The human skeleton, in particular bones, muscles and joints, is a system of the musculoskeletal system. Its pathologies are quite common today, some of them contribute to the development of disability as a result of disability. One of the acquired diseases is Brown-Secar syndrome.
This pathology provokes the appearance of a motor and sensory defect that causes spinal cord injury (SM). The features of the syndrome are associated with the conduct of pain and temperature susceptibility strands from the affected part of the spinal cord and the conduct of tactile susceptibility strands from another part of the body.
The disease was first discussed in the fifties of the nineteenth century, when the French physiologist first described this problem.
Characterization and description of the pathology
Brown-Secard syndrome in neurology is a set of symptoms that are formed due to trauma to one second part of the spinal cord. On the side of the body that is affected, paralysis develops, pain, temperature, joint and vibration sensitivity are disturbed.
In medicine, it is customary to distinguish several pathology options:
Dependence on the location of the damage to the SM and the retraction of its components into the abnormal process depends on how Brown-Secard syndrome develops.
Causes of disease
Any abnormal condition of the spinal cord that damages half of it in cross section can lead to the occurrence of Brown-Secar syndrome. Depending on these conditions, a complete disorder of the conduction of nerve impulses can form sharply or in stages. This pathology can develop with injuries of the spinal cord, most often knife, tumors that surround it, ischemic strokes, venous myeloid ischemia, pseudoconductor hypesthesia.
Thus, the main causes of the development of the syndrome include:
- Mechanical spinal cord injury;
- A hematoma or tumor that compresses the spinal cord, including sarcoma, meningeoma, or neurinoma;
- Syringomyelia, ep />
Disorders as a result of spinal cord injury develop on both sides of the body, as the nerve pathways and conductor fibers, which are responsible for pain and shallow susceptibility, intertwine and converge in the spinal canal at different levels. Therefore, a sick person will feel numb on the unaffected side.
Symptomatology of the disease
The main manifestations of Brown-Secar syndrome are motor and sensory defects. With the disease, often there is weakness in the legs or hands, inability to perform movements, numbness of half of the body, impaired susceptibility of the skin to temperature changes, impaired coordination of movements. All these signs develop in that part of the body that is below the site of damage to the spinal cord.
The main symptoms of the disease include:
- Violation of muscle tone, muscle immobility on the affected s />
The main feature of the disease is the absence of disorders in the pelvic area. The person retains the functions of urination and defecation during immobilization of half of the body, which makes it possible to claim a unilateral lesion of the SM.
Depending on where the brain was damaged, a person may develop symptoms such as cross paralysis, drooping eyelids, dilated pupil, retraction of the eyeball, redness, and a decrease in skin temperature.
Diagnosis of Brown-Secar syndrome
To diagnose the disease in neurology, do not use a hammer or a needle to determine sensitivity. A doctor examining a patient reveals the presence of paralysis, a violation of muscle tone. And also studies their nature and severity. Then a surface susceptibility test is carried out in those areas where it decreases.
Then the doctor examines the deep sensitivity with the help of special tests, tuning fork and weights, reveals violations of tendon reflexes. This makes it possible to make an accurate diagnosis, as well as to identify the level and exact location of the lesion. For the analysis of sweating, the Minor method is used.
It is also necessary to conduct a study of cerebrospinal fluid to determine the nature of the pathological process. For this purpose, liquorodynamic tests are used.
The doctor must identify the cause of the pathology. For this, radiography, ultrasound, CT and MRI, as well as other diagnostic methods, are used. All this allows you to establish brain damage, its location, the presence of injuries, displacement of the vertebrae or fragments, to establish the state of blood vessels, nerves and spine.
Therapy of the disease should be aimed at eliminating the causes of its development. If during the diagnosis a hematoma, tumor, abscess was detected, the doctor removes the formation that compresses the spinal cord. The operation can be of two types, depending on the type and location of the brain-compressing formations. After its elimination, the integrity of the spine is restored, in some cases, its plastic may be required.
Medications are also prescribed that contribute to the normalization of blood circulation and the elimination of edema. These include anticoagulants, vascular agents or antiplatelet agents. The neurologist must eliminate the diseases that provoke the development of pathology using corticosteroid therapy. Physiotherapy can also be prescribed to normalize the patient’s condition.
After treatment, the doctor directs the patient to exercise therapy to restore the ability to move. In this case, physiotherapy exercises can also be used. An important role is played by proper nutrition and daily routines. During the rehabilitation period, the patient’s relatives and friends are encouraged to support him psychologically and morally, only then he will be able to recover in a short time.
Complications and consequences
Often the disease causes complications in the form of:
- Severe pain in the back and head;
- Hemorrhages in the SM or its complete rupture;
- Development of spinal shock;
- Disorder of the pelvic organs.
Prognosis and prevention
The prognosis of the pathology is favorable with the correct and effective treatment, which should be carried out in a timely manner. But the disease is not always completely cured. But modern treatment methods make it possible to avoid the development of complications and improve the patient’s quality of life.
There are no special preventive measures to prevent the development of pathology. Doctors recommend that you follow safety rules so that there is no damage to the spine. To do this, you need to know and follow the rules of work at heights, traffic.
If unpleasant symptoms appear, you should immediately contact a medical institution for early diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.
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