Osteoarthritis of the knee 1 2 degrees

Take care of your knees, do not forget about timely treatment

Osteoarthrosis is the most common form of arthritis. Gonarthrosis is a degenerative joint disease affecting the cartilage tissue, preventing friction of bone structures, which also acts as a pillow between the bones. In people with a diagnosis of arthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree, third or fourth, the cartilage is erased, which leads to certain symptoms, the growth of osteophytes. The knee is one of the joints most often affected by the development of the disease.

The content of the article
  1. Causes of the disease
  2. Symptoms of the disease at the 1st stage of development
  3. Clinical and radiological signs of 2 stages of development
  4. Lifestyle recommendations
  5. Operation
  6. Conclusion
  7. Arthrosis of the knee
  8. Symptoms of arthrosis of the knee
  9. The first stage of arthrosis of the knee
  10. The second stage of arthrosis of the knee
  11. NEW! Video: Pain in the knees, their causes and treatment. Osteoarthritis of the knee, arthritis, meniscus damage, etc.
  12. The third stage of arthrosis of the knee
  13. Gonarthrosis of the knee 1, 2 degrees
  14. >Gonarthrosis can be primary (idiopathic) or secondary. Primary gonarthrosis can occur in old age, as a result of age-related changes in cartilage. Most often, women with overweight suffer from it. In most cases, symptoms of damage to the knee joints of both legs are observed – bilateral gonarthrosis. Signs of arthrosis begin to appear first on one knee, then show up on the other. As a complication of inflammatory diseases, secondary gonarthrosis develops. Such a diagnosis can be made regardless of the age of the patient. In most cases, the pathological process affects the knee of one leg. Secondary pathology also includes post-traumatic gonarthrosis, which develops as a result of trauma to the knee joints. Depending on the place of localization, right-sided gonarthrosis or left-sided can be diagnosed. Left-sided gonarthrosis can develop with injury to the right leg. This is due to the fact that unconsciously, the severity of body weight is transferred from a sore leg to a healthy one, and the load on the cartilage tissue increases. The diagnosis of bilateral gonarthrosis is less often with a secondary type of pathology. The disease goes through 3 stages of development:
  15. Diagnosis of gonarthrosis
  16. Medication for gonarthrosis
  17. Physiotherapy

Causes of the disease

Osteoarthritis of the knee does not always depend on the age of the person. Various causes favor the occurrence of degenerative-dystrophic pathology. There are 2 main forms of the disease:

  1. Primary gonarthrosis. This is a pathology that occurs for no apparent reason, since they are still not well understood. Scientists believe that the primary type is a hereditary predisposition.
  2. Secondary gonarthrosis is formed due to the external influence of various factors.

Arthrosis is a chronic disease that develops under heavy stress. The same movements every day lead to overload of the corresponding joints. Arthrosis is a professional disease that occurs in ballerinas, carpenters, dancers, cleaners, tilers. Other causes of pathology:

  1. Injuries, accidents.
  2. Incorrect position of the knee joint due to congenital pathology.
  3. Extra pounds are hell for joints. The knee suffers the most, the whole burden falls on him.
  4. Inflammation can damage cartilage, leading to the development of arthrosis.

The formation of the disease begins after Paget’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis. The female sex is 2 times more likely to suffer from manifestations of the disease.

Symptoms of the disease at the 1st stage of development

In medical practice, arthrosis is divided into four degrees of development. In this subsection, symptoms of degree 0 and 1 of the knee joint will be considered. Stage 0 is classified as normal, healthy joints without any abnormalities. The patient is absolutely healthy, does not feel any signs of the disease, an X-ray examination does not show damage to the bone, cartilage. Pathology at 1 degree develops with manifestations of some symptoms.

Arthrosis of the first degree develops imperceptibly. Usually, the symptoms that appear are attributed to fatigue, overstrain, but this is far from the case. If symptoms often appear, you need to visit a rheumatologist (arthrologist, therapist). At grade 1, the disease causes a violation of the functions of the knee joint, minor pain appears. The pain syndrome in a disease of grade 1 arthrosis is weakly expressed, simply discomfort in the knee is possible, as if something interferes with movements. Similar symptoms occur after overload, morning run, when climbing stairs. At night, the patient is not bothered by signs of the disease. At 1 degree of arthrosis, the knee begins to whine slightly in wet weather or windy. Stiffness in the morning appears rarely, if present, then immediately passes after several leg movements.

There is no deformation at the 1st degree of the development of the disease. A thorough physical examination by a doctor can detect minor bone spurs of 1 degree, the so-called osteophytes. Cartilage may be slightly damaged. There is no apparent narrowing of the space between the bones, indicating destruction.

