Gout, or gouty arthritis, is a joint disease caused by the deposition of uric acid salts in them. A painful condition can occur in the joints of the elbows, knees, feet, hands, fingers. The most common form of gout is a disease of the toes.
The presence of uric acid and its salts in the body is considered the norm: substances are metabolic products. In healthy people, these compounds are excreted by the kidneys. With an excess, they begin to be deposited in the joints. As a result, inflammation and pain occur. The pain begins suddenly, the joint becomes inflamed, it becomes hot to the touch, the affected area turns red. Exacerbations of the disease, as a rule, occur after heavy drinking and overeating. For some time, the disease does not make itself felt, then attacks begin again.
Uric acid is a product of the breakdown of purines – special substances that are independently produced in the body, and also come from food. A large number of purines is found in fatty meat and fish, meat offal, in alcohol (especially in beer and grape wine), non-natural juices, sweet carbonated drinks, coffee. In the event of an abundant feast or excessive enthusiasm for these products in the body, a huge amount of uric acid is produced and the kidneys can not cope with its excretion.
Most often, gout is diagnosed in men aged 40-50 years. As for women, they face the disease during menopause and later. It is believed that this is due to the effect of estrogen on the excretion (excretion) of uric acid. In the younger generation, the appearance of gout is explained by a violation of the synthesis of uric acid in the body. Young people are also addicted to alcoholic beverages, in particular beer.
Gout must be treated. Otherwise, attacks become more frequent, pain becomes more intense, other joints are affected, pathological processes in the kidneys and urinary tract begin. Unfortunately, it is impossible to completely get rid of gout. But there are a number of comprehensive measures that can significantly improve the patient’s condition and avoid acute attacks.
- Principles and treatment regimens for gout
- Modern physiotherapeutic methods for treating gout
- Folk methods
- Diet as an effective treatment for gout
- Gout – symptoms and treatment at home
- Symptoms of gout
- Acute Attack Treatment
- Treatment of gout
- Gout diet
- How to treat gout with folk remedies
- How to treat gout at home quickly and effectively?
- Symptoms of pathology
- Treatments for Gout
- Compliance with diet
- Acute Attack Treatment
- Intercritical treatment
- Treatment with folk remedies
- Gymnastics and massage
- Gouty arthritis or the disease of kings: how to recognize and cure
- Clinical features
- Operative therapy
- Treatment with folk remedies
- Recipe 1
- Recipe 2
- Recipe 3
- Recipe 4
- Recipe 5
- What is gout: symptoms, causes and treatment of the disease
- Causes of Gout
- Risk Factors
- Symptoms of gout
- Diagnosis of the disease
- Treatment of gout
- Gout diet
- Causes of gout
- Symptoms of gout
- Diagnosis of gout
- Treatment of gout
Principles and treatment regimens for gout
First of all, it should be noted that the treatment methods for an acute attack of gout and disease at the stage of remission are different. During an exacerbation, anti-inflammatory therapy is performed. Drugs can be administered orally, intramuscularly or intraarticularly – this is decided by the doctor. The selection of medicines and their dosage are set individually in each case. Most often, during an exacerbation, the patient needs hospitalization.
If gouty arthritis has just been diagnosed or the patient is in remission, then the treatment is mainly aimed at preventing relapse, exacerbation of the accompanying symptoms: obesity, high blood lipids, low sugar, hypertension, atherosclerosis. Also, treatment involves the prevention of the formation of uric acid stones in the kidneys. Therapy can be carried out under the supervision of a rheumatologist or nephrologist at home, in a hospital or in a specialized sanatorium. The effectiveness of measures depends on their correct combination: the best result can be achieved by reasonably combining pharmacological agents, physiotherapy, proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle, that is, the most successful is the comprehensive treatment of gout.
The use of drugs during the period of exacerbation is most effective. During anti-inflammatory therapy for gouty arthritis, colchicine is often prescribed. The drug is taken orally or administered intravenously, the dosage is prescribed by the doctor. Colchicine is especially effective if it is started to be used as soon as the first symptoms of the disease appear. Significant improvement in the condition of patients in the first 12 hours of taking this medicine is observed in 75% of cases. However, adverse reactions may occur in the form of a violation of the gastrointestinal tract.
Also, with exacerbation of gout, other anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed, among them: indomethacin, phenylbutazone, naproxen, etoricoxib, and others.
In addition, if there are contraindications for taking the above drugs, then with exacerbation of gouty arthritis, oral or intra-articular administration of glucocorticoids, for example triamcinolone hexacetonide, can be effective.
Another method: external treatment. To do this, use creams and gels, which include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The most popular on this list are diclofenac, ketoprofen, nimesulide.
In the “calm” period of the course of the disease, drugs are prescribed that normalize the level of uric acid in the body. These are medicines based on benzbromarone, allopurinol, Avisan and others. Before use, you need to consult a doctor.
Modern physiotherapeutic methods for treating gout
As an element of complex treatment, physiotherapy for gout is very effective: it improves the condition of cartilage and prevents their decay. Consider the most common physiotherapy methods that are usually prescribed between periods of seizure.
- Electrophoresis is a procedure during which constant electrical impulses act on the body. This has a local therapeutic effect. Electrophoresis also enhances the penetration of external drugs through the skin. With gout, analgin and novocaine are used for pain relief, and zinc, sulfur and lithium are used to stimulate cartilage.
- Mud therapy is a popular method for improving the condition of patients with gout. This procedure is often prescribed during spa treatment.
