragments are fastened. During surgery, the doctor also cleans and drains the wound, sutures the torn nerves and blood vessels. Since humeral heads often break during injury, the injury heals for a long time.

Shoulder fracture rehabilitation

Physiotherapeutic methods

The following physiotherapy procedures are recommended for the treatment of fractures of the pineal gland of the humerus:

  • infrared and ultraviolet radiation;
  • inductothermy;
  • electrophoresis;
  • phonophoresis;
  • magnetotherapy;
  • laser treatment;
  • thermal applications with ozokerite and paraffin;
  • radon and hydrogen sulfide baths;
  • massage.

Physiotherapy has the following therapeutic effect on damage to the shoulder with fragments:

  • restores motor functions;
  • improves lymph outflow and relieves swelling;
  • normalizes blood circulation;
  • accelerates tissue regeneration;
  • regulates metabolic processes in the bone structure;
  • eliminates inflammation.

Therapeutic exercise

Fractures of the shoulder bone require prolonged immobilization, in which the muscles atrophy, and the functioning of the limb worsens. Therefore, exercise therapy is aimed at developing the whole arm and includes the following exercises:

  • finger squeezing;
  • rotational movements of the hand, elbow and shoulder joint;
  • hand swings back and forth, left and right;
  • flexion-extension of the elbow joint;
  • raising your hand up and down;
  • finger grip with a “lock” on the back of the head;
  • classes with dumbbells weighing no more than 2 kg.

Begin exercises with massage. This helps to improve blood flow and warm the muscles. It is recommended to feel the site of the fracture with light pressing movements, as well as stroking, tingling. If there are postoperative wounds, a massage should be done by a specialist. During the rehabilitation period, swimming is recommended, since being in the water has a beneficial effect on the soft tissues of a broken arm. During healing, you should not sleep on the side of a sore arm, so as not to disturb blood circulation.

Complications

If the humerus is broken, but medical care was provided in a timely manner, the prognosis is favorable. In advanced cases, trauma is dangerous dysfunction of the radial nerve. The main consequences of an untreated fracture are as follows:

  • abnormal bone fusion;
  • limb deformity;
  • decrease or loss of the function of capturing and holding the subject;
  • unnatural position of the hand;
  • bone marrow and pseudoarthrosis;
  • arthrosis;
  • arthritis.

The condition is accompanied by chronic pain and discomfort in the hand. An equally dangerous complication is infection by pathogenic microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and tetanus bacillus, streptococcus, staphylococcus. Bacteria provoke sepsis, which can be fatal.

Causes of a shoulder joint fracture, treatment and rehabilitation after an injury, types of shoulder fracture

Fracture in the joint of the shoulder is often found in the practice of doctors. The shoulder is the most mobile joint, therefore its injuries noticeably affect human activity. Cracks can be of various types – with and without shear, closed or open. The problem can affect different parts of the joint, treatment should be urgent and properly selected. The future health of the patient depends on this. Rehabilitation consists of exercise therapy, physiotherapeutic procedures and massage. In case of a fracture of the shoulder joint, treatment and rehabilitation are carried out only by a doctor, independent actions will only harm health. ICD-10 code: S42.

Joint fracture

Causes of fractures

The anatomy of the humerus is unique, as this joint has a large range of motion.

The causes of injury to the bones of the shoulder are:

  • blows;
  • too sharp movements that are not characteristic of the joint;
  • fall on the shoulder;
  • strong pressure on the joint;
  • gunshot wound.

The bones of the shoulder joint form a strong connection. Cracks more often occur under the influence of diseases in the body that affect bone tissue: oncology, osteoporosis, a state of calcium loss and a deterioration in the strength of the skeleton.

In old age, it is possible to break the shoulder even with a slight effect.

Joint fractures are classified by their location:

  • intraarticular splitting of the head;
  • separation of a small or large tubercle;
  • crack of the anatomical neck of the shoulder joint;
  • fractures of the surgical neck of the shoulder with displacement of fragments or fractures of the surgical neck of the shoulder without displacement;
  • impression fractures in the head of the humerus;
  • fracture with dislocation.