Clinical and radiological signs of 2 stages of development

Osteoarthritis of the 2nd stage is considered easy. At this degree, the clinical picture of the disease becomes more visible, doctors see some specific signs of cartilage wear. The second degree of degenerative-dystrophic pathology is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • loss of mobility;
  • the presence of severe pain;
  • the appearance of crunch in the joint;
  • morning stiffness.

At night, the patient begins to suffer from insomnia, the person does not get enough sleep, becomes irritable due to tingling, pain in the calf muscles. At the 2nd stage of the development of gonarthrosis, aching pain occurs when lifting weights of more than 2 kg. The presence of acute arthrosis is indicated by swelling of the knee joint, a noticeable swelling. In bad weather, the patient complains of severe pain, the ache appears after hypothermia. After prolonged sitting, standing in an uncomfortable position, it is difficult for the patient to develop a joint. Getting a foot on a pebble while walking causes acute pain, which quickly passes, but leaves a painful sediment.

X-rays, a scan of the knee joints clearly show the abrasion of the cartilage, the cartilage becomes thinner. Synovial fluid at this stage is enough for normal foot movement. The space between the bones is slightly narrowed. An x-ray in a direct, lateral projection fixes the presence of marginal osteophytes up to 2 mm long. Subchondral osteosclerosis of the surfaces is noticeable – tissue compaction.

Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologistShishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.

I have been treating joints for many years. I can say with confidence that the joints are always treatable, even in the very ripe old age.

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Lifestyle recommendations

As in the first and in the second degree of the disease, patients should not lift weights, stand in one place for a long time or walk a lot, lean on a sore knee – in general, avoid excessive load on the affected leg in every possible way. Overweight patients should get rid of extra pounds.

Operation

Rarely enough, with gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree, there is a need for surgical intervention. If such a need arises, during the surgical procedure, the joint is washed, osteophytes (bone growths) and destroyed areas of cartilage tissue are removed from it. An operation of this kind is moderately traumatic, but thanks to it, the functions of the knee joint are restored for 2–4 years.

If all the therapeutic measures taken are unsuccessful, and arthrosis progresses (goes to stage 3), endoprosthetics are necessary. This is an operation to replace a deformed knee joint with an artificial prosthesis made of high-tech materials, which allows you to extend the activity for another 15 years.

Conclusion

Osteoarthritis of the knee of the 2nd degree lends itself to therapy is quite difficult, however, if you make some efforts and systematically follow all medical prescriptions, then it is possible to stop the progression of the disease. It is extremely important to listen to the signals that your body emits, and in time to seek qualified help from specialists.

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At the top of the comment feed is the last 25 question-answer blocks. Galina Pivneva, a university degree in “Human Health, a teacher of Health Fundamentals”, answers questions under the nickname Alex admin.

We publish responses to comments once a week, usually on Mondays. Please do not duplicate questions – they all reach us.

Hello, I have a deforroit. Arthrosis of the left knee 2 senior doctor prescribed an injection of dipraspan, but my oncologist forbidden to take (hormonal) there are also problems with the stomach so it was prescribed injections aflutop magnet ultrasound. Constant aching pains at work I’m on my feet all day What to do next How to live on

Hello, Elena. First of all, you need to beware, and for this you need to change jobs, since you are forbidden to find on your feet all day. This fact will enhance the progression of arthrosis and treatment will not be effective. Alflutop has no contraindications for oncology and serious stomach problems, only individual intolerance is possible.

To the medical treatment, you can add rubbing. Made from medicinal plants, they help improve blood circulation, warm and anesthetize. For effective exposure, grinding should be applied to steamed skin. After applying the prepared composition, the sore spot should be covered with a warm cloth and held for 3 hours. For example, you can cook a mustard grind. For cooking, you need to take 50 g of mustard powder, 50 g of camphor, 500 ml of vodka, raw egg white, mix to get a homogeneous mass. Pour the resulting mixture into a jar, put in a dark, cool place. Insist a week. The finished composition must be rubbed 3 times a day. The therapeutic effect is manifested after 2 weeks.

upon examination, the doctor without an x-ray diagnosed me with arthrosis of the 2nd degree. but I never felt absolutely no pain, swelling and all of the above symptoms except a crunch in my knee. is my 2nd degree arthrosis possible given the above?