- Thermal treatments help dissolve uric acid deposits. For this, patients are given paraffin and ozocerite applications.
- Balneotherapy is one of the most enjoyable methods of physiotherapy. Effects on joints occur during bathing. With gout, a cycle of radon, hydrogen sulfide or sodium chloride baths is prescribed.
- Bischofite is a natural solution, which includes sodium, calcium, potassium, iodine, copper, iron, titanium. Compresses with bischofite can relieve inflammation and anesthetize the affected gout area.
Among other things, with gout, UVT, ultrasound and magnetotherapy, exercise therapy and massage are successfully used. Which method will be most effective in each particular case is determined by the doctor. Most physiotherapeutic procedures are usually available during a course of spa treatment. The most famous domestic sanatoriums of this specialization are located in the Crimea (Saki), southern Russia (Pyatigorsk, Mineralnye Vody), Altai (Belokurikha), etc.
Traditional medicine has long been inventing tools to help get rid of gout pain. Here is some of them.
- Trays of chamomile broth. Pour the flowers of the plant with water, add salt, bring to a boil, keep on low heat for 10 minutes. Allow the solution to infuse and make a bath for the diseased joint.
- Spruce cone extract helps cleanse joints. To cook it, you need to take an unopened fir cone and pour it with a glass of boiling water. Leave to stand for 7–9 hours. Take one tablespoon 30 minutes before meals.
- Infusion of madder red roots. Pour a teaspoon of the roots of this plant with a glass of boiling water. Let it brew. It should be taken in the morning and evening for half a glass.
- Salt compress. Pour 0,5 kilograms of iodized salt into the pan, add water, boil until water evaporates. Then add 200 grams of petroleum jelly or chicken fat, mix. The resulting composition is used for compress.
There are also many other popular methods used to combat gout. However, before resorting to traditional medicine, you should consult a doctor – each “prescription” has contraindications.
Diet as an effective treatment for gout
To improve the condition of a patient suffering from gout, it is important to immediately transfer him to the appropriate diet.
For this, first of all, it is necessary to limit the use of purine-containing products to patients. This list includes offal, fatty meat and fish, saturated broths, legumes, mushrooms, spinach. For a patient with gout, meat should be cooked for a long time – then hazardous substances, purines, will remain in the broth. In general, protein intake should be limited, as they contribute to the formation of uric acid. In addition, you need to minimize the amount of fatty and spicy foods, as well as eliminate strong tea, coffee and alcohol from the diet. It is recommended to increase fluid intake to 2,5–3 liters, as this helps to remove salts from the body. The emphasis should be on clean drinking water. Reception of salt should be limited to 6-8 grams per day.
Be sure to eat fruits, berries, vegetables daily. Also, gout patients are shown cereals, cottage cheese, sour cream, yogurt, vegetable and sometimes milk soups, flour, but not butter products. Boiled meat and fish should be eaten 2-3 times a week.
The type of food recommended for patients with gout, nutritionists call “Table number 6 according to Pevzner.”
The likelihood of contracting gout is quite high among those who abuse alcohol, fatty foods, lead a sedentary lifestyle, and neglect a healthy diet. Also at risk are people who are overweight and high blood pressure, as well as those who have relatives in the family who suffer from gout.
Preventive measures are simple: proper nutrition, exercise, fresh air, refusal of alcohol, weight control. By following them, you can avoid many problems.
Thus, to date, many methods have been developed to combat gout. Properly selected therapy can bring high results. But only a specialist can appoint her.
The tradition of traveling to sanatoriums has developed in our country in the Soviet years. At one time she was forgotten, but today it is gratifying to see the revival of this form of treatment and rest, because being in such an institution significantly improves the condition of patients. Continuous comprehensive treatment in an ecologically clean place always brings tangible benefits.
Gout – symptoms and treatment at home
Gout is a rheumatic pathology caused by the formation of uric acid salts in the joints. The signs and treatment of this disease are very detailed described in our material. The disease is one of the common types of arthritis and occurs more often in middle-aged men.
What is this disease? Gout is a chronic disease associated with impaired uric acid metabolism, in which uric acid salts, also known as urates, are deposited in the joints.
Pathology is also called the “disease of the kings”, it is an ancient disease that was already known during the time of Hippocrates. Gout in the past was considered a sign of genius. Such famous people as Leonardo da Vinci, Alexander the Great, many members of the Medici family from Florence, Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin suffered from it.
Nowadays, according to epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and the United States in recent years, up to 2% of the adult population have become ill with gout, and among men aged 55-64 years, the frequency of the disease is 4,3-6,1%.
The first signs of gout are characterized by an acute onset with the appearance of severe soreness, redness and stiffness in the joints. Most often, gout occurs on the big toe, which should be treated immediately. The main recommendations for reducing the symptoms of chronic gout are following a treatment regimen and lifestyle. This article about gout, the symptoms and treatment of this disease, we will try to consider in detail today.
What it is? The cause of gout is the deposition of crystals of uric acid (urate) in the cartilage of the joint. Their accumulation leads to inflammation, accompanied by severe pain. Sodium urate crystallizes and is deposited in the joints in small particles, which ultimately leads to complete or partial destruction of the joints.
- Abuse of certain pharmaceutical drugs: aspirin, diuretic diuretics, cyclosporins.
- The presence of conditions and diseases in the form of diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, obesity.
- The use of fatty meats, seafood, sodas and alcoholic beverages contribute to a considerable extent to the accumulation of purines in the body.
- The disease is more susceptible to men aged 30-50 years.