Fractures of the neck of the humerus that occur with displacement most often occur due to indirect exposure. This is a fall on the hand, elbow, shoulder, when there is a flexion of the humerus and pressure on it.

By type of fracture there are:

Single and multiple forms are classified by the number of fragments of the joint.

Symptoms

Certain symptoms are identified that allow the doctor to establish the fact of the formation of a crack. This is unbearable pain, loss of mobility. When a person describes his feelings, it becomes easier for a doctor to distinguish a fracture from a dislocation.

So, the symptoms of a fracture will be as follows:

  • pain at the site of injury that radiates to the elbow and forearm;
  • the appearance of swelling, bruising;
  • deformation of the shoulder, visible shortening of the arm due to muscle spasm;
  • limitation of the range of movements of the hand;
  • problems with the sensitivity of fingers and hands;
  • crunch on palpation.

symptomatology

Sometimes fragments are driven into each other, so the signs of a fracture become less pronounced.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of a fracture is the implementation of radiography. Based on the study, an accurate diagnosis is made. At least one sign of damage is visible in the image – this is the fracture line. Displacement of fragments is the second indisputable sign.

The examination is carried out in 2 and 3 projections, due to which the localization of the injury is determined with high accuracy.

First aid

First aid for fracture of the shoulder joint is required to be provided promptly. The sooner the victim enters a medical facility, the more chances there are for correct and successful healing and fusion, and there are less risks of complications.

Mandatory emergency surgery is indicated in the following cases:

  • strong displacement of fragments, which cannot be corrected by closed reposition;
  • fracture of a large tubercle of the shoulder, causing infringement of bone fragments, is an obstacle to proper bone fusion;
  • with osteoporosis;
  • with a fracture of a large tubercle with displacement;
  • with the destruction of the head of the bone of the shoulder, split into a large number of fragments.

It is forbidden to move the injured limb so as not to damage the soft tissue even more. If the bones protrude, they cannot be set. This indicates a deviation of parts of the bone.

Treatment

Therapeutic measures for joint injury include 3 main methods:

  • conservative;
  • instantaneous reposition;
  • immobilization with gypsum or a special compression bandage.

Joint immobilization

The doctor selects a method of treatment, given the location of the fracture:

  1. Fracture of a large tubercle – a gypsum dressing is applied, less often with a discharge tire. This helps prevent joint stiffness and ensures full adhesion. If the fragment is shifted, then it is fixed with knitting needles or screws. After 1,5 months, such a correction is removed.
  2. Surgical neck injury without displacement – application of a plaster cast for 1 month. If it is necessary to stabilize the position of the fragments of gypsum, it is necessary to wear 1,5 months. If the fragments cannot be corrected, surgery is performed. The bone is fixed by installing plates for up to 3 months.
  3. Fracture of the body of the shoulder with a shift – skeletal traction is performed. So the victim will have to spend a whole month observing bed rest. Only then gypsum is applied. Modern medicine is less and less using the traction method, implementing osteosynthesis instead. Such treatment does not bedridden such a long time. When displaced, the doctor always looks so that tissue is not trapped between the fragments, otherwise they will not grow together correctly.
  4. Transdermal fracture with displacement: reduction is performed under anesthesia, then gypsum is applied for up to 2 months.
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When injuring nerves and blood vessels requires surgery with suturing. This significantly lengthens the treatment period and does not always imply a complete restoration of the functions of the hand. Of the drugs, the traumatologist can prescribe the intake of certain groups of drugs: analgesics, antibiotics, calcium preparations.

Rehabilitation methods

Prolonged staying of the arm in one position negatively affects muscles and joint mobility. As soon as fragments have fused, you can begin to develop the shoulder, so it will gradually recover, its functionality will return. Rehabilitation is accompanied by pain, therefore, painkillers are required.

The development of the shoulder joint after the fracture is carried out under the supervision of a specialist who periodically gives direction to an x-ray, and during each examination can change the set of physical therapy training. The load includes the following activities:

  • shoulder lift;
  • mixing and breeding of blades;
  • flexion, extension of the forearm, helping and supporting with a healthy hand, slightly not reaching the angle of 90 degrees;
  • exercises with special gymnastic devices.

