Juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children treatment

Juvenile >

  • What is juvenile idiopathic arthritis?
  • Types
  • What are the causes of arthritis in children
  • Signs and symptoms
  • Diagnostics and tests
  • complications
  • Treatment and management

Diseases affecting the joints are common not only in adults, but also in children. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is one such condition characterized by joint swelling in young children.

If your child is diagnosed with this condition, it is best to collect all the information necessary to prepare for his care.

What is juvenile idiopathic arthritis?

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is an autoimmune disease that causes swelling of the tissues lining the joints. The tissue, called synovial, becomes inflamed and causes severe joint pain. The disease manifests itself in children aged 6 to 16 years and has no known causes at the moment. With such autoimmune diseases, the body’s immune system turns against the body’s cells and attacks them, identifying them as hostile.

There are seven types that are recognized by the JIA.

This disease is still called Still disease and affects the entire body of the child. This causes symptoms of high fever in the child, which may intensify during the evening and disappear. It can also cause a rash and make the baby pale. It is also known that systemic arthritis affects the internal organs of the body, such as the heart, spleen, liver, and lymph nodes. It can enlarge the lymph nodes and spleen.

This condition is also called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and affects the joints in the knee, ankle and wrist. Does not affect more than five joints. Oligoarthritis can also affect the iris and is more common in girls than in boys. Most children outgrow this condition as they grow older.

  1. Polyarthritis – Rheumatoid Factor Negative

This condition is more common in girls than in boys, and affects about four or five joints. Joints on the arms and other joints, such as the knees, ankles, neck, feet, and hips that carry weight can also be affected. It can also cause mild fever and put the knots of the body under pressure when the children are sitting or leaning.

  1. Polyarthritis – a positive rheumatoid factor

This variant of JIA appears as rheumatoid arthritis in adults. In children with this disease, a protein called rheumatoid factor (RF) or an anti-CCP antibody (anticyclic citrulline peptide) in the blood can be diagnosed. These children may be more at risk for damage caused by erosion than children with other types of JIA.

In addition to arthritis, children also have a skin disease called psoriasis in this type of JIA. Psoriasis manifests itself in the form of a rash on the elbows, knees, behind the ears, etc.) Very often, this is diagnosed in children, even if they have no signs of skin disease, but they have a family member who has this condition. Such children there may be pitted nails on the fingers and toes.

  1. Enthesitis Associated Arthritis

Children with this form of JIA experience pain in their legs and spine. This affects places where tendons connect to bones, also called entheses. Inflammation can cause pain in the hips, back, or knees. This type of JIA often affects boys over 8 years old who have a male relative with ankylosing spondylitis or arthritis of the back.

Features of arthritis do not correspond to any of the categories mentioned or may be associated with several types of arthritis.

What are the causes of arthritis in children

Arthritis is an autoimmune disease and currently has no definable cause. However, scientists and researchers believe that this may be due to the following factors.

  1. Environmental triggers or viruses can cause the body’s immune system to recognize the mucous membrane of the joints as a foreign body, which will lead to its attack. It causes inflammation in the joints.
  2. A certain infection can cause reactive arthritis, which goes away after a few weeks. It was not found out why this condition does not pass in children who develop JIA.
  3. Children who have a family member with rheumatoid arthritis or other rheumatological diseases have a higher chance of developing JIA. However, this does not mean that it is transmitted genetically.

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms of arthritis in children are very vague and do not specifically indicate the presence of the disease. It is possible that children have no symptoms at all. Some of the possible symptoms of JIA are:

  • Stiffness in joints
  • Swelling, pain, and tenderness in the joints
  • fever
  • Weight loss
  • Rash
  • Irritability
  • Fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Redness or pain in the eye
  • lameness
  • Lack of appetite

Diagnostics and tests

Since there is no specific test for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, a form of elimination diagnosis is carried out to exclude similar conditions such as lupus, bone disease, fibromyalgia, etc.

Your doctor will require a complete medical history of your child and have a physical examination. Additional tests can also be performed to determine the type of arthritis in the child.

Tests may include:

  • A complete blood count can check red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets to determine the appearance and number of cells, as well as narrow them down for any particular disease.