Gout attacks can be triggered by stressful reactions to alcohol, citrus, viral infections, physical or mental stress, injuries and hypothermia, bruises, pressure fluctuations, and medications. At the first attack of gout, the symptoms are very distinct, and treatment should be started as soon as possible to relieve pain.
Three types of disease are distinguished: metabolic, renal and mixed.
- Metabolic form with the highest amount of uric acid.
- Renal form, moderate uric acid with increased salts,
- With the mixed type, reduced or normal uraturia and normal clearance are possible.
The diagnosis is made by a rheumatologist during examination and questioning of the patient. Laboratory diagnostics are also used: a high uric acid content is found in a biochemical blood test.
Symptoms of gout
Arthritis of the joints of the lower extremities is usually observed. Often the inflammatory process covers the big toe, then in frequency – the ankle and knee joints. Arthritis of the small joints of the hands and elbow joints is less commonly observed.
With gout, symptoms develop during an attack – this is a pain that develops quickly enough and reaches its highest sensation in just a couple of hours. Attacks occur more at night or in the early morning.
A person is not able to not only move his leg, but even a light touch of the sheet to the affected joint causes unbearable torment. The joint swells rapidly, the skin feels hot to the touch, redness of the skin at the joint site is noted. Probably an increase in body temperature.
After 3-10 days, the gout attack subsides with the disappearance of all signs and normalization of functions. A second attack occurs, as a rule, three months after the first, or the disease does not manifest itself for two decades.
Chronic gout is characterized by the fact that seizures are becoming more frequent, and intervals without symptoms are shorter.
Hyperuricemia and the accumulation of urate salts with gout leads to their deposition in the kidneys with the development of:
- gouty jade;
- arterial hypertension with subsequent transition to chronic renal failure.
In 40% of adults, the development of urolithiasis with renal colic at the height of an attack of gout, complications in the form of pyelonephritis is noted. To avoid the effects of gout on your legs, how to treat an ailment you need to be puzzled right away.
Acute Attack Treatment
Treatment for gout involves the gradual implementation of several stages of therapy. First of all, it is very important to relieve the acute symptoms of the disease. Further treatment aims to prevent aggravation of symptoms of gout in the future.
With an attack of gout, it is necessary to provide sufficient rest for the affected joints and try to injure the joint as little as possible with clothing or shoes. In case of unbearable pain, ice can be applied. After which it is advisable to make a compress on the sore spot with Vishnevsky ointment or dimexide.
To stop the acute signs of gout, doctors recommend taking colchicine or nimesil, as well as NSAIDs – diclofenac, butadion, indomethacin, naproxen. How to treat gout on the legs should be decided by a specialist, he will prescribe the necessary drugs, tell you the dosage regimen and warn about side effects.
It is better to limit oneself to eating food; you can use liquid cereals and vegetable broths. It is recommended to drink enough water, green tea, you can also jelly, milk, mineral or plain water, but with the addition of lemon juice.
Treatment of gout
With gout, treatment is prescribed individually and includes medications, physiotherapeutic methods and a diet. It is necessary to take into account all the side effects of drugs in the presence of other diseases, therefore constant medical supervision is necessary.
The basis of therapy is a special diet aimed at reducing the patient’s saturated foods in the patient’s diet. If the patient can adhere to the prescribed diet therapy, then the formed bumps on the joints will begin to disappear, and the body will recover.
The diet should include dishes boiled in water or steamed. Salt should be almost eliminated. Also, fish and meat broths, aspic are contraindicated. The use of a large number of vegetables is recommended. They should be taken raw, for a variety of menus you can sometimes bake or boil them.
To reduce the level of uric acid, anti-gout preparations are used (sulfinperazone, alopurinol, uralit and others). In combination with physiotherapy and medications, herbal medicine is also used. A doctor should treat gout, he will definitely say what can be used at home to get rid of the disease.
To cure gout at home, and reduce the number of seizures, you should limit the use of food to a minimum, which, when split, produces a significant amount of uric acid: liver, beef tongue, mushrooms, sardines, fish caviar, beans, peas, beer. You need to drink plenty of fluids – up to three liters per day.
Patients with a similar diagnosis should be more careful about their diet, in particular, to exclude foods saturated with purines from the diet. It is important to note here that it is necessary to exclude both overeating and starvation, in addition, a sharp weight loss should not be allowed, this can lead to an exacerbation of the disease.
How to treat gout at home? The most correct diet for gout involves switching to a vegetarian diet or diet number 6.
- Vegetables, better boiled, steamed, baked in the oven with a little salt;
- berries, mainly currants of different varieties, watermelons;
- bran, bran bread;
- nuts, fruits and dried fruits;
- mineral water.
- fat meat;
- offal (kidney, liver, tongue of farm animals);
- red fish;
- it is important to minimize salt intake;
- alcohol, coffee;
- sweet carbonated drinks.
It is proved that strawberries, cherries, currants and other berries of dark red and blue colors cause a decrease in the concentration of uric acid in the blood, so patients with gout can eat them in any form and quantity.
How to treat gout with folk remedies
Since many are interested in the question of how to treat gout in folk remedies, we will dwell on this point in more detail.
- Fish compresses. Divide the fillet of any fish into 10 parts, put them in small bags, and send them to the refrigerator. Before going to bed, pull out one bag, unfreeze, put the resulting piece of fish on the affected joint and wrap it with polyethylene, then pull on thick socks. Lie like that until the morning.
