How is the treatment of dislocation of the finger on the hand

Dislocation of a finger on a hand – persistent displacement of the surface of the joint of one of the fingers relative to the adjacent bone. Finger movement becomes impossible because the surfaces of the bones do not match. A similar injury can occur to anyone during sports or in a domestic situation. The degree of such damage does not belong to the category of life-threatening, but since almost all everyday actions are performed thanks to the fingers, this injury will cause significant discomfort.

In addition, the brush has many nerve endings, the damage of which causes pain. Is it possible to cure such damage on my own and for how long will the working capacity of the finger be restored?


Given the part of the damaged phalanx of the finger, it is customary to divide such injuries into dislocations of the main, middle and nail phalanges. Dislocations of the fingers are also classified taking into account the direction of the displaced phalanx:

  • The back is the most frequent;
  • Lateral;
  • Palmar.

Given the degree of damage, dislocation of the thumb on the hand is:

  • Incomplete – partial displacement of the articular surfaces (subluxation);
  • Full – the joint surface moves completely.
Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologistShishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.

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Dislocation of the thumb

When examining a palmar dislocation, palpation of the head of the metacarpal bone is available, since the displacement of the phalanx occurs towards the palm of the hand.

When palpating the back of the hand, you can find the joint of the main phalanx, and on the front part – the head of the metacarpal bone. Occasionally, dislocation of the thumb causes displacement of the tendon of the long flexor and its clamping in the inter-articular space. In such situations, reduction is associated with complications.

Dislocation of the main phalanx

It is against the background of this injury that most of the dislocations of the back of the hand occur. Symptoms are represented by deformation of the finger, the appearance of sudden pain and swelling of the skin. Movement with an injured finger is not possible, and attempts to bend lead to spring resistance. Palpation by a doctor leads to the identification of the head of the metacarpal bone in the palm of your hand, and from the back you can easily feel the head of the main phalanx of the finger.

Dislocation of the middle and nail phalanx

With trauma to these phalanges of the finger, back dislocations, sometimes lateral, are often diagnosed. With such a lesion, the finger is completely immobilized. In rare situations, dislocation provokes the extensor tendon rupture, occasionally together with part of the bone.


Dislocation of the finger joint result in injuries and injuries arising from the following conditions:

  1. The fall.
  2. A powerful blow or sudden muscle contraction, especially with the extensor mechanism. A sharp muscle spasm can trigger an attack of epilepsy. This disease often leads to fractures, dislocations, ruptures of muscles and tendons. A similar muscle spasm can occur in women with toxicosis (gestosis). Eclampsia of gestosis leads to almost the same seizures as epilepsy. Such attacks do not recur after childbirth.
  3. The cause of a dislocation of a finger joint can be a sport or features of professional work. The main visitors to traumatologists are boxers, mine workers.


Professional athletes are particularly prone to such injuries. Due to the special structure of the palm, dislocation of the thumb is often found precisely in this type of activity. However, a dislocation of the little finger on the arm also occurs and is accompanied by similar symptoms. The result of the damage is the displacement of the finger in the area of ​​the metacarpal bone to the front or back of the hand. The muscles and ligaments that fix the phalanx are not able to counteract the force of impact.

Symptoms of a dislocation of a finger on a hand appear as follows:

  • Sudden unbearable pain in the articulation of the phalanges, aggravated by palpation;
  • An obvious change in the shape of a finger;
  • Tingling in the area of ​​the fingertips and loss of sensory functions of the hand;
  • The appearance of redness of the skin, blanching of the affected phalanx;
  • Increasing swelling of the joint and ligaments;
  • Difficulties with extension and flexion, loss of ability to move a finger;
  • Rupture of the skin, ligaments, muscles.

First aid

If signs of dislocation of a finger on a hand appear during an injury, you should immediately consult a doctor for examination, diagnosis and treatment. For first aid, you should adhere to the following points:

  1. Free your hand from the fettering clothes and remove all jewelry.
  2. Keep the brush in good condition.
  3. Drink painkillers: Analgin, Paracetamol, Nimesil, Ibuprofen.
  4. Do not tighten the injured finger with a healthy finger to avo >


In the vast majority of cases, the diagnosis of finger dislocation is carried out by a traumatologist through a thorough external examination. If you suspect a subluxation, the doctor may refer to additional diagnostic methods. Radiography is the main method of final diagnosis, because with the help of the resulting image, the patient can establish the most reliable diagnosis.