  • A blood culture is performed to detect bacteria in the bloodstream that can cause infections.
  • A bone marrow biopsy is done to check for leukemia.
  • The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is checked to see the rate at which the red blood cells fall to the bottom of the tube. This rate is high in people suffering from conditions that cause inflammation.
  • The level of C-reactive protein (CRP) is also checked. The liver secretes this protein into the bloodstream if there is a chance of infection or inflammation. The level of this protein can also increase in case of arthritis.
  • Rheumatoid factor (RF) or cyclic citrulline peptide antibody (CCP) is also tested for a specific kind of JIA. However, it is more common with arthritis in adults.
  • ANA (antinuclear antibody) is used to detect autoimmune diseases. This may also indicate the likelihood of a child developing eye diseases as a result of JIA.
  • An X-ray or MRI of the joints is taken to check for bone damage.
  • A bone scan can be done in case of unexplained pain in the bones and joints.
  • An orthopedic surgeon can also take joint fluid and synovial tissue.

complications

If your child has JIA symptoms, it is very important that you take your child to a doctor and seek medical help. If untreated, the following complications may occur.

  • Severe joint damage.
  • Growth limit. It is known that certain medications prescribed for inflammation cause problems with the musculoskeletal system in children.
  • Eye inflammation called uveitis
  • Eye condition, if left untreated, can cause glaucoma, cataracts, or even blindness.
  • Deformations in the joints of children who do not receive treatment.
  • A serious form of the disease, if left untreated, can also lead to loss of function of the hand in the child.

Treatment and management

Treatment for juvenile arthritis may include physiotherapy, medication, and exercise. The course of treatment also depends on the type and severity of the condition.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be prescribed to relieve pain and inflammation in children. These include ibuprofen preparations, such as Advil, Motrin, etc. The dosage for these drugs is determined by the condition.

Corticosteroids can also be prescribed to treat outbreaks of arthritis. However, it has side effects such as slow growth, weight gain, skin changes, etc. Therefore, this is not usually prescribed for children.

Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as methotrexate, can be prescribed if NSAIDs do not relieve inflammation and pain. Hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine and TNF drugs, which are a factor in tumor necrosis, can also be prescribed for children with JIA.

There is also a new category of drugs called biological drugs that can be given to children with JIA. Injections and intravenous infusions can be carried out on a regular basis in the hospital.

Physical therapy can help your child improve movement. The therapist will suggest specific exercises to reduce stiffness in the joints, increase flexibility and improve strength in the child. Physiotherapeutic exercises will be invented depending on the specific condition of the child.

3. Regular exercise

The habit of regular exercise can help your child overcome the pain and provide the support needed for the joints. It can also improve joint movement. For children, warm-ups and safe exercises such as walking, swimming, and cycling are recommended. You can also consult your doctor about any exercise that your child should avoid because of the risk of serious injury.

Timely treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis can help a child overcome pain and lead a relatively comfortable life. It is important that you keep track of your child’s development and provide your child with a nutritious and balanced diet and help in the healing process.

Juvenile >

  • What is juvenile idiopathic arthritis?
  • Types
  • What are the causes of arthritis in children
  • Signs and symptoms
  • Diagnostics and tests
  • complications
  • Treatment and management

Diseases affecting the joints are common not only in adults, but also in children. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is one such condition characterized by joint swelling in young children.

If your child is diagnosed with this condition, it is best to collect all the information necessary to prepare for his care.

What is juvenile idiopathic arthritis?

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is an autoimmune disease that causes swelling of the tissues lining the joints. The tissue, called synovial, becomes inflamed and causes severe joint pain. The disease manifests itself in children aged 6 to 16 years and has no known causes at the moment. With such autoimmune diseases, the body’s immune system turns against the body’s cells and attacks them, identifying them as hostile.

There are seven types that are recognized by the JIA.

This disease is still called Still disease and affects the entire body of the child. This causes symptoms of high fever in the child, which may intensify during the evening and disappear. It can also cause a rash and make the baby pale. It is also known that systemic arthritis affects the internal organs of the body, such as the heart, spleen, liver, and lymph nodes. It can enlarge the lymph nodes and spleen.