- Activated carbon . A handful of tablets must be ground in a coffee maker, bringing the amount of the mixture to less than half a glass. A small amount of water and one tablespoon of flax seeds are added to the powder. Everything is stirred to a pasty state. With this mixture, affected skin areas are lubricated overnight.
- Buy regular fat and cut it so that you can put small pieces of fat on each finger. And now rub each piece into the skin until these pieces become very small.
- Prepare the mixture: melt 250 g of unsalted butter, after boiling remove all the foam and add 250 g of wine alcohol to the oil. Light the mixture immediately until alcohol burns out. Warm ointment to lubricate sore spots.
This treatment at home will not relieve gout, but it will take its painful manifestation for a while.
How to treat gout at home quickly and effectively?
Gout is a metabolic disorder accompanied by the deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint cavity. The disease primarily affects older men and has a chronic relapsing course. In the absence of complications, for most patients outpatient therapy for joint gout is allowed, aimed at eliminating painful symptoms and preventing relapse. Consider how to treat gout at home quickly and effectively.
Symptoms of pathology
The accumulation of uric acid due to certain diseases (impaired renal function, enzyme deficiency, the formation of tumors) or the consumption of excessive amounts of purines with food leads to the deposition of urate crystals in the body. Mostly avascular tissues are affected by gout: cartilage, ligaments, large and small joints of limbs.
The first stage of gout is asymptomatic and is characterized by hyperuricemia – an excess of the norm for the content of uric acid compounds in the blood. As the concentration of urates in the body increases, they crystallize and deposit, mainly in the synovial fluid of the joints of the lower extremities. Most often, gout on the big toe first develops, but knee, ankle, wrist and other joints may also be affected. Pathology is usually one-sided.
The asymptomatic periods of gout alternate with gouty attacks – acute inflammation of the joint, which suddenly develops against the background of relative well-being. The provoking factors of exacerbations are usually stress, overeating and alcohol abuse. The main symptoms of gout in the acute phase include:
- Severe pain syndrome, aggravating at night and accompanied by a decrease in the amplitude of movements in the affected areas of the limbs;
- Joint enlargement in volume;
- Redness and swelling of the skin over the inflamed joint.
With a prolonged course of gout, tofuses can form on the body – nodular formations in the subcutaneous tissue containing a large amount of uric acid salts surrounded by connective tissue. Often metabolic disorders are accompanied by the development of urolithiasis and chronic inflammation of the renal pelvis.
When confirming the diagnosis, treatment should be started as early as possible. Severe complications, including acute renal failure, are equally likely to develop at all stages of gout, leading to disability and even death.
Treatments for Gout
Having figured out what gout is, consider the main ways to eliminate its manifestations. In the absence of complications and concomitant diseases, all stages of the pathology can be treated on an outpatient basis. Depending on the symptoms, treatment of gout on the legs at home includes a set of measures aimed at relieving pain, preventing the development of complications and repeated relapses.
Compliance with diet
Nutrition correction is an essential condition for effective treatment of gout. To eliminate the painful manifestations of pathology, products containing a large amount of purine, the final metabolic product of which is uric acid, should be excluded from the diet:
- All varieties of red meat;
- Fatty fish and seafood;
- Offal (liver, k >
The basis of the diet during the treatment of gout joints should be fruits and vegetables, cereals, dairy products, low-fat fish and lean white meat (chicken breast, turkey). The amount of animal protein should be reduced to 4-5 g per day. During a gouty exacerbation of gout, experts recommend a low-calorie vegetarian diet.
Every day you need to drink at least 2 liters of fluid (or 3 liters in case of relapse, if there are no problems with the kidneys). Preference should be given to alkaline mineral or pure water, decoctions of herbs, homemade fruit compotes and fruit drinks.
Acute Attack Treatment
To relieve an acute attack of gout of the joints, it is necessary to observe peace, immobilizing the diseased limb. It is advisable to fix the leg in a raised position. Take a course of drug therapy as directed by a doctor, which includes taking the following drugs:
- Colchicine – the main pain reliever for gout (most effective in the first 12 hours after the onset of the attack);
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for oral administration (Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Diclofenac, Nimesulide);
- Local painkillers, decongestants, and anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of ointments and gels (Butadion, Diclofenac, Ketoprofen, Vishnevsky Ointment).
Drug therapy for gout joints is carried out under the supervision of a physician. The uncontrolled use of most drugs (especially colchicine and its analogues) leads to the development of severe side effects associated with the work of the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys.
With timely first aid for gout, it is possible to quickly stop painful symptoms. On average, the acute phase of the disease lasts from several days to several weeks. With the onset of persistent remission, it is necessary to continue to follow a diet and all the recommendations of a doctor, to lead a healthy lifestyle.
Medication for gout during the intercritical period is usually not required. However, with a severe course of pathology, accompanied by frequent exacerbations and a steady excess of the content of urates in the blood, Allopurinol is often prescribed. The drug inhibits xanthine oxidase production, helping to reduce uric acid production. Sometimes, as a prevention of relapse of gout of the joints, NSAIDs are prescribed in short courses.
Treatment with folk remedies
To relieve pain and inflammation with gout of the joints, the recipes of traditional medicine have proven themselves well.
Therapeutic compresses. To achieve a lasting result, it is necessary to carry out procedures for at least 10 days. It is best to apply a compress before bedtime, insulating the affected joint with cling film and a woolen scarf. As a basis for the preparation of a compress, you can use:
- Chopped garlic mixed with 9% vinegar and aged in a dark place for 2-3 weeks;
- Liqu >
Foot baths. To prepare the infusion, pour 50 g of fresh or dried herbs (cinquefoil, celandine, calendula, sage) with 3 liters of boiling water. Warm foot baths for gout of the metatarsophalangeal and ankle joints should be taken for 10-15 minutes daily for 3 weeks. After 2-3 weeks, it is advisable to repeat the course of treatment.