The doctor could be guided by the diagnosis through your complaints and clinical examination. Crunching in the knee joint is one of the essential symptoms of arthrosis. However, far from all cases, crunching means arthrosis. If the crunch is not accompanied by pain, does not cause unpleasant irritation, it is the usual crunch of a healthy knee. Crunch with gonarthrosis is dry, directly grinding. The sound is caused by a deterioration in the quality or deficiency of synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint, preventing it from wearing out. The lack of lubrication in the joints or its insufficiency provokes a crunch, which will cause pain, irritation, which threatens the occurrence of many diseases, including osteoarthritis of the knee joints.

If in doubt, it is better to do an MRI, this is the best informative study.

At this link you can find additional answers:

Mom has arthrosis of the 2nd degree. 3 months ago they gave an injection with a gelauron. The knee hurts, as it pulls hooks under the knee, the leg around is red and hot. Veins swell. What to do in this situation?

Elena, you can expect a positive result from treatment only in the case of complex intensive care. Anti-inflammatory drugs, painkillers, warming are needed. During complex therapy, symptomatic and pathogenetic agents are prescribed, all this can be corrected by the attending physician who has contact with your mother, knows the presence of her chronic diseases and possible allergic reactions, if any. Everything needs to be considered at appointment. Also, therapeutic gymnastics occupies an important place, thanks to which blood circulation in the joints improves and swelling passes, pain and inflammation are significantly reduced.

Try as an additional remedy the folk method using cabbage leaves, oiled with honey, in the form of a compress on the knee at night. Fresh is applied in the morning and stays on the sore joint for the whole day. The procedure is repeated for a month.

Arthrosis of the knee

Other names for this disease: gonarthrosis, deforming arthrosis of the knee, according to the American classification – osteoarthritis of the knee.

Symptoms of arthrosis of the knee

Women suffer from knee arthrosis somewhat more often than men. Arthrosis usually develops after forty years, although cases of “young” gonarthrosis sometimes occur after injuries or in professional athletes.

The most severe arthrosis of the knee joints occurs in obese women, as well as in those who have severe varicose veins on their legs.

The disease begins gradually, with minor pain in the knee when walking. The hardest part is given to patients descending or climbing stairs. Another pain often occurs when a person needs to get out of a sitting position (from a chair or from a bed) – the first steps are usually the most painful. Then, if diverging, the pain in the knees is slightly reduced. But with long walking and after it, the pain returns again.

At rest, sitting and lying, the pain usually goes away.

Note by Dr. Evdokimenko.
Initial pain with arthrosis of the knee joints does not occur “in a second”, that is, they do not appear immediately, in one day. The period of intense pain in gonarthrosis is almost always preceded by a period of many months or even many years of mild pain that occurs exclusively with long walking, exertion, walking up stairs or getting up from a chair.

If the pain occurred abruptly, in one day or, even more so, in one second, and before there were no pains in the knee, then this usually indicates some other disease or damage. For example, for pinching the meniscus, pinching the synovial membrane of the joint or getting between the cartilages of the knee a piece of cartilage (chondromic body).

* However, with gonarthrosis, such troubles can also occur, and then they complicate the course of arthrosis, add sharp pain. And then knee arthrosis will have to be treated taking into account the above complications. But initially the diagnosis of “arthrosis of the knee joint” is confirmed by the gradual development of pain symptoms.

The first stage of arthrosis of the knee

Despite the sometimes intense pain, at first, in the first stage of gonarthrosis, the bones of the knee retain their original shape and are almost not deformed. But the joint itself may look a little swollen.

Such a change in the shape of the joint at first may be associated with synovitis (synovitis is an accumulation of pathological fluid in the knee).

If there is too much fluid in the joint, it extends even to the back of the knee, to the popliteal fossa.
This accumulation of fluid is called a Baker cyst.

Note by Dr. Evdokimenko.
The term “Baker’s cyst” often scares patients, as the name makes many people think that this is an oncological process. However, this condition has nothing to do with oncology and tumors. Baker’s cyst is just a term for fluid in the knee. Sometimes, when too much of this fluid accumulates, it breaks under the knee and lower on the back surface of the lower leg. But even in this case, nothing terrible happens: Baker’s cyst usually easily decreases under the influence of anti-inflammatory drugs or the introduction of hormonal drugs into the knee. Accordingly, Baker’s cyst needs to be treated. But in no case should she be operated on!

The second stage of arthrosis of the knee

In the second stage of gonarthrosis, a few months after the onset of the disease, knee pain becomes clearly stronger. Pain sensations appear already from the minimum load or immediately after it.

That is, the pain is now caused by almost any movement in the affected knee. But the knee hurts especially badly after prolonged exertion, long walking, and wearing even small weights.

After a sufficiently long rest, the pain usually completely disappears, but with the next movement it immediately arises again.

At about the same time, crunching in the knee joint during movement is added to the pain. It differs significantly in volume from barely audible clicks, occasionally accompanying certain movements of healthy joints.