This condition is also called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and affects the joints in the knee, ankle and wrist. Does not affect more than five joints. Oligoarthritis can also affect the iris and is more common in girls than in boys. Most children outgrow this condition as they grow older.

  1. Polyarthritis – Rheumatoid Factor Negative

This condition is more common in girls than in boys, and affects about four or five joints. Joints on the arms and other joints, such as the knees, ankles, neck, feet, and hips that carry weight can also be affected. It can also cause mild fever and put the knots of the body under pressure when the children are sitting or leaning.

  1. Polyarthritis – a positive rheumatoid factor

This variant of JIA appears as rheumatoid arthritis in adults. In children with this disease, a protein called rheumatoid factor (RF) or an anti-CCP antibody (anticyclic citrulline peptide) in the blood can be diagnosed. These children may be more at risk for damage caused by erosion than children with other types of JIA.

In addition to arthritis, children also have a skin disease called psoriasis in this type of JIA. Psoriasis manifests itself in the form of a rash on the elbows, knees, behind the ears, etc.) Very often, this is diagnosed in children, even if they have no signs of skin disease, but they have a family member who has this condition. Such children there may be pitted nails on the fingers and toes.

  1. Enthesitis Associated Arthritis

Children with this form of JIA experience pain in their legs and spine. This affects places where tendons connect to bones, also called entheses. Inflammation can cause pain in the hips, back, or knees. This type of JIA often affects boys over 8 years old who have a male relative with ankylosing spondylitis or arthritis of the back.

Features of arthritis do not correspond to any of the categories mentioned or may be associated with several types of arthritis.

What are the causes of arthritis in children

Arthritis is an autoimmune disease and currently has no definable cause. However, scientists and researchers believe that this may be due to the following factors.

  1. Environmental triggers or viruses can cause the body’s immune system to recognize the mucous membrane of the joints as a foreign body, which will lead to its attack. It causes inflammation in the joints.
  2. A certain infection can cause reactive arthritis, which goes away after a few weeks. It was not found out why this condition does not pass in children who develop JIA.
  3. Children who have a family member with rheumatoid arthritis or other rheumatological diseases have a higher chance of developing JIA. However, this does not mean that it is transmitted genetically.

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms of arthritis in children are very vague and do not specifically indicate the presence of the disease. It is possible that children have no symptoms at all. Some of the possible symptoms of JIA are:

  • Stiffness in joints
  • Swelling, pain, and tenderness in the joints
  • fever
  • Weight loss
  • Rash
  • Irritability
  • Fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Redness or pain in the eye
  • lameness
  • Lack of appetite

Diagnostics and tests

Since there is no specific test for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, a form of elimination diagnosis is carried out to exclude similar conditions such as lupus, bone disease, fibromyalgia, etc.

Your doctor will require a complete medical history of your child and have a physical examination. Additional tests can also be performed to determine the type of arthritis in the child.

Tests may include:

  • A complete blood count can check red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets to determine the appearance and number of cells, as well as narrow them down for any particular disease.

  • A blood culture is performed to detect bacteria in the bloodstream that can cause infections.
  • A bone marrow biopsy is done to check for leukemia.
  • The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is checked to see the rate at which the red blood cells fall to the bottom of the tube. This rate is high in people suffering from conditions that cause inflammation.
  • The level of C-reactive protein (CRP) is also checked. The liver secretes this protein into the bloodstream if there is a chance of infection or inflammation. The level of this protein can also increase in case of arthritis.
  • Rheumatoid factor (RF) or cyclic citrulline peptide antibody (CCP) is also tested for a specific kind of JIA. However, it is more common with arthritis in adults.
  • ANA (antinuclear antibody) is used to detect autoimmune diseases. This may also indicate the likelihood of a child developing eye diseases as a result of JIA.
  • An X-ray or MRI of the joints is taken to check for bone damage.
  • A bone scan can be done in case of unexplained pain in the bones and joints.
  • An orthopedic surgeon can also take joint fluid and synovial tissue.

complications

If your child has JIA symptoms, it is very important that you take your child to a doctor and seek medical help. If untreated, the following complications may occur.