Infusions and decoctions of herbs for oral administration. The most effective remedy is celery. Pour one spoonful of crushed rhizome with two glasses of boiling water and insist for half an hour. Use during the day, divided into 3 doses. It is also useful to drink infusions and teas with a pharmacy chamomile, birch buds, peony petals, mint or a string.
Grinding with iodine. Crush into powder 5 tablets of aspirin, add about 10 ml of an alcoholic solution of iodine, mix thoroughly. The resulting slurry is applied to the affected joint 2-3 times a week for 20-30 minutes (we recommend that you familiarize yourself with the recipes for using Aspirin for gout).
Activated carbon treatment. Mix a few crushed tablets with linseed oil until a thick slurry forms. Distribute the resulting mass evenly over the affected areas of the body, cover with cling film and a warm cloth. Wash off the product after 5-8 hours (can be left overnight).
Onion soup. Boil two large onions together with the husk in a small amount of water until soft, then cool and filter. The resulting broth is consumed in a glass a day for 2 weeks. If necessary, repeat the treatment monthly.
To cure gout at home, it is recommended to combine alternative and medical methods of therapy, diet and gymnastics. Despite the safety and beneficial properties of natural products used in traditional medicine recipes, you should consult your doctor before starting treatment.
Gymnastics and massage
Effective treatment of gout at home includes compliance with gentle physical exertion. To maintain joint mobility with gout, it is recommended to perform the following exercises:
- Flexion and extension of the legs in a sitting position;
- Foot rotation with maximum amplitude;
- Rolling with your toes balls of different diameters;
- Walking alternately on the heels, toes, outer and inner arch of the foot.
With gout lesions of small joints on the toes, self-massage is effective. For manual treatment, it is necessary to thoroughly warm the feet with stroking and rubbing movements, capturing the heel, the back and side of the foot. Increasing pressure gradually, move towards the focus of inflammation. It should be remembered that massage for gout does not allow sudden movements and pain. After completing the procedure, you should wear woolen socks and avoid hypothermia.
To get rid of gout on the legs, it is recommended to lose weight. For this, yoga classes, long distance walking, swimming in warm water are suitable.
Only a specialist can answer the question of how to treat gout on the legs at home, taking into account the stage of pathology and the overall clinical picture. It is impossible to completely defeat chronic gout of the joints, but maintaining a healthy lifestyle and strict adherence to all doctor’s prescriptions helps prevent relapse and the development of complications.
Gouty arthritis or the disease of kings: how to recognize and cure
Gout, popularly known as the “disease of the kings,” is a disease that develops against the background of metabolic disorders. In 75% of cases, the joints of the foot are affected. More often the disease affects people of advanced age. But statistical studies indicate its significant rejuvenation. At risk are men after forty years. Less commonly, women experience menopause.
Gout is a progressive pathology caused by a high concentration of uric acid in the body. Uric acid is a product of purine metabolism. Its excess leads to the accumulation of salts in joints and tissues.
A healthy body removes urates (uric acid derivatives) using excretory systems or engages in other metabolic processes. With a violation of the functions of the body, uric acid is delayed. This becomes the cause of many pathologies.
A distinctive feature of gout is the formation of growths in the joints of the arms and legs, which provoke intense pain.
According to clinical indicators, 7 forms of the course of the disease are distinguished:
- Gouty arthritis. It has the classic symptoms of gout in the form of a sudden sharp pain.
- Infectious and allergic form. It manifests itself as a consequence of infectious diseases.
- Subacute arthritis. Unexpressed symptoms. It appears in women in the form of pain in the joint of the big toe.
- Rheumatoid form. Numerous lesions of small joints.
- Asthenic form. Unexpressed symptoms. Accompanied by aching pain.
- Periarthric form. Damage to the tendons of the joints.
- Pseudophlegmatic form. It is characterized by intense pain, fever, chills, general weakness.
The location of the urate is mainly the joints of the big toes. This is due to insufficient blood circulation and a lowered foot temperature. But the disease also affects the ankles and knees, in the absence of treatment leads to their deformation.
The accumulation of salts in the joints leads to their destruction.
For men, a neglected form of the disease can cause disability.
Various factors can provoke stagnation of uric acid:
- improper diet;
- injury or surgery.
Gout may indicate a problem in the body, such as diabetes, psoriasis, and kidney dysfunction.
In women, the cause of the development of gout of the legs is wearing uncomfortable shoes, especially narrow high-heeled shoes, which impair the circulation of the feet and ankle.
A sign of a developing disease is the formation of nodes – tofuses, which are located in the soft tissues near the joints. Tofus have different sizes and are capable of self-opening. Nodule rupture is accompanied by the release of a thick white mass.
In 25% of cases, urolithiasis develops. This is facilitated by the deposition of a large amount of uric acid salts in the kidneys.
During the development of the disease, the joints are deformed, and movement is complicated.
The progress of the pathology is divided into three stages, each of which differs in its symptoms:
- The first stage – the course of the disease is asymptomatic, it is diagnosed only by analysis of urine.
- The second stage – the accumulation of salt in the joints provokes acute pain.
- The third stage is chronic.
Common characteristic symptoms are:
- sudden sharp pain;
- formation of seals.