Exercise after fracture to restore physical activity

A month after the start of immobilization, physical exercise and gymnastics can be complicated.

A set of massage procedures and physiotherapy procedures are selected individually after removal of the cast. May be assigned:

  • ultraviolet irradiation – helps accelerate tissue repair, reduce the inflammatory process, restore nutrition in the cells;
  • electrophoresis with medications, most often with Novocaine (relieves pain) and with calcium chloride (accelerates bone fusion and reduces inflammation).

Massaging is recommended to start as soon as possible. It will help prevent contractures, restore blood flow and prevent stagnation and blood clots from forming in the vessels. On the recommendation of professionals, it is necessary to use only soft rehabilitation techniques, it is forbidden to strike, bending and abduction of the arm. The total recovery time can be up to several years.

Possible complications

Injury can spread to the radial nerve and affect joint function. Because of this, a person develops paresis with a partial loss of motor activity. With more serious injury or lack of therapy, paralysis occurs. The main symptoms of involvement in the process of the radial nerve are as follows:

  • difficulties with flexion and extension of the arm at the elbow, when moving with your fingers;
  • unnatural posture of the hand;
  • I can’t take the item with my fingers;
  • there is a loss of skin sensitivity;
  • atrophy gradually progresses.

If symptoms of radial nerve involvement are present, a neurologist consultation is required. The administration of special preparations and vitamins is prescribed.

Another consequence of improper treatment is the formation of a false joint. The main symptom of a violation is pathological mobility.

To restore the shoulder after a fracture, rehabilitation is required according to an individually developed program. It is important to receive timely emergency care immediately after an injury, and then properly organized treatment. Then the risk of complications will be minimal, and recovery – as quick as possible.

Ways to treat a fracture of the humerus and difficulties that may arise

A shoulder injury permanently deprives a person of work capacity. Common damage often occurs in people who fall on a slippery surface and are involved in a traffic accident. The severity, nature of the fracture significantly affect the methods of treatment, the period of limb recovery. How to treat a fracture of the humerus? This question interests people with this problem. In the text you will find answers to all your questions.

Features of a shoulder fracture

In the shoulder area there is a large number of nerves that are closely associated with the central nervous system, so damage greatly affects the overall well-being of the patient.

Symptoms of a fracture differ depending on the location of the injury:

  • upper part – neck, head, tubercles;
  • the m >

Common signs of damage are manifested in intense pain, the appearance of edema, the inability to move the arm, and deformation of the shoulder.

The doctor establishes an accurate diagnosis based on the analysis of the clinical picture, radiography data.

Important factors on which how to treat a shoulder fracture are:

  • the nature of the injury – articular or extra-articular;
  • the presence of displacement of fragments;
  • form of damage – open or closed.

Of particular importance is timely assistance to the victim. Delaying a visit to a doctor inevitably leads to the development of complications and an aggravation of the situation.

First aid

First aid is to take the following measures:

  • analgesia with analgesic drugs;
  • immobilization of the limb with improvised means (plaques, sticks, scarves, scarves);
  • stopping bleeding with an open fracture (tourniquet, dressing), applying an aseptic napkin to the wound;
  • transportation of the victim to a medical facility.

It is important to prevent fragments from being manipulated at the site of the injury. It is strictly forbidden to straighten, feel, try to put the shoulder in the correct position during deformation. Sharp movements should be avoided so as not to harm the victim. Proper first aid is the key to successful treatment.

Therapies

The nature of the injury, the presence of concomitant injuries, the age of the patient, the general condition of the patient affect the choice of fracture treatment method:

  • conservative;
  • operational;
  • skeletal traction.

In the framework of therapy, medication with drugs is mandatory to support the body with additional resources:

  • painkillers;
  • anti-inflammatory;
  • immunomodulatory;
  • vascular.

Additionally, the patient is prescribed chondroprotectors, vitamin and mineral complexes. How to treat a shoulder fracture, only a traumatologist decides, since taking medications of different groups can harm in a random application.