  • Severe joint damage.
  • Growth limit. It is known that certain medications prescribed for inflammation cause problems with the musculoskeletal system in children.
  • Eye inflammation called uveitis
  • Eye condition, if left untreated, can cause glaucoma, cataracts, or even blindness.
  • Deformations in the joints of children who do not receive treatment.
  • A serious form of the disease, if left untreated, can also lead to loss of function of the hand in the child.

Treatment and management

Treatment for juvenile arthritis may include physiotherapy, medication, and exercise. The course of treatment also depends on the type and severity of the condition.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be prescribed to relieve pain and inflammation in children. These include ibuprofen preparations, such as Advil, Motrin, etc. The dosage for these drugs is determined by the condition.

Corticosteroids can also be prescribed to treat outbreaks of arthritis. However, it has side effects such as slow growth, weight gain, skin changes, etc. Therefore, this is not usually prescribed for children.

Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as methotrexate, can be prescribed if NSAIDs do not relieve inflammation and pain. Hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine and TNF drugs, which are a factor in tumor necrosis, can also be prescribed for children with JIA.

There is also a new category of drugs called biological drugs that can be given to children with JIA. Injections and intravenous infusions can be carried out on a regular basis in the hospital.

Physical therapy can help your child improve movement. The therapist will suggest specific exercises to reduce stiffness in the joints, increase flexibility and improve strength in the child. Physiotherapeutic exercises will be invented depending on the specific condition of the child.

3. Regular exercise

The habit of regular exercise can help your child overcome the pain and provide the support needed for the joints. It can also improve joint movement. For children, warm-ups and safe exercises such as walking, swimming, and cycling are recommended. You can also consult your doctor about any exercise that your child should avoid because of the risk of serious injury.

Timely treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis can help a child overcome pain and lead a relatively comfortable life. It is important that you keep track of your child’s development and provide your child with a nutritious and balanced diet and help in the healing process.

Diagnosis and treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children, causes

It is quite easy to meet a person who has had pain in his joints at least once in his life. Unfortunately, even the most primitive and harmless symptoms over time can manifest themselves in the form of joint damage – arthritis. Predicting this is very difficult, especially when it comes to children. Despite the false opinion, joint problems are observed not only in adults, therefore it is important to monitor the health of the child and know what criteria indicate the presence of this disease in order to be able to identify it as early as possible, before significant harm has been done to the child’s health.

What it is?

Juvenile arthritis (ICD code – M08) is a disease that is chronic in nature and involves the occurrence of an inflammatory process in the joints. Also called youthful, since it is observed in children and adolescents under the age of 16, the pathogenesis is complex. It is found far from every person, the percentage of patients is quite small.

Affected areas

Under this term, several diseases that develop in a child and adolescent fall at once. Arthritis may be:

    Oligoarticular, in turn, is progressive and persistent, most often observed in women, is w >Pathological changes

Causes of development in children

Despite the fact that there are quite a few reasons, the key one is the violation of the immune system. The fact is that the child’s body is not yet fully adapted to the conditions of the surrounding world, therefore its immunity is not able to give a full-fledged active response to the irritant.

The occurrence of an ailment can be affected by:

  1. Infection (bacterial or viral);
  2. Long stay in the cold, frostbite is possible;
  3. Injured joint;
  4. Sunstroke, hyperthermia, prolonged exposure to sunlight;
  5. Frequent colds;
  6. Skipping vaccinations;
  7. Genetic predisposition.

In the latter case, there is some variability in certain genes that belong to the immune system. The body begins to perceive the native cells as hostile and fight them through an autoimmune reaction, the main function of the immune system is violated – the body’s defense. This leads to a number of negative consequences.

symptomatology

First of all, the shell of the joint is affected, and then he himself. Deformation occurs, which is provoked by excessive production of cells. They consist of a layer covering the surface. This disrupts the metabolic processes in the body. The fabric is rapidly collapsing.