Acute pain appears in the morning and evening hours. In the afternoon it has a less pronounced character, but limits the possibility of movement. The attack is characterized by a sharp increase in pain.
Diagnosis of gout involves an external examination of the limb, a clinical and biochemical analysis of blood and urine, an x-ray and a puncture. A urine and blood test gives a basic picture. The rest of the research is aimed at detecting other diseases that are similar in symptoms.
A rheumatologist can establish a diagnosis based on the following symptoms:
- Overstated uric acid in the blood.
- The presence of nodes on the joints.
- The presence in the tissues of synovial fluid and uric acid crystals.
- Acute arthritis.
The presence of two or more indicators from the list indicates progressive gout.
Basically, the treatment takes place at home. At the first symptoms of the disease, you should contact a rheumatologist, traumatologist or orthopedist.
A set of measures aimed at combating hyperuricemia (high uric acid), includes three stages:
- Stopping the attack.
- Drug reduction of urate levels.
- Diet and relapse prevention.
The interval between seizures after drug treatment varies from six months to several years. Early diagnosis of the disease and complex treatment will increase the likelihood of persistent remission.
Therapy involves the use of medications, as well as physiotherapeutic procedures.
Medication is provided by the use of:
- preformed anti-inflammatory drugs;
- ointments of external exposure;
- special preparations for gout.
The use of drugs of the last group helps to remove uric acid from the body and relieve gout attacks.
To improve blood circulation in the joints of the legs, a number of physiotherapeutic procedures are prescribed:
Also, massage is used to restore blood circulation and joint mobility. Simple movements help relieve swelling. Massage helps strengthen muscles and improve tissue trophism.
Important! It is forbidden to start treatment with medications during an exacerbation of the disease. First, you need to stop the acute attack.
The procedure for stopping an acute attack of gout is as follows:
- Provide rest to the affected limb.
- In the midst of an attack on the joint, apply ice, after calming down – replace with a warming compress.
- Reduce uric acid levels with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The dosage and method of application will be determined by the doctor.
Surgery for gout is rare. The main indications for surgery can be extensive proliferation of tofus, purulent complications, damage to the hip or knee joint.
In other cases, a more gentle treatment is prescribed.
Treatment with folk remedies
You can influence the development of gout with the help of folk remedies. Their use must be agreed with the attending physician.
- 1 tbsp. l chopped celery
- 400 ml boiled water
Pour celery with boiling water, leave to cool. Strain. Take 100 ml 30 minutes before meals 3 times a day.
- 2 tsp chicory
- 200 ml boiled water
Pour boiling water, leave for 5 hours. Drink 100 ml before meals 2-3 times a day.
- 1 tsp roots madder red
- 200 ml of water
Pour the roots with water, boil for 10 minutes. Take 100 ml 2 times a day.
- 1 liters of water
- 1 tsp food soda
- 3 drops of iodine
Dissolve soda in warm water, add iodine. Dip the foot affected by tofus into the solution. The duration of the procedure is 10-20 minutes. Regular use of bathtubs helps to reduce salt deposits.
- 1 tbsp. l daisies
- 1 tbsp. l elderberry
- 200 ml. boiled water
Pour boiling water over the plants, leave for 2 hours. Strain. Treat with infusion the affected areas 2-3 times a day.
Preventive measures require the implementation of general mandatory rules and dietary adjustments.
To avoid the development of gouty arthritis, you must:
- provide more physical activity – walking, jogging or light exercise;
- exclude foods high in purines from the diet;
- increase the amount of fluid consumed;
- exclude narrow and uncomfortable shoes from the wardrobe.
Particular attention should be paid to nutrition. Excessive consumption of purine-containing products provokes stagnation of uric acid in the body and its crystallization in vessels.
Diet is an integral component of the comprehensive treatment of gout. A specialist will help develop a diet based on the clinical picture.
The main postulate of the diet is the exclusion of meat and fish dishes. The optimal norm of purines with gout is not more than 150 mg.
When developing a diet, attention is focused on products in which the purine content does not exceed 30 mg (see table).
|Can not be consumed||Can be consumed|
|Name||Concentration mg / 100 g||Name||Concentration mg / 100 g|
|Tea coffee||2800/1200||Oat groats||30|
Protein plays a decisive role in the formation of uric acid, so its use should be no more than 1 g per 1 kg of weight.
Important! Only an integrated approach in the form of diet, regimen, physical activity and drug exposure will help in the fight against gout for healthy joints.
Various factors can trigger gout. To avoid joint problems and prevent the development of the disease, you need to carefully consider your diet and lifestyle. After all, as you know, the disease is easier to prevent than to cure.
What is gout: symptoms, causes and treatment of the disease
Gout is a disease that affects the joints due to the elevated levels of uric acid salts in them. Previously, this disease affected mainly men aged 40-60, but in recent decades, women and young people are more likely to suffer from gout.
Natalya Lyashenko, therapist and endocrinologist of the medical group of companies ADONIS, named the symptoms, the causes of gout, and the treatment methods.
Causes of Gout
The human body produces uric acid when it destroys purines – substances that are in the body. Purines are also found in certain foods, such as steak and seafood. Other foods also increase uric acid levels, such as alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and drinks that are sweetened with fruit sugar (fructose).
Usually, uric acid dissolves in the blood and passes through the kidneys into the urine. But sometimes the body produces too much acid or the kidneys secrete too little. When this happens, uric acid can accumulate, forming sharp crystals in the joint or surrounding tissues. It causes pain, inflammation and swelling.
Why does gout occur?
- Hypertension (increased blood pressure).