Conservative therapy

Simple fractures without displacements or with insignificant shifts of fragments are subject to simultaneous reposition. The next stage is fixing the damaged shoulder with special pads, a plaster cast. Most often, the area is immobilized from the scapula to the forearm with the fixation of three joints. Treatment of a fractured fracture involves the attachment of diverting pillows or special scarves.

The period of immobilization depends on the severity of the fracture, is 30-60 days. The presence of severe swelling of the hand, cyanosis on the fingers is a sign of complication, the plaster cast needs to be removed or parted to weaken the plaster. Damage to bone structures often entails injury to blood vessels, nerves. In such cases, surgical treatment is required, which, in general, increases the duration of general therapy.

Surgical intervention

Conservative therapy does not always give a positive result, which is prevented by:

  • pinching muscles with bone fragments;
  • repeated displacement of fragments after reposition;
  • damage to the radial nerve.

Bone fragments during the operation are fixed with screws, screws, special plates, rods. After complete splicing, the fasteners are removed. Repeated operations are carried out after six months, sometimes after several years. Elderly patients are prescribed regular examinations without removing the fixatives.

Severe open fractures are treated with the Ilizarov apparatus. There are cases when the operation is impossible, since it is impossible to treat a fracture of the shoulder joint by the surgical method according to general health indicators. Then resort to the gradual reduction of fragments.

Skeletal traction

A Kirschner needle is inserted into the patient’s elbow, which is fixed in a structure with suspended loads. Weight is selected individually. The patient is shown bed rest for 4-6 weeks. Mandatory x-ray control. The method is rarely used.

Rehabilitation period

An individual recovery program is selected taking into account the features of bone fusion, the age resources of the body. During rehabilitation, patients wear bandages, orthoses, which support the limb in the correct position.

The appointment of physiotherapeutic procedures is aimed at reducing inflammatory processes, accelerating the process of tissue regeneration, reducing pain syndromes. Electrophoresis, ultrasound, magnetotherapy courses consist of 10 procedures, are prescribed to patients again until complete cure.

Physiotherapy exercises, massage contribute to the expansion of the motor range of the shoulder due to the acceleration of metabolism, activation of blood circulation, prevention of congestion.

In the process of healing the injury, it is important to comply with all the recommendations of the doctor, the desire to restore the functions of the limb. If you do not treat a shoulder fracture in full, then the risk of complications increases significantly, there is a risk of disability. The joint efforts of the doctor and patient give a favorable prognosis for a return to a full life.

About physiotherapy in the presence of metal structures

Fracture of the shoulder joint is a common injury and can affect any part of it:

  • in the upper part – the head of the humerus (intraarticular fracture) and the surgical neck (the so-called fractures of the surgical neck and large tubercle);
  • the longest part of the shoulder is the body of the humerus (fractures of the diaphysis of the shoulder);
  • in the lower (distal) part – the condylar region (transcondylar fractures also belong to intraarticular).

Like fractures of other structures, shoulder fractures can be multiple / single, with or without displacement.

The causes of a fracture of the shoulder joint are strong blows, a fall on a straightened arm, and sports injuries.

Symptoms

  • Pain at the site of localization of the injury (with an extracondylar fracture, it gives up to the forearm and elbow joint).
  • Swelling, bruising.
  • Deformation of the shoulder and / or shortening of the arm.
  • Limited range of motion of the limb.
  • Possible violations of the sensitivity of the fingers and hands.
  • When you feel the place of injury, you can hear a crunch.

In some cases, one fragment may be injected into another, resulting in erased fracture symptoms.

First a >

In the treatment of a fracture of the shoulder joint, anti-inflammatory and analgesics, calcium-containing drugs are prescribed.

In case of slight injuries (without displacement or easily adjusted), the use of a plaster cast, fixing and / or retracting tires, etc. for a period of one and a half months. For fractures without displacement of a large tubercle, hammered fractures, the application of gypsum is not required, fixation with a scarf bandage is applied for about a month.

The direction of the displaced fragments is realized under anesthesia.

