Osteoarthritis of the 2nd degree can appear for various reasons at any age, but older people suffer more often due to the stages of natural aging of the body. The treatment is complex and does not eliminate the destructuring, but stops the process.
The human joint is a complex mechanism, the structure of which includes several elements from different types of tissues, the functionality of the movable joint of the bones depends on the coordinated work. As the joint wears out, metamorphic changes occur that adversely affect functionality, hampering movement and causing intense pain.
Pathological dystrophic changes are called arthrosis. The disease occurs imperceptibly and develops gradually, moving from a mild stage to a more severe period, grade 2 arthrosis.
The characteristic course of the disease
Physiologically, the joint is an interconnected system in which the modification of one component entails the deformation of the entire mechanism. The destructive process primarily affects the cartilage layer, which is an anatomical shock absorber.
Cartilage loses its elastic structure, becomes thin, which leads to a narrowing of the joint gap and pathological convergence of the heads of bones.
The initial stage, in which only cartilage tissue is involved, does not affect the patient’s health. Most often, arthrosis is detected only upon transition to a more advanced state, which worries a person with unpleasant symptoms when loading on a sore joint.
Osteoarthritis of the 2nd degree is fixed by the doctor when detecting visible x-ray changes not only cartilage, but also bone tissue. The outer layer of the bone becomes thick with growths characteristic of arthrosis – osteophytes. The whole process may be accompanied by inflammatory processes progressing on the surface of the synovial membrane.
The synovial fluid becomes viscous and changes its biochemical composition. These changes negatively affect the nutrition of the joint, contributing to their further deformation. The production of articular fluid is significantly reduced, and bone formations begin to mechanically interact with movement, which causes severe pain.
The patient notices a crisp sound and pain when moving due to arthrosis. As the process is prolonged, pain increases, the load on neighboring joints and the spine increases, lameness and scoliotic changes in the spinal column appear.
External manifestations of arthrosis 2 degrees
Symptoms of the second stage of arthrosis are pronounced, discomfort during motor activity makes you turn to an orthopedist for medical advice.
This period is characterized by the following features:
- With minor deformation changes, soreness occurs when the joint is set in motion and increases with prolonged load. As the pathology progresses, the pain becomes more intense, can appear at rest and not disappear after a long rest.
- In the morning, after waking up, movements have considerable stiffness. A click is heard in the diseased joint, which indicates the onset of processes in the bone tissue.
- The amplitude of movement decreases, a person cannot perform the usual actions due to joint damage.
The severity of the manifestation of symptoms directly depends on the development of dystrophic changes. Painless movements with a crisp sound in the joint should alert the person. Normally, there should be no sounds during movement, the occurrence of crepitus should serve as a reason for contacting a doctor for examination.
The early detection of arthrosis ensures that the destructive processes stop at this stage and the tissues are kept in optimal condition so as not to aggravate the situation. Running conditions threaten with permanent deformation, irreversibility of processes and the consequence of surgical intervention for implantation of an artificial joint.
The main causes of arthrosis of the 2nd degree:
- Joint injuries: bruises, dislocations, bone fractures, damage to cartilage and ligaments. The mechanical effect violates the structure and provokes pathological processes, which subsequently lead to impaired functionality after internal restructuring in the joint bag.
- Changes of a destructive nature after reaching a certain age stage. It is impossible to determine the exact figure for everyone; each person’s body is unique. How many years must pass before the joints begin to break down depends on the general health and lifestyle.
- Heavy physical work or intense load on the joints during sports training adversely affects the work of the musculoskeletal system.
- Diseases of autoimmune etiology, the basis of the pathogenesis of which is the self-destruction of the body by its own cells. Connective tissue is negatively affected, which triggers the process of joint deformation.
- Some infections can lead to complications targeting articular capsules.
- Metabolic disorders leading to the wrong course of biochemical reactions. An insufficient amount of minerals causes a lack of building material for cartilage and bone tissue.
- Congenital joint pathologies, if it is impossible to eliminate them, pass into the stage of arthrosis.
- Hereditary predisposition is a risk factor. Doctors have proven that in people whose family history has shown cases of pathological changes in the joints, the disease appeared much more often.
Categories of people who should carefully monitor the work of the joints:
- older people over fifty;
- professional athletes;
- people working at work that requires great physical effort: loaders, builders, etc .;
- patients undergoing rehabilitation after injuries;
- persons with congenital defects of the joints.
After a thorough diagnosis, the orthopedist detects arthrosis of the 2nd degree and prescribes objective treatment, the scheme of which is intended for a particular patient taking into account individual parameters. Therapeutic measures are comprehensive, including the use of pharmacological drugs, therapeutic exercises and physiotherapeutic procedures.
Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.
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- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to eliminate pain and inflammatory reactions, as arthrosis of the 2nd degree is often accompanied by arthritis phenomena: Diclofenac, Indomethacin, Movalis and other drugs. To enhance the action of this pharmacological group, vitamins of group B are simultaneously injected.
- Chondroprotectors (Teraflex, Don, Arthra) are important to make up for the missing compounds that can stop further destruction of the joint: glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. Chondroprotectors are designed for long-term use, regular use will provide a significant improvement in the condition of the joint.
- Injection solutions containing hyalouranic acid (Fermatron, Ostenil) are injected into the joint cavity once every six months.
A set of exercises that can improve the condition of the joints due to active movements is performed under the supervision of a treating doctor. The load and intensity of execution must be strictly controlled so as not to cause overvoltage and not aggravate arthrosis.
Physical education will improve blood circulation, a safe load will improve nutrition and oxygen flow to the affected area. It is impossible to load the body on your own, an improper motor regime can cross out all the positive results that have been achieved over the entire period of treatment.
With the right medical approach, not only the load force is important, but also the periods of unloading for a sparing regime and a reduction in pain. Orthoses of various degrees of rigidity will help to cope with this task, the choice of which depends on the severity of the course of arthrosis of the 2nd degree.
Orthopedic bandages not only treat a deformed joint, but also reduce the load on nearby joints, which eliminates further undesirable complications. The principle of choosing an orthosis is the stronger the pain, the more rigid the orthopedic product should be.
A course of therapeutic massage will help improve the condition of surrounding tissues, strengthen muscles and improve motor ability. The frequency of execution is determined by the doctor. There are different types of massage. The most popular are the classic style and can vacuum massage.
It is very effective to conduct a course of treatment with magnetic pulse current. The impact occurs at 6 cm inside the tissues. In the absence of contraindications, regular use provides significant improvement. Magnet treatment is cumulative in nature, which appears at the end of the course and persists until the next stage.
How to prevent the development of arthrosis
There are many ways to prevent the development of arthrosis of the 2nd degree. Based on them, you can make simple rules that will help the joints stay healthy:
- lead an active lifestyle with regular physical education;
- eat right with enough vitamins and minerals;
- prevent the appearance of excess weight;
- dose physical activity, use orthopedic bandages for prevention;
- follow the doctor’s recommendations and not tolerate the infection “on his feet” so that there are no complications;
- consult a doctor in a timely manner when unpleasant or painful symptoms appear in a joint.