- Renal failure.
- Dyslipidemia (increased cholesterol and blood triglycerides).
- Gender (men).
- Taking certain medications (thiazide diuretics).
A person is more likely to develop gout if he has a high level of uric acid. Factors that increase the level of uric acid in the body include:
Foods rich in meat and seafood, as well as drinks that contain fruit sugar (fructose). Drinking alcohol, especially beer, also increases the risk of gout.
If you are overweight, then your body produces more uric acid, respectively, the kidneys are heavier.
Some diseases and conditions increase the risk of gout. These include high blood pressure and chronic diseases such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart and kidney diseases.
- Certain drugs
The use of thiaz >Gout Risk Factors
If other members of your family have gout, you are more likely to develop this disease.
- Age and gender
Gout is more common in men, primarily because women have lower uric acid levels. After menopause, uric acid levels in women approach those of men. In the latter, gout often develops between the ages of 30 and 50.
- Recent surgery or injury
Recent surgery or trauma is associated with an increased risk of gout.
Symptoms of gout
Signs and symptoms of gout almost always occur suddenly, most often at night. They include:
1. Intense joint pain. Gout usually affects the joints of the big toe, but the disease can occur in any other joint. These can be ankles, knees, elbows, wrists, and fingers. The pain is usually sharper during the first 4-12 hours.
2. Lingering discomfort. After acute pain, discomfort decreases. Some joint discomfort can last from a few days to several weeks. Later attacks of gout may last longer and will affect joints more.
3. Inflammation and redness. Affected joints or joints become swollen, warm and red.
4. Limited range of motion. When gout progresses, you cannot normally move the joints.
Diagnosis of the disease
In order to detect the presence of gout it is necessary:
1. Determine the level of uric acid in the blood, as well as in daily urine.
2. Make an analysis of synovial fluid of the joint.
3. Make an x-ray.
4. If necessary, do computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.
How to identify gout
Treatment of gout
Treatment for gout usually involves medications that the doctor and patient choose based on the person’s current state of health.
Drugs for the treatment of acute attacks and the prevention of future attacks include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (drugs based on cochlicin, corticosteroids).
Doctors may prescribe medications to prevent the complications of gout – medications that block the production of uric acid (Allopurinol, Febuxostat) and medications that improve the removal of uric acid (probenecid, lezinurad).
The medicine is the most effective way to treat acute gout and can prevent recurrent attacks of gout. However, you need to change some eating habits and lifestyle.
1. Eliminate or limit your intake of alcoholic beverages and drinks that contain fructose. Instead, drink plenty of soft drinks, especially water.
2. Limit the intake of meat, fish, and poultry in your diet. Especially, it concerns raw smoked and boiled sausages, sausages, sausages, canned food.
3. Eat more whole grain foods, fruits, vegetables, and less refined carbohydrates, such as cream cakes, pastries, sweets, puff pastry and pastry, and white bread.
4. Exercise regularly. Maintaining a healthy body reduces the risk of gout.
5. Drink plenty of fluids.
6. Eat low-fat dairy products. You can eat low-fat kefir, unsalted cottage cheese, eggs (no more than one per day).
7. For cereals, limit yourself to eating only legumes. All because they contain uric acid in large quantities.
8. Do not drink coffee, strong tea, cocoa.
9. Try to use as little salt as possible.
Doctors advise to follow a diet No. 6 (table No. 6).
- Alcohol restriction
- Drinking plenty of fluids
- Maintaining normal body weight
- Doctor preventive examination
For more news regarding treatment, medicine, nutrition, healthy living and much more, read the Health section.
Gout is a disease that affects a person’s joints. This process occurs in connection with the deposition of urates – salts of uric acid.
Gouty arthritis was first described as early as the seventeenth century in an English work called the Treatise on Gout. In it, the pain during gout was compared with the pains “when the limb is pressed with a press”.
Mostly gout affects males. In this case, the disease is observed in about three people per one thousand of the population. As a rule, gout manifests itself in people who are already forty years old. Women suffer from gout in the period after menopause. If a person develops gout, the symptoms of the disease are expressed by the defeat of any joints in the human body: these can be joints of the hands, fingers, knees, elbows, feet. But most often, the disease affects the joints of the fingers of the foot.
Causes of gout
Factors that trigger the onset of gout are diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension. Gout often develops in people who have a hereditary disposition to the disease, as well as those who regularly eat poorly. Basically, a gout attack occurs after a person takes alcoholic beverages, severe overeating. Especially bad effect on the condition of patients prone to gout, beer. Attacks of gout bother patients mainly at night. With this attack, a person feels severe and sudden pain, fever in the joints. His joints are turning red. With a repeated attack of gout, pricking is initially felt in the affected joint. Without treatment for gout, the symptoms described above are felt more often. At the same time, exacerbations become longer. Gradually, the disease affects new joints, sometimes the kidneys and urinary tract also suffer.
Symptoms of gout
The beginning of intermittent gout is considered the first attack of arthritis. In this case, a person periodically has remissions and acute bouts of illness. During remission, the patient does not complain at all about his state of health. Sometimes after the first attack until the disease reappears, years pass. However, most often such attacks are repeated once or twice a year. Gout progresses, and its attacks are repeated more often.
In most cases in a person suffering from gout, the symptoms initially appear as a lesion of the I metatarsophalangeal joint. In this case, acute monoarthritis develops. The reason for the defeat of these joints is that in these joints degenerative-dystrophic changes in cartilage occur primarily. Therefore, in them, urate is deposited earlier than in other joints. In more rare cases, the other joints of the legs are the first to be affected, and even less commonly, the joints of the hands. By the way, from the Greek language the word “gout” is translated as “a trap for a foot.”