In case of serious injury, surgery is performed with fixation with screws, knitting needles, special plates or intraosseous rods. The recovery period can be extended in such a situation up to two to four months, and the fixation of the metal structures is carried out after several months or even years (in old age, such elements may not be removed at all in order not to expose the patient to repeated surgery).

Fractures with a displacement of the shoulder body may require (very rarely) the use of the skeletal traction method.

For fractures of the body of the humerus open, with complication, the Ilizarov apparatus is used.

At the end of the fusion of the fracture, physiotherapeutic and physiotherapy measures are carried out to restore limb functions.

Rehabilitation

Physiotherapy

  • Massage
  • UHF
  • Magnetotherapy
  • Ultrasound and diadynamic therapy
  • UFO
  • Electrophoresis (with calcium chloride, novocaine, etc.)

Some exercise therapy exercises

A couple of days after the injury, the fingers move the injured limb.

After a week – muscle tension from the side of damage without movement in the joints.

After removal of the plaster – exercises to develop the joint.

Exemplary exercises after bone fusion:

  • raising / lowering the shoulders;
  • circular movements of the shoulder joint in / out;
  • Circular motion with brushes in front of the chest in the castle;
  • abduction of arms to the sides;
  • pendulum movements with hands;
  • mixing / breeding of the shoulder blades with the hands on the belt;
  • throwing hands behind the head;
  • exercises with a gymnastic stick (rubbing the shoulder blades, rowing movements, etc.).

Physical therapy exercises should not cause strong pain (if the latter occurs, you need to take a break), exercises can be carried out up to 15 times a day. After some time, you can begin exercises with weighting (dumbbells and / or other shells).

In the future, tennis, swimming, etc. are recommended.

Forecast

It is possible to return to normal activity in a fracture of the shoulder joint without complication a couple of months after the injury.

  • nerve damage;
  • limited movement of the joint;
  • infection.

Timely diagnosis and adequate treatment accelerate recovery.

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Fracture of the shoulder joint

A fracture in the shoulder joint is considered an extremely unpleasant injury, which for a long time reduces the quality of life. Often, such fractures occur in the winter, when falling on slippery ice or in a traffic accident.

Such cases require increased attention, a detailed diagnostic examination and careful restoration of bone fragments in the correct position. The success of the entire upper limb depends on the success of the treatment. As in other bone structures, a fracture of the shoulder joint is multiple, single, without displacement and with displacement. After the injury with severe shoulder pain, you should immediately call an ambulance or deliver the victim to the nearest traumatology department.

Causes and symptoms

The main causes of fractures of the shoulder joint include sharp bumps in the shoulder region or a fall on the upper limb. Factors contributing to the violation of the integrity of the structure of the shoulder joint:

  • sudden fall on the elbow
  • a strong blow to the upper shoulder.

The symptomatology for this injury is quite pronounced, and the presence of a fracture can be suspected quite simply. The main signs of a fracture:

  • the appearance of severe swelling in the area of ​​the shoulder joint,
  • severe bruising under the skin of the shoulder,
  • pronounced pain syndrome,
  • limited movement of the damaged limb or their complete absence,
  • limb deformity,
  • violation of sensitivity.

Types of fractures

Fractures of the shoulder are classified into several types. By localization, such injuries are:

  • intraarticular
  • with splitting the head,
  • with detachments of small or large tubercles (more information about the fracture of the large tubercle of the humerus),
  • fractures of the anatomical or surgical neck,
  • dislocation with a fracture.
  • open primary
  • open a second time
  • closed.

By the presence or absence of fragments:

A line fracture can be:

By the presence of bias:

  • with offset
  • without displacement
  • crushed
  • driven in.

Cracks, or incomplete fractures, are also distinguished. A crack is a less dangerous injury, it is better to repair and does not require surgical intervention.

Diagnostics


When injuring the shoulder, the doctor initially conducts a visual examination and palpation of the damaged area. Next, studies and diagnostic methods are assigned to confirm the preliminary diagnosis. The most accurate diagnostic method is an x-ray. An X-ray of the injured shoulder joint is always used when a fracture is suspected. This is a mandatory step in diagnosing such injuries. The resulting image of the damaged shoulder joint makes it possible to see the fracture site, diagnose the presence of intraarticular bone fragments and establish whether there is a bone displacement.