In the first case, the patient is worried about the following symptoms:

  1. The lesion site hurts, swells, becomes covered with red spots;
  2. Hyperthermia, temperature rises by more than 39 degrees Celsius;
  3. Rashes appear on the skin;
  4. Lymph nodes are enlarged, there are problems with the liver and spleen, spine, jaw;

The subacute beginning can be recognized by:

  1. An increase in body temperature for some time after waking up;
  2. Fever accompanied by increased rash on the body:
  3. The tissue of the liver, as well as the spleen, grows as a manifestation of activation of the immune system;
  4. Growth retardation due to arthritis.

symptomatology

  1. Inflammation of the lining of the eye, which can lead to complete loss of vision (noted in girls);
  2. Decreased muscle tone;
  3. Lowering the level of hemoglobin in the blood;
  4. Pallor;
  5. Circulatory disorders due to vascular lesions;
  6. Changes in the skin (in the form of pigmentation and ulcerative rashes);
  7. Nodules about five millimeters in size appear, sometimes connected to the bone;
  8. Impaired renal function, protein breaks off in them, which prevents filtration;
  9. Sometimes there are abdominal pains.

Important! Each species has its own symptoms, depending on the location of the lesion (whether it be a knee or elbow joint, for example), so you need to watch the joint, which once made itself felt, to see a doctor in the early stages and make a correct diagnosis.

Diagnostics

The easiest way to detect this violation is to take a general blood test. It is he who will show whether there is a rheumatoid factor in the body that is produced in the synovial membrane of the joint in response to a foreign effect. Once it has been detected, the diagnosis does not end. To confirm or refute his guesses, the doctor, according to the protocol, is obliged to resort to:

  • Initial interviewing of the patient, analysis of all manifestations and compilation of the overall clinical picture;
  • X-ray This study reports a bone deformation, a change in its integrity and structure, the presence of destruction, difficulty in tracking the joint gap, changes in the shape of cartilage, and damage to other joints;

Oligoarticular juvenile arthritis, x-ray

  • Inspection of nearby internal organs;
  • Differential diagnosis.

It is important to determine the degree of damage. For this, the patient attends ultrasound diagnostics and electrocardiography. To study the condition of internal organs, children are advised to visit an ophthalmologist to exclude inflammation of the ocular membrane, because if there is a pathology, timely therapy can save eyesight. Also checked are the liver and spleen, kidneys for protein. Measured body temperature in the morning or afternoon.

Choroid inflammation

Treatment

The main task is to cure, and this implies:

  1. Preservation of motor function;
  2. Stopping the focus of inflammation and destruction;
  3. Warning exacerbations.

Treatment includes two aspects: physiotherapy and the use of drugs.

It is an addition to the treatment, contributes to maintaining normal muscle tone and maintaining mobility. It is carried out in a hospital or under the supervision of a specialist so that you can monitor the results and exclude the possibility of self-harm among patients. Therapy combines several points:

  1. Exercise therapy for constant movement and minimal physical activity. Daily exercise ensures better health. If the patient has the opportunity, practice classes in the pool and bike rides.
  2. Massage. In no case can not be done during an exacerbation of the disease. High-quality massaging of the limb will help improve blood flow to it, reduce deformation, and contribute to the normalization of mobility.
  3. Magnetotherapy.
  4. Electrophoresis.
  5. Infrared irradiation.
  6. Mud compresses.
  7. Cryo and laser therapy.

All these procedures are aimed at forming an immune response, reducing symptoms.

Non-steroidal ointments relieve swelling, inflammation and pain. It is best to use these drugs for about two months, the course of treatment is corrected by a doctor. During the reception, it is worth maintaining the microflora of the stomach.

Hormonal drugs. May be in the form of an ointment or solution for intramuscular administration. No need to prescribe for children under five years of age, the course of treatment cannot be long, since there is a risk of serious complications.

Immunosuppressants. They are prescribed only after the main treatment to restore the function of the immune system. Use for a long time is allowed, but only with the permission of the attending physician.

Biological agents that are developed using the human gene, therefore, do not cause a negative reaction and side effects. They are aimed at modifying the enzymes of the immune system, suppressing inflammatory processes.

Conclusion

In order to overcome juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children, you need to monitor your lifestyle and cure existing pathologies in time. It is not necessary to think that arthritis and arthrosis are pathologies that can appear only in an elderly person, and ignore the symptoms that manifest in a child. Such negligence can lead to progression and cause very strong harm to his health, affect a full future. You can’t take medicine on your own initiative, it’s better to ask a specialist for advice so as not to risk the life and health of children. The folk method is sometimes not auxiliary, but dangerous. For preventive purposes, it is worth coming to a visit to the orthopedist once every six months.