Joint pain with gout develops sharply, an attack can begin in the morning or at night, less often – at other times of the day. A person suffers from very intense and sharp pain. Sometimes the pain can be unbearable, and analgesics do not help get rid of it. Very quickly the development of signs of local inflammation occurs, which in a few hours is manifested as much as possible. In some cases, the patient’s body temperature also rises – it can rise even up to forty degrees. Often, edema and hyperemia of the skin over the joint are expressed so strongly that they can resemble phlegmon. Due to such unpleasant sensations, the mobility of the joint is noticeably limited. After a few days (3–7–10 days), all symptoms of the disease completely disappear.
If the disease is not treated, then after a while it can provoke bone destruction. And with a more than four-year course of the disease, tubercles appear on the patient’s skin, which are quite dense to the touch. Crystals of uric acid accumulate in them. Such tubercles arise over sore joints. They have a yellowish color. Sometimes the tubercles burst, and white crumbs come out of them. In some patients with gout, kidney stones also form over time. In this case, a person is disturbed by periodic bouts of high blood pressure, renal colic. Sometimes, rarely enough, gout also affects the heart muscle.
Diagnosis of gout
The external manifestations of gout – edema, swelling – the doctor discovers already upon examination. During the survey, it is revealed that the patient has signs of the disease.
The most accurate criterion for the diagnosis of gout is the detection by microscopic examination of sodium urate in tofus or synovial fluid. Tofus is the deposition of crystals in the soft tissues of uric acid: they are deposited in the form of nodules. An elastic dense mass that fills the joint cavity is called synovial fluid.
There are other signs of gout that are very important in the diagnosis process. First of all, hyperuricemia, in which the blood contains too high a level of uric acid. However, with this phenomenon, gout does not always occur, therefore, this phenomenon cannot be considered the main criterion in order to establish a diagnosis. In the process of diagnosing gout, the daily level of uric acid excretion in the urine is determined. During exacerbation of gout, the results of a blood test indicate an increase in ESR, an increased number of leukocytes. X-ray examination is also one of the important points in the diagnosis of gout. However, in this case, signs of the disease can be detected if it has been progressing for several years.
It is important to distinguish gout from other ailments with similar symptoms. So, sometimes gout is mistaken for rheumatoid or traumatic arthritis.
Treatment of gout
Treatment for gout involves the gradual implementation of several stages of therapy. First of all, it is very important to remove the acute manifestations of the disease. Further treatment is aimed at preventing further exacerbation of the disease in the future. The attending physician also takes measures to treat complications of the disease and prevent further unpleasant manifestations of gout – for example, deposition of urate in joints or in other tissues of the body. In addition, the treatment of gout provides for parallel therapy of a number of concomitant ailments – hanged blood pressure, obesity, diabetes mellitus, etc.
If a patient has an acute attack of gout, anti-inflammatory drugs are used primarily for the treatment of the disease. The drug colchicine is often used, and the doctor also prescribes other anti-inflammatory drugs, for example, indomethacin, diclofenac sodium. If treatment with such drugs does not bring relief to a person, systemic or intraarticular use of glucocorticoids is used. It is important that a person strictly abides by bed rest, and the affected limb is in an elevated state. You should adhere to certain nutritional rules for gout.
Treatment for gout involves the use of uricodepressants. These drugs help suppress uric acid production. The most commonly used drug with this effect is allopurinol. The drugs that are used to treat gout, patients should take for a long time – throughout the year. Then the doctor adjusts the further way of using the medicine. In addition to alopurinol, uricosuric drugs are often prescribed to stimulate the excretion of uric acid.
In the course of treatment with these drugs, it should be noted that with the intensive excretion of uric acid after the start of the use of such drugs, the risk of kidney stones increases significantly. Therefore, measures aimed at preventing urolithiasis are very important. In addition, when taking antigout agents during the year, the risk of developing gout attacks may increase. Therefore, in parallel with such agents, colchicine or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be taken.
Treatment of gout also involves physiotherapy, paraffin and mud applications, baths with radon and hydrogen sulfide. Such procedures should be carried out at the stage of remission. At the same time, UV irradiation is carried out on the affected joint and even in some cases helps prevent an attack. Pain eases potassium lithium electrophoresis. Between exacerbations for the effective treatment of gout it is necessary to do exercises of therapeutic exercises.
There are also some traditional medicine recipes that are used to treat gout. For everyday drinking, you can prepare a collection of calamus root, sage and bearberry leaves, St. John’s wort grass. Another collection for drinking as tea includes a mixture of burdock root and wheatgrass, violet and veronica herbs. In addition, it is useful to periodically drink infusions of mint, nettle, chamomile, nine-strength, lingonberry leaf, corn stigmas, and flax seeds. As a tool that reduces pain in the joints, a decoction of oats is recommended.
For the treatment of gout by folk methods, ointments for topical application are also prepared. For this, dry hop cones are used, the powder of which should be ground in equal proportions with unsalted pork fat.
It is also fashionable to apply compresses from decoctions of herbs to the affected joints (for this they use hops, elderberries, chamomiles). You can also apply burdock, cabbage leaves to sore spots
Bathing with the addition of decoctions of herbs can also be one of the methods of treating gout. In this case, decoctions of horsetail, elderberry, oregano, oregano, burdock, nettle, juniper, etc. can be added to a warm bath.
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