Allergic arthritis is a benign joint disease of an inflammatory nature. It occurs in the form of a response of the body to foreign agents that provoke the development of specific immunological diseases.
The pathology is reversible and easily treatable, but with advanced forms it can be complicated by an infectious lesion and acquire a chronic course. Often, allergic arthritis captures the most productive group of patients – young people under 35 years old. Moreover, the vast majority of them are women. Also, often the disease is diagnosed in children and the elderly.
Pathology development mechanism
Arthritis occurs when deposits in the joint tissues of bones of foreign proteins or trace elements with their content. Antibodies are produced by harmful microbes (allergens) that enter the body through the endogenous and exogenous pathways.
Bacteria are very adaptive and easily take root in the host’s internal environment, mimicking native cells and bioforms. A systematic attack of the body with antimatter destroys the immune system and leads to the development of severe inflammation in the joints of the musculoskeletal system.
Any allergen can be anything – pollen, food, medicine, feather, dust, wool, smells, household chemicals or cosmetics. Constant contact with provoking factors makes the body sensitive and reduces its protective functions. Also, allergic arthritis can develop against the background of other pathologies and chronic diseases.
Types of Allergic Arthritis
Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.
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It is characterized by severe pain, rashes, swelling of the joints and accumulation of exudate in the synovial cavities. Inflammation at this stage is transient and goes away on its own after eliminating the irritant factor.
As therapeutic assistance, painkillers, antihistamines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hormones can be used.
The relief of foci of inflammation helps to alleviate the general condition of the patient and prevent possible negative consequences.
It lasts a long time and proceeds in a more complex form, with periodic relapses and aching pains. To eliminate inflammation, resort to steroid drugs. In advanced cases, deformation and destruction of the surface tissues of the joints is observed.
Infectious and allergic
It is considered the most severe form of pathological joint damage. It manifests itself in the form of intense pain when moving with limbs, a single or multiple infection of organs, severe hyperemia and swelling of the site of inflammation. Arthritis begins with an acute attack. The duration of the pathology can reach up to 6 months. With proper treatment, a complete restoration of the joint is possible.
It develops due to the immunopathological effects of biocomponents of food products, medicines and powdery plant spores (pollen). May cause fever, urticaria, polymorphic rash, lacrimation, and runny nose. Swollen joints and their soreness are observed.
Deposition of salt stones in the inter-articular space and their formation in conglomeration is noted. Crystallization is accompanied by severe pain, redness and swelling of the inflamed areas, a change in the shape and size of the articular cartilage.
Rheumatoid Allergic Arthritis
Included in the group of chronic diseases. It is characterized by a strong pain syndrome of a permanent course and destruction of connective tissues. Without timely treatment, inflammation passes to other organs, exacerbating the overall clinical picture.
Causes of inflammation
- Infections of various etiologies – tuberculosis, HIV, gonococcal disease, etc .;
- Infection due to surgery;
- Inflammatory processes in other organs;
- Thyro >
In adults and children, the disease has the same course. The complex of symptoms characteristic of allergic arthritis consists of:
- General malaise, fatigue, and muscle weakness;
- Increased tearing of the eyes and rhinoconjunctivitis syndrome;
- Small dermatous lesions of the inflamed area;
- Joint pain and swelling;
- Full or partial immobilization of the limb;
- Inflammation of the organs of the lymphatic system;
- Burning and itching sensations at the site of damage;
- High or low-grade fever;
- Redness of the skin in the area of infection;
- Chills or fever;
- Diarrhea and gastrointestinal tract disorders;
- Signs of other types of allergies – Quincke’s edema, angioedema, atypical dermatitis, bronchial asthma and other chronic pathologies.
Acute inflammation begins with concomitant sharp pain and severe swelling of the joint. The nature of the genesis of the disease is very similar to uncomplicated arthritis. Therefore, to accurately determine the diagnosis, a system-differential diagnosis is necessary.
Children’s Allergic Arthritis
In young patients, the development of inflammation of the joints passes with more extensive symptoms and severity. During the acute stage in children, the following is noted:
- Feeling of nausea accompanied by vomiting;
- Impaired stool (diarrhea);
- Fever and sensation of heat;
- Severe pain during movement;
- Weight loss;
- Violation of the ventilation and drainage function of the bronchi (bronchospasm);
- Loss of interest in food;
- Moodiness and irritability;
- Aching in the bones;
- Complaints of constant discomfort in the limbs;
- Dermatitis and allergic skin rashes.
Infection occurs due to weak immunity and its lack of resistance. In this regard, it can be much more difficult for children to have allergic arthritis than in adults.
In order to differentiate allergic arthritis from other pathological degeneration of the joints, a comprehensive examination using laboratory and instrumental methods is used when making a diagnosis.
The principle of diagnosis is as follows:
- Collection of detailed medical history;
- Visual examination of the patient for allergic rashes;
- Blood test for ESR and eosinophilic granulocytes (types of white blood cells);
- Biopsy (sampling of tissues and cells) of synovial fluid.
In some severe cases, a puncture of the inflamed joint may be prescribed.
Also, to determine pathological changes, an ultrasound examination of the affected areas is used, which is the most informative. Radiography for allergic arthritis is ineffective.
Methods of treatment
The period of manifestation of allergic arthritis can be different, however, as a rule, it lasts several days from the moment the infection enters the body. Regardless of the patient’s age, the treatment of joint inflammation involves the appointment of several medications at once. Treatment is selected taking into account the form of the disease, its stage, nature of the course and associated complications.
The standard course consists of:
- Antihistamines (Suprastin, Diphenhydramine);
- Antibiotics (Erythromycin or Amoxicillin);
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs);
- Hormonal drugs with a pronounced course of pathology;
- Anabolic drugs in the transition of arthritis to a chronic form;
- Glucocorticoid injections;
- Analgesic ointments or gels;
As additional methods that normalize metabolism and blood flow, magnetic, ultrasound, or cryotherapy can be used. Also, physiotherapy (mud wraps, baths, etc.) and therapeutic exercises are quite effective for allergic arthritis.
The duration of treatment is associated with the degree of complexity of the clinical picture, however, with the correct therapeutic regimen and responsible attitude of the patient, recovery occurs within a month. In general, the prognosis of the pathology is favorable and rarely acquires a recurring nature.