There are several things worth paying attention to:

Juvenile >

In the practice of orthopedists and rheumatologists, young patients are found with complaints of joint pathology. Characteristically, these complaints relate to problems with several joints at once. And one more feature – the reason is almost impossible to establish. This phenomenon is called juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an uncommon disease. It affects children and adolescents under the age of 16 years. What should parents know about, whose children begin to complain of aches and joint pains?

What kind of disease?

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children develops from a very young age and affects the joints of the upper and lower extremities. Quite often, the problem manifests itself in several places at once and complicates the therapeutic course and diagnosis.

The very name of this ailment in translation into Russian means that the disease has unexplained causes and is characteristic only for young patients.

Currently, only one fact is known for certain about this pathology – it is not a consequence of infectious diseases. The fundamental theory of the progression of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children is the manifestation of the so-called autoimmune disorders in the body. In other words, the body’s defense system for unknown reasons attacks its own healthy cells, mistaking them for foreign agents with a harmful effect.

Against this background, arthritis in children develops, with the exception of one subspecies of this ailment – systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, in which the inflammatory process develops for no reason.

Classification of pathology

Doctors distinguish six varieties of this disease, and this classification allows you to more accurately determine the causative factors and prescribe the most correct course of treatment for young patients.

The systemic form of juvenile idiopathic arthritis – it accounts for about 10-12% of episodes of all diseases of this disease. In this form, the disease manifests itself with a sharp increase in total body temperature, which in some cases reaches 39,5 degrees. At the same time, rashes occur throughout the body and, especially, in the area of ​​the joint damage.

Most often, with the systemic form of JIA, several joints in different places suffer. In such circumstances, the pathology progresses for at least 14-18 days at a constantly elevated temperature. The characteristic signs in this form are inflammatory foci that occur in the heart, lungs, as well as severe anemia, pallor, soreness of the affected joints;

  1. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children is a type of disease that occurs with damage to one to four joints at a time. Another characteristic symptom is eye damage and decreased vision. On the mucous membranes of the eyelids, pronounced inflammation with a chronic course is noted. With the oligoarticular type of disease, large joints are mainly affected – ankle, elbow and knee joints;
  2. A polyarticular variety of the disease – with it, small joints are affected – on the phalanges of the fingers, jaw, sometimes some joints on the hands. The number of lesions with this form is at least five at a time. There is a negative and positive category of polyarticular arthritis. In a positive form, the disease acquires signs of rheumatoid arthritis, more characteristic of adult patients;
  3. The idiopathic psoriatic form of juvenile arthritis – with it, young patients are forced to fight immediately with two pathologies – directly arthritis itself and one of the forms of manifestation of dermatological abnormalities – psoriasis. This form is characterized by the defeat of several joints at once, more often – on the phalanges of the fingers, wrist and ankle joints. Symptoms characteristic of the psoriatic form are swelling and rashes of a bright pink color;
  4. Entesitic juvenile idiopathic arthritis – the disease proceeds in a chronic form, affecting mainly the knee, elbow, hip joint, as well as the foot and ankle region. With this kind of pathology, the young patient feels severe burning pain, experiencing the consequences of an acutely progressive inflammatory process. This form is more typical for boys aged 7 to 14 years;
  5. The undifferentiated type of disease is a disease with complex symptoms, often resembling two or more other forms of pathology at once. The most difficult to diagnose.

In addition to this classification, it is also customary to distinguish between acute, subacute and chronic forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children. Differences in the location of the disease are determined depending on the form of JIA.

Causes of anomaly in children

The medical scientists are not yet ready to name the exact causative factors causing this type of joint ailment due to the lack of available information about the disease itself and its causes. The main factor is called autoimmune disorders in the child’s body.

At the same time, there is an assumption that the development of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children can also be affected by the genetic dependence of the child’s body.

Meanwhile, already at the present time, several factors are clearly identified that can provoke a malfunction in the immune physiology, because of which the disease manifests itself.