As the disease progresses, such a crunch, first weakly expressed, becomes more audible and distinct.

Note by Dr. Evdokimenko.
I want to emphasize once again: do not confuse a rough arthritic crunch in the joint, which is almost always accompanied by pain, with a harmless cracking of the joints that occurs in some healthy people and is not accompanied by pain.

Painless soft crunching of joints can be only a consequence of a weak ligamentous apparatus, or a consequence of excessive mobility of the joints or some other individual characteristics in the structure of the joints in a given person.
Usually such a soft crunching does not threaten anything, has no negative consequences, and does NOT increase the risk of joint diseases in the future.

NEW! Video: Pain in the knees, their causes and treatment.
Osteoarthritis of the knee, arthritis, meniscus damage, etc.

In parallel with the intensification of pain and the appearance of crunching, in the second stage of gonarthrosis, the ability to bend the leg normally in the knee decreases. When you try to bend the knee “to the stop” there is a sharp pain in the joint, and more often complete bending of the knee becomes simply impossible. Sometimes the knee bends only to an angle of 90 degrees, and then it goes with difficulty and through pain.

At the same stage of the disease, it becomes noticeable that the joint is deformed – first of all, this concerns bone deformations, changes in the shape of the joint bones (when you feel the knee, you can notice that its bones have changed shape, become wider and “rougher”).

In addition, a change in the shape of the joint is aggravated by the accumulation of pathological fluid (synovitis) in the joint. Synovitis at this stage of gonarthrosis occurs much more often and is sometimes much more pronounced than at the beginning of the disease, at its first stage.

The third stage of arthrosis of the knee

In the third stage of gonarthrosis, knee pain is further exacerbated. Now the knee hurts not only when moving and walking. Pain begins to bother a person, even at rest. It is difficult for the patient to find a comfortable position in bed, to arrange the affected knee so that it does not hurt. And yet, finding the right position, a person can usually fall asleep. Although, if the destruction of the joint is combined with impaired circulation, the joints begin to “twist” in the middle of the night, usually when the weather changes, or, as the patients themselves say, “to rain.”

The mobility of the knee at this time is reduced to a minimum. The knee is already completely impossible to bend more than 90 degrees. And sometimes the knee hardly bends at all. In addition, the ability to fully straighten up, that is, straighten the leg, often disappears. In this case, the sick person always walks on slightly bent legs.

Compared with the second stage, in the third stage of gonarthrosis, the joint bones are deformed even more, and in some cases, “varus” or “valgus” deformity of the legs develops – the legs become O-shaped or X-shaped. As a result, in people with similar deformities of the legs, the gait often becomes unstable – the so-called “overwhelming gait” occurs.

A video with gymnastics for the treatment of knee arthrosis can be seen here.

Gonarthrosis of the knee 1, 2 degrees

With arthrosis, cartilage tissue is destroyed. The disease is chronic in nature, over time leads to changes in the degenerative-dystrophic type in adjacent muscle tissues, ligaments, articulated bone surfaces. The pathological process often affects the knee, hip and wrist joints.

According to statistics, deforming arthrosis of the knee joint is observed in 40-50% of cases. Otherwise, this disease is called gonarthrosis. To prevent irreversible changes, it is necessary to treat the pathology as soon as the first symptoms appear.

>Gonarthrosis can be primary (idiopathic) or secondary. Primary gonarthrosis can occur in old age, as a result of age-related changes in cartilage. Most often, women with overweight suffer from it. In most cases, symptoms of damage to the knee joints of both legs are observed – bilateral gonarthrosis. Signs of arthrosis begin to appear first on one knee, then show up on the other. As a complication of inflammatory diseases, secondary gonarthrosis develops. Such a diagnosis can be made regardless of the age of the patient. In most cases, the pathological process affects the knee of one leg. Secondary pathology also includes post-traumatic gonarthrosis, which develops as a result of trauma to the knee joints.
Depending on the place of localization, right-sided gonarthrosis or left-sided can be diagnosed. Left-sided gonarthrosis can develop with injury to the right leg. This is due to the fact that unconsciously, the severity of body weight is transferred from a sore leg to a healthy one, and the load on the cartilage tissue increases. The diagnosis of bilateral gonarthrosis is less often with a secondary type of pathology. The disease goes through 3 stages of development:

  • At the initial stage of development, expressed symptoms are absent. Pain may occur after stress on the knee joints. Possible manifestation of slight swelling. Treatment started at this stage can stop the pathological process.
  • At the next stage of gonarthrosis, the symptoms become more pronounced, a characteristic crunch is heard during movement, a limitation of joint mobility due to its moderate deformation is observed. The disease at this stage is already incurable, but the process of joint deformation can be stopped.
  • With 3 degrees of pathology, pain is constantly present, even at rest, there is a pronounced limitation of mobility, a significant deformation of the knee joint. As a result, the patient’s gait changes. The condition is aggravated if bilateral gonarthrosis is diagnosed.