Tactics for the treatment of dislocation of the finger on the arm are planned based on the x-rays taken. Often the reduction of a closed dislocation by comparing the articular surfaces of the phalanx is enough to solve the injury. Surgical intervention is resorted to if it is impossible to manually reposition, when changing the integrity of the ligaments or bones.

Direction of a closed dislocation

With a closed dislocation of the phalanx of the finger, reduction of the joint occurs without the use of local anesthesia or general anesthesia, necessary for muscle relaxation. If necessary, anesthesia methods for each patient are selected individually.

The comparison of the articular parts is as follows: the finger is taken by the nail phalanx, retracted to the side and stretched in the direction of the axis of the finger until a special click appears. With a dislocation of the thumb with pinching of the tendon, the reduction occurs due to the simultaneous rotation of the finger towards the elbow and bending of the nail phalanx. Having performed these manipulations, leading to an acceleration of blood circulation and a decrease in edema, the arm is left in an elevated position.

The next stage of treatment is the insertion of a fixing langeta for 3 weeks, conducting functional therapy and UHF sessions. In case of pain symptoms, the patient is prescribed painkillers, for example: Diclofenac, Analgin, Paracetamol. The complex can be prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ointments (Fastum gel, Diclac gel, Diclofenac, Ketonal), which relieve pain, swelling and inflammation.

The recovery period of a patient after a closed dislocation is generally 4-5 weeks. Treatment is carried out on an outpatient basis.

Open reduction

If, for example, the reduction of a closed back dislocation of the index finger is not possible due to pinching of the tendon, the patient is hospitalized for an open reduction by surgery. The operation is performed under conduction or local anesthesia.

During the operation, the surgeon makes a rear-beam incision, dissecting the pinched capsule. Using the elevator, the specialist conducts the board, shifting the tendon in the necessary direction. Next, each layer of tissue is sutured separately, and drainage is placed on the wound. Within 3 weeks, the patient should wear a longet. Sutures are removed 10 days after surgery.

In case of II-V dislocations with extensor tendon damage, the reduction procedure may require surgical intervention. During the operation, the surgeon fixes the tendon on the bone with transossal sutures, simultaneously performing a reduction or eliminating the consequences of the fracture. The resulting incision is sutured, and the finger is fixedly fixed for 3 weeks with a longet.

If more than a week has passed after the injury, and the patient did not seek the help of a specialist, surgery is indispensable. In a similar situation, the formation of a false joint may begin, which can only be removed by restoration of the ligamentous and articular apparatus. Postoperative therapy requires casting for 2-4 weeks.

Treatment with folk remedies

What to do in case of a dislocated finger, if after an injury there is no way to see a doctor in the near future? With the help of various tinctures, decoctions, compresses and lotions, you can cure tears, small dislocations and sprain of the finger. The course of treatment with folk remedies, which include conventional products, shows good results in the treatment of such injuries.

It is advisable to focus on the following recipes:

  1. Dough made from flour and vinegar can be applied to the affected area. To more effectively relieve swelling and pain, the applied compress is wound with a cloth.
  2. Boil the powder from the brionium root for 15 minutes and use the prepared infusion as lotions.
  3. A mixture is prepared from the powder of the root of the inf >The incidence of such injuries among children is due to increased physical activity, thin fingers and weak ligaments. Severe pain causes panic in both the child and the parents. The primary goal is to calm yourself, calm the child and fix the hand with the help of improvised means.

Next, apply a cold compress to prevent the development of puffiness and take care of the delivery of the victim to the emergency room as soon as possible.

As for panic, it will be much easier for the child to calm down and endure the pain if he does not observe how adults are worried and panicked. Pretend that nothing terrible has happened, and convince the child that the doctor can fix everything.

Anatoly Kudravets

Anatoly Kudravets, Orthopedic Traumatologist. He works with severe cases, practices operative methods of treating connective tissues