Causes of osteoblastoma bone tumors in the spine

Osteoblastoma is one of the types of bone tumors. Has a benign character. It grows rapidly and in size reaches more than 2 cm. The disease is diagnosed in people under 30 years old. Men suffer 2 times more often than women. And also pathology is recorded both in childhood and in adolescence.

The tumor usually does not cause symptoms and is painless. If it does not interfere with habitual life, then it is not necessary to treat it. The neoplasm is subject to observation. Only if osteoblastoma of the bone causes discomfort to neighboring organs or interferes with the normal blood supply to parts of the body, the question of further therapy is being addressed.

Tumor types

Osteoblastoma is of 2 types:

  1. Freaky. Forecasts are usually favorable. Under the microscope, multinucleated cells of various shapes are visible.
  2. Aggressive. Mostly occurs in patients older than 30 years. The tumor is accompanied by relapse and rap >

Causes

Predisposing factors are distinguished:

  • Frequent injury to one area;
  • Genetic predisposition;
  • Syphilis in the terminal stage;
  • Rheumatism;
  • Metabolic disease;
  • Significant decrease in immunity;
  • Severe infections.

Symptoms

In most cases, the pathology is painless, but the following symptoms may be present:

  1. Pain in the area of ​​localization of the neoplasm;
  2. Swelling of the affected area;
  3. Rachiocampsis. If the tumor is located there;
  4. Muscle weakness;
  5. Lameness. With the localization of tumors in the bones of the legs.

The symptomatology of the neoplasm depends on the location and size of the tumor. For example, with localization on the bones of the skull, there may be nosebleeds, impaired vision and hearing, and so on.

Diagnostics

To confirm the diagnosis, you need a consultation with an oncologist. He will prescribe the following tests that will help determine the pathology:

  • X-ray in 2 projections;
  • CT scan;
  • MRI;
  • Angiography;
  • Puncture of the affected bone, followed by histological examination.

If even small tumors or swelling appears, it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor. Especially those people whose relatives suffer from the same pathology. To determine the degree of benign tumor and further treatment, a number of studies are carried out.

Using radiography, you can determine the size and shape of the tumor. Computed tomography and MRI will help to identify the structure of the neoplasm and its degree of saturation with blood vessels. If these examinations are not enough, a biopsy of the affected area of ​​the bone is performed for histological examination.

Lower jaw

A neoplasm of the lower jaw, if it is benign, does not lead to fatal results if it does not affect the surrounding tissue. The tumor brings serious consequences when it begins to squeeze blood vessels or nerve endings. Difficulties in blood supply and innervation can lead to impaired functioning of organs.

Osteoblastoma of the lower jaw, can be localized both in the thickness of the bone and on the periphery.

  1. Cystic Radiography will show a clearly defined area within which rarefied bone tissue is located.
  2. Cellular. The structure of the affected area is a cell separated by bone partitions.
  3. Solid form. The image will show a non-uniform dimming with uneven edges.
  4. Lytic neoplasm. Destruction of bone tissue and tooth roots located in this area.

The picture may contain several forms of the tumor. One type of education passes into another over time.

Neoplasms accompany the following symptoms:

  • Tooth loss due to loss of stability in the pathology development zone;
  • Inflammatory processes in surrounding tissues;
  • With increased inflammation of the soft tissues in the tumor area, purulent fistulas may form;
  • Skin ulcers;
  • Inflammation of nearby lymph nodes;
  • Fever;
  • Weakness;
  • Pain in the area of ​​the tumor;
  • Violation of facial symmetry.

Femur

With the small size of education, it does not interfere with the normal life of a person. There are no symptoms. A tumor is detected by chance, for example, when an x-ray of a bone is made during a fracture.

Clinical signs begin to manifest themselves when an osteoblastoma compresses blood vessels and nerves. Symptoms depend on its localization.

Femur osteoblastoma can produce the following clinical manifestations:

  1. Muscle pains. Pulling by sensation;
  2. Lameness;
  3. Rheumatism;
  4. Pain during movement.

Spine

Osteoblastoma of the spine is asymptomatic until it begins to reach significant sizes. At the same time giving symptoms:

  • Mild pain in the muscles located in the pathology zone;
  • Impaired motor activity;
  • Sensations of a foreign formation in the spine.

Treatment

Therapy of osteoblastoma depends on the location and impact on the surrounding tissue. If it does not cause inconvenience, treatment is not required. Osteoblastoma, is subject to surgical intervention, if it grows rapidly, contributes to bone deformation and compresses nearby organs, nerves and blood vessels. And also surgical intervention is indicated in the presence of a pronounced cosmetic defect.

Surgical removal of the tumor is performed under general anesthesia. Both pathological tissue and small areas of healthy bone are excised. In this case, prevention of relapse in the future occurs. Next, the plastic of this area is needed.

With small amounts of pathology, laser removal of the tumor is used. This technique does not cause bleeding. With the help of a beam, it is possible to precisely destroy the affected tissue.

Forecast

Favorable outcome of the disease, possible if the pathology is detected in the early stages and treated in time. After surgical removal, relapse occurs in 20% of cases. The most dangerous is a tumor of the skull bones, which leads to death in 3% of cases.

In 25% of cases, bone osteoblastoma leads to cancer – osteogenic sarcoma.

Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologistShishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.

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