Inflammation of the synovial membrane, accompanied by accumulation of fluid in the joint cavity (synovitis), can occur even in the early stages of gonarthrosis. The joint increases in size. With gonarthrosis of the 3rd degree, synovitis is observed constantly, exacerbating the pain of the joints and their deformation.

Diagnosis of gonarthrosis

Appointing adequate treatment is impossible without proper diagnosis. To make the correct diagnosis, various research methods are used.

  • The orthopedist examines the affected area, performs linear measurements of the bones, determines the mobility of the affected joints at different angles.
  • Laboratory tests of blood composition are also carried out, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is determined. This indicator may indicate a current inflammatory or pathological process.
  • The level of fibrinogen is determined – its concentration rises with ongoing inflammatory processes.
  • The main method for diagnosing affected joints is radiography. At an early stage of the disease, x-ray examination reveals minor changes. At a late stage, there is a narrowing of the joint gap, destruction of the cartilage, damage to the bone tissue.

It is taken into account that signs similar to arthrosis of the knee joints can be observed in many elderly people in the absence of a pathological process. The diagnosis of gonarthrosis is made if radiological and clinical signs of pathology are identified. In addition to radiography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging can also be used.

Medication for gonarthrosis

Gonarthrosis of the knee joint of 1 degree or 2 degrees is treated with conservative methods. Treatment is aimed at relieving pain and restoring joint mobility. The disease requires an integrated approach.
If gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree is diagnosed, pain is constantly present. Analgesics are used to quickly relieve pain.

  • To stop the inflammatory process and restore joint mobility, treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is prescribed, such as: Butadion, Ketoprofen, Diclofenac, Celebrex, Nimulide, Piroxicam, Movalis.
  • Chondroprotective drugs, for example, Glucosamine, Chondroitin sulfate, Chondroxide, are used to regenerate damaged cartilage tissue and slow its destruction.
  • Can be additionally treated with drugs that contribute to the renewal of synovial fluid. These funds require long-term use. Effective if gonarthrosis of 1 degree or 2 degrees is detected. Arthrosis of the knee joint at the stage of complete destruction of the cartilage tissue is not advisable to treat with chondroprotectors.
  • With frequent exacerbations of chronic arthrosis of the knee joints, injections of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid directly into the joint can be used. Hormonal drugs are effective if synovitis is attached to gonarthrosis.

Gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree is treated with the help of oxygen therapy – the introduction of medical oxygen into the joint cavity. This method allows you to:

  • normalize metabolic processes in the affected joint;
  • relieve puffiness;
  • reduce the intensity of pain;
  • extend the period of remission.

Carrying out oxygen therapy is effective at an early stage in the development of pathology. May be an alternative to hormone therapy. Treatment includes a course of 4 injections.

Physiotherapy

If gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree is diagnosed, in addition to drug therapy, physiotherapeutic procedures are prescribed. Unilateral or bilateral gonarthrosis is treated using various methods:

  • electrophoresis;
  • magnetic therapy;
  • laser therapy;
  • pulse therapy;
  • ultrasound;
  • microwave therapy;
  • hydrogen sulfide or radon baths;
  • mud therapy;
  • local barotherapy;
  • warming applications;
  • physiotherapy exercises.

The most common treatment for knee joints is by electrophoresis. Various drugs are used to eliminate the symptoms of gonarthrosis. Electrophoresis with Dimexidum reduces the intensity of joint pain. To improve the metabolic processes in the joints and accelerate recovery, sulfur, calcium, magnesium, zinc are used.

  • Gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree is effectively treated with the use of ultrasound therapy. With cardiac abnormalities, this method is contraindicated, it is replaced by microwave therapy.
  • Warming procedures contribute to the acceleration of metabolic processes, which improves the regeneration of damaged tissues. Eliminate the symptoms of arthrosis allow compresses based on ozokerite, paraffin therapy.
  • Typical symptoms of gonarthrosis – pain, inflammation, swelling of the knee joints, can be eliminated by using magnetotherapy. A low-frequency magnetic field acts on the affected area, transmitting magnetic properties. As a result, the mobility of the joints improves, and their destruction stops.
Morozov Georgiy

Georgy Morozov, rheumatologist. For more than 20 years, he has been involved in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of joint diseases.

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