  • Excessive influence of low temperatures – hypothermia, the effect of severe frosts, prolonged exposure to cold;
  • The consequences of vaccinations against measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis;
  • Infection with a viral infection called Epstein-Barr;
  • Excessive ultraviolet exposure – as a rule, this is the result of a long and frequent exposure to sunlight.

It is these factors that most often affect immune cells, provoking them to false attacks. Thus, they start the joint disease called JIA.

Symptomatic picture

Clinical signs in juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children are often not clear. In addition, the combination of different symptoms in different forms may vary.

All signs can be classified in two categories:

  • Symptoms characteristic of affected joints;
  • Systemic symptoms.

The first category includes signs such as swelling of the joints, the appearance of a rash or redness of the skin at the site of the manifestation of the disease. However, there is an increase in size, if we are talking about small joints, such as, for example, on the phalanges of the fingers.

The category of characteristic symptoms also include soreness, especially during movement, as well as an increase in local temperature.

Another characteristic of JIA is the appearance of crispy sounds when moving the joint. At the same time, mobility decreases, up to the lack of mobility of the limbs. In children who are not able to describe their feelings, it is possible to determine the characteristic signs mainly by lameness, lack of mobility of the hands, weeping when moving arms and legs.

Systemic symptoms appear as follows:

  • Inflammatory foci in the eye area, decreased vision;
  • Local skin rashes throughout the body;
  • Diseases of the internal organs due to the development of the inflammatory process;
  • Increased temperature of the whole body and the site of the disease;
  • Feverish conditions;
  • Insomnia;
  • Increased volumes of the spleen and liver;
  • The origin of the initial form of psoriasis.

Diagnostic research

To confirm the diagnosis of the disease in children after a clinical examination, the following diagnostic procedures are prescribed:

  • Blood tests for biochemical content, ESR, reactive protein, concentration of RRB;
  • ANAT screening;
  • Electrocardiogram;
  • Comprehensive eye examination;
  • MRI of the affected joint;
  • Ultrasound;
  • Radiography.

Treatment

The therapeutic course in juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children is mainly based on the principles of drug therapy, but only a doctor can prescribe it. It includes the use of immunosuppressants – drugs Lefomid, Cycloprene, Methotrexate. At the same time, anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed:

In order to adjust the hormonal background, the child should take the preparations of Inflanefran, Decortin, Millipred, Medopred, Betazone.

Along with pharmacological agents, complex physiotherapy procedures are prescribed to normalize blood flow in the affected joints, regenerate cartilage and muscle tissue, and restore the functioning of tendons.

Among such indications:

  • Massage;
  • Electrophoresis with the introduction of dimexide;
  • Cryotherapy;
  • Paraffin baths.

A significant effect in juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children is exerted by a set of exercise therapy exercises.

Preventive measures

To prevent JIA at any age, parents should control at least the most accessible factors – not to allow the child to be supercooling, to monitor his diet and physical activity. Excessive movement is undesirable, especially running and jumping.

At the same time, it is advisable to consult a doctor on time for any signs of any disease – some pathologies can provoke problems with immune physiology, which leads to juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

At the slightest suspicion, parents should immediately lead their child to a doctor. Traumatologists, rheumatologists or orthopedists can understand the causes of pain, joint problems and other signs. The main thing is not to delay the visit to them, otherwise the child will have to pay for the carelessness of the parents.

Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologistShishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.

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Our medical center was the first to receive certified access to the latest drug for osteochondrosis and joint pain - Hondrostrong. I confess to you when I heard about it for the first time, I just laughed, because I did not believe in its high efficiency.

But I was amazed when we completed testing: 4567 people were completely cured of diseases of the organs of the musculoskeletal system, and this is more than 94% of all subjects. 5.6% felt significant improvement, and only 0.4% did not notice any improvement.

Hondrostrong cream allows you to forget about back and joint pain in the shortest possible time, literally from 4 days, and even very difficult cases can be cured within a couple of months. In addition, the manufacturer of this product is now offering a 50% discount of the full cost of Hondrostrong cream.

Morozov Georgiy

Georgy Morozov, rheumatologist. For more than 20 years, he has been involved in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of joint diseases.

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