Treatment


Treatment after any fracture of the shoulder joint requires special attention from both the doctor and the patient. The therapeutic course directly depends on the severity and type of injury. If a fracture of the anatomical neck has occurred, the restoration of bone structures occurs quickly enough. If the neck of the joint is broken, conservative treatment is carried out – the joint is fixed in the correct position allotted from the body. To maintain this position of the limb for the necessary time, a special roller is placed between the trunk and limb.

The procedure itself is extremely painful, so the shoulder joint is anesthetized with novocaine injections. After the humerus has been at rest for 3 days, it is necessary to begin its development. The patient should move his fingers, increasing the load over time.

With fractures with displacement, therapy will be long. Offset fractures require surgery to restore bone fragments in the correct position. The head, if necessary, is fixed with sutures that resolve after a certain time. Plaster is applied to the arm.

The success of the rehabilitation period depends both on the medical actions taken and on the observance of all the rules and regulations by the patient himself.

First a >
If a person received a shoulder injury, first aid must be provided before the ambulance arrives or is transported to the emergency room. If the victim shows an open wound, bleeding must be stopped and a clean dressing applied to the wound. Help involves applying a splint to the shoulder joint. The arm is fixed with a tire from the elbow to the shoulder joint, in the elbow it should be bent at an angle of 45 degrees and with a bandage fixed on the neck.

With severe pain, you can give painkillers, such as “Ketoral” or others.

Massage

To recover from a fracture of the shoulder joint, it is recommended to make a therapeutic massage of the shoulder and upper limb. First, do a suction massage, stroking and squeezing the hand. Further massage intermittent movements pass to the muscles of the hands. If the fusion of bone and cartilage structures occurs slowly, a massage shock technique is used.

It is also necessary to perform exercise therapy after fractures of the shoulder joint. Exercise helps to restore the working capacity of the upper limb and shoulder joint. You need to load the joint with training gradually, starting with the minimum. The patient is prescribed exercises to maintain muscle tone, while regular exercise therapy during a fracture contributes to the rapid fusion of bone structures. It is interesting to read a fracture of the scapula.

When the gypsum is removed, the patient is recommended to do the following exercises:

  • with both limbs do pendulum movements,
  • to restore the flexibility of the joint, perform circular movements of the hands,
  • taking the damaged arm to the side,
  • swing forward
  • the reduction of the upper limbs in front of the chest, while they are locked in a lock,
  • laying hands behind the head.

The average duration of bone fusion is about two months. The speed and success of the healing of the shoulder joint depends on the patient’s determination and the regular implementation of the doctor’s instructions. If you do not follow the recommendations, contractures may occur, which causes difficulties in hand movements and can lead to disability in the future.

Bone fracture

Injuries such as shoulder fractures are more common in the elderly and in children. Damage is divided into types of localization, as well as closed and open. The condition is accompanied by pain, limited mobility, swelling, deformation of the limb. The victim should immediately give first aid and consult a doctor to avoid complications. The specialist will be able to diagnose and prescribe effective treatment.

Why does injury occur?

Fractures of the humerus with and without displacement of bone fragments occur due to the following adverse factors:

  • falling on the elbow or outstretched arm;
  • a direct blow to the shoulder with a heavy object;
  • dislocation, in which there is a separation of a large tubercle;
  • extreme sports or martial arts;
  • industrial and motor vehicle accidents;
  • diseases that provoke fragility of bone tissue;
  • malnutrition and lack of calcium.

What types of damage are there?

The classification of fractures is determined by the location of the injury as follows:

  • Injury to the proximal upper third, in which the surgical neck and humeral head breaks.
  • Diaphyseal, when the integrity of the body of the bone in the middle is violated. A fragmentation fracture may be accompanied by a violation of the integrity of the vessels and the radial nerve.
  • Fracture of the lower end is characterized by damage to the capitate elevation, internal epicondyle, medial condyle. Transdermal fracture of the shoulder joint is more common in children.

Symptoms: how to recognize an injury?

Impression fracture of the shoulder has the following symptoms:

  • Injury in the upper part is accompanied by weak swelling and limited mobility.
  • A fracture of the body of the humerus is characterized by unnatural mobility, as well as the inability to bend the fingers.
  • The intercondylar and supracondylar fracture is combined with a dislocation, limb deformity, subcutaneous hemorrhage.

Injury to the humerus can be open and closed. The nature of the fracture is helical or lateral, as well as transverse. How the injury manifests itself depending on the type is shown in the table:

The tool will relieve pain and inflammation.

If the hand is very sore, the use of analgesics is recommended – “Analgin”, “Nurofen”, “Ibuprofen”. During the recovery period of the right or left limb, you can use the following anti-inflammatory liniments:

Drugs can be applied only if there are no wounds on the skin.

Surgical intervention

Surgical treatment is often required if a closed comminuted fracture of the arm with displacement is diagnosed. An operation is performed with a plate, a metal synthesis tool, with which bone fragments are fastened. During surgery, the doctor also cleans and drains the wound, sutures the torn nerves and blood vessels. Since humeral heads often break during injury, the injury heals for a long time.

Shoulder fracture rehabilitation

Physiotherapeutic methods

The following physiotherapy procedures are recommended for the treatment of fractures of the pineal gland of the humerus:

  • infrared and ultraviolet radiation;
  • inductothermy;
  • electrophoresis;
  • phonophoresis;
  • magnetotherapy;
  • laser treatment;
  • thermal applications with ozokerite and paraffin;
  • radon and hydrogen sulfide baths;
  • massage.

Physiotherapy has the following therapeutic effect on damage to the shoulder with fragments:

  • restores motor functions;
  • improves lymph outflow and relieves swelling;
  • normalizes blood circulation;
  • accelerates tissue regeneration;
  • regulates metabolic processes in the bone structure;
  • eliminates inflammation.

Therapeutic exercise

Fractures of the shoulder bone require prolonged immobilization, in which the muscles atrophy, and the functioning of the limb worsens. Therefore, exercise therapy is aimed at developing the whole arm and includes the following exercises:

  • finger squeezing;
  • rotational movements of the hand, elbow and shoulder joint;
  • hand swings back and forth, left and right;
  • flexion-extension of the elbow joint;
  • raising your hand up and down;
  • finger grip with a “lock” on the back of the head;
  • classes with dumbbells weighing no more than 2 kg.

Begin exercises with massage. This helps to improve blood flow and warm the muscles. It is recommended to feel the site of the fracture with light pressing movements, as well as stroking, tingling. If there are postoperative wounds, a massage should be done by a specialist. During the rehabilitation period, swimming is recommended, since being in the water has a beneficial effect on the soft tissues of a broken arm. During healing, you should not sleep on the side of a sore arm, so as not to disturb blood circulation.

Complications

If the humerus is broken, but medical care was provided in a timely manner, the prognosis is favorable. In advanced cases, trauma is dangerous dysfunction of the radial nerve. The main consequences of an untreated fracture are as follows:

  • abnormal bone fusion;
  • limb deformity;
  • decrease or loss of the function of capturing and holding the subject;
  • unnatural position of the hand;
  • bone marrow and pseudoarthrosis;
  • arthrosis;
  • arthritis.

The condition is accompanied by chronic pain and discomfort in the hand. An equally dangerous complication is infection by pathogenic microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and tetanus bacillus, streptococcus, staphylococcus. Bacteria provoke sepsis, which can be fatal.

Shishkevich Vladimir
Shishkevich Vladimir
Orthopedic doctor, traumatologist
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Vladimir Shishkevich

Orthopedic surgeon, traumatologist, vertebrologist. It specializes in the treatment of diseases in orthopedic, traumatological, vertebrological profiles. Diagnoses diseases of the musculoskeletal system, conducts treatment, monitors the healing process, recovery from injuries and operations, the application of immobilizing dressings, closed correction of dislocations and fractures.

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