Hand osteoarthritis treatment and symptoms

  1. Frequent microtraumatization of the hands during sports or physical labor.
  2. Long-lasting uniformity of finger movements (hold the needle with embro >

Degrees of osteoarthrosis

  1. First, changes in the structure of the joint and its structures are minimal; complaints of pain and local swelling prevail more. These phenomena pass after sleep.
  2. The second – changes in cartilage and bone tissue appear on radiographs in the form of “spikes” – osteophytes. The pain syndrome is more pronounced and stable, swelling increases.
  3. The third – on radiographs, a pronounced narrowing of the inter-articular gap, a noticeable deformation of the joints, constant pain, it is difficult to stop, the range of motion in the affected joint is minimal or not.


  • Pain – gradually starting periodic pain in the fingers (maybe one), gradually turning into long and night pains. Increased discomfort during movement (clenching and extension of the fingers). The pain can intensify at any time of the day, decreases after rest.
  • Gradually, a swelling appears in the joint area.
  • The morning stiffness is noticeable, it is difficult to squeeze and unclench the brush for the first few movements.
  • In the later stages, a range of motion appears in the wrist joint and fingers.
  • When the joints move, a “crunch” is felt – crepitus.
  • The shape and size of the joint changes – it is deformed.
  • Interarticular muscles atrophy.
  • When feeling the joint and the tissue around it are painful.
  • The scope of active and passive movements is limited.
  • In the area of ​​interphalangeal joints on the fingers, “bumps” of overgrowing bone tissue from two s >


  • General blood analysis.
  • General urine analysis.
  • Biochemical study: total bilirubin, creatinine, cholesterol and lipid profile, blood glucose, AlAt and AsAt.

An inter-articular (synovial) fluid is also analyzed and an x-ray examination of the hands.


Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologistShishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.

I have been treating joints for many years. I can say with confidence that the joints are always treatable, even in the very ripe old age.

Hondrostrong is an innovative drug that is created to combat joint diseases. It helps with arthritis, arthrosis and other diseases. Thanks to the use of cream, joint mobility quickly returns. Damaged cartilage tissue is regenerated, which prevents the further development of the problem.

Hondrostrong gel for joints

Our medical center was the first to receive certified access to the latest drug for osteochondrosis and joint pain - Hondrostrong. I confess to you when I heard about it for the first time, I just laughed, because I did not believe in its high efficiency.

But I was amazed when we completed testing: 4567 people were completely cured of diseases of the organs of the musculoskeletal system, and this is more than 94% of all subjects. 5.6% felt significant improvement, and only 0.4% did not notice any improvement.

Hondrostrong cream allows you to forget about back and joint pain in the shortest possible time, literally from 4 days, and even very difficult cases can be cured within a couple of months. In addition, the manufacturer of this product is now offering a 50% discount of the full cost of Hondrostrong cream.


Paracetamol in small doses, not more than 3,0 g. per day – with mild and moderate pain, when there is no edema around the joint. It can not be used for liver diseases, people who abuse alcohol.

Preparations from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for more severe pain and inflammation around the joint (swelling, hyperemia, pain on palpation. It must be borne in mind that these drugs often cause digestive complications (stomach ulcers, erosion, gastric and intestinal bleeding) ), there are cases of toxic effects on the kidneys and liver.

They should be appointed by a specialist taking into account the concomitant pathology in the lowest doses and for a short time, no more than two weeks, if necessary, a break.

Together with them, drugs are prescribed that protect the gastric mucosa – omeprazole 20 mg 2 r / day and its analogues, pantoprazole 40 mg in the morning and evening. These drugs are contraindicated in pregnancy. Along with this, an increase in blood pressure in people with hypertension is possible, therefore, additional monitoring of blood pressure is necessary.

Less safe selective COX-2 inhibitors:

  • Celecoxib – 100-400 mg once a day.
  • Rofecoxib – 12,5-25 mg 1 time per day and others. It should be borne in mind that the group of these drugs itself does not cause erosion of the stomach, but interferes with scarring of existing ulcers and erosions, and often provoke allergic manifestations on the skin.

Short-acting opioid analgesic with severe pain and with contraindications for NSAIDs – tramadol – 50 mg per day, possibly increasing the dose to 200-300 mg.

The group of chondroprotectors – specific drugs containing in their composition:

  • Chondroitin sulfate – 500 mg in the morning and evening from 1 to 3 months per course, repeated 2-3 times a year throughout life.
  • Lucosamine sulfate – 1500 mg per day with the same frequency. They reduce pain, favor the restoration of the range of motion of the affected joint. The result of their action is saved several months after cancellation.


It is more widely used for osteoarthritis of large joints – knee or hip, endoprosthetics are performed. On the wrist, a trapezectomy is possible with arthrosis of the first metacarpal joint.

Non-drug treatment

  1. Healthy eating with increased consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, restriction of foods high in salt, fat and carbohydrates.
  2. If there is a deformation of the joints on the hand, use special fixators, which can be purchased in orthopedic salons. They gently limit the range of motion and thereby reduce pain in the hands.
  3. Specific therapeutic exercises for the hands.
  4. Physiotherapy: magnetotherapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy, paraffin and mud applications, etc.
  5. Radon baths.
  6. Reflexology in the early stages of the disease.

Folk methods

Perhaps the use in the early stages of the disease and as symptomatic therapy against the background of drug treatment:

  • Warm compresses in the form of cakes of rye flour (steamed with boiling water to a thick slurry and applied to the hands) overnight or before cooling (up to 8 hours). After rubbing the mixture of honey and alcohol (vodka) in equal proportions. You can use iodine with glycerin.
  • On an inflamed joint (usually wrist) for the night, apply a cabbage leaf or burdock, previously warmed up in a water bath. Cover with cellophane (film) from above and wrap it with a warm scarf.
  • You can use cabbage juice for this purpose, soak gauze and apply to the joints in the form of compresses.
  • Use warm baths with broth of willow bark for 15-20 minutes before bedtime. 3-5 l. water 120-200 gr. dried bark steamed in a water bath. You can apply a leaf of lingonberry.

Consequences and complications

Deformation and progressive limitation of range of motion in small joints of the wrist and wrist joint, up to immobility, which leads to disability (pianists, violinists, artists, etc.) and disability. Subluxation of small joints may appear.


Eating jelly-like components – aspic, gelatin. Regularly rub creams and gels with chondroprotectors into the joints of the hands.

Avoid general hypothermia and pay more attention to brushes, use warm gloves.

Preferred work in dry and warm rooms, not associated with high humidity.

Use mechanized labor to reduce finger pressure. When performing the same type of work and requiring small and precise movements of the hand, spend “five-minute” rest to warm up the fingers and wrist joints, reduce the uniformity of movements.

Control body weight, as manifestations of obesity or just being overweight are a sign of metabolic disturbances that indirectly contribute to the progression of any chronic disease

Remember: arthrosis belongs to the group of chronic diseases, has a tendency to progression of the process. The sooner you start measures to prevent and prevent the disease, the later irreversible restrictions on the range of motion in the joints of the hands will appear. Take care of your hands and the body as a whole since childhood, dress according to the weather, strengthen your immunity and health problems will bypass you.

Osteoarthrosis of the hands

An important place in the musculoskeletal system is occupied by the hands. Every day a huge amount of work falls to their lot. It can be an excessive load or vice versa, small, but painstaking and accurate work. It is important that human hands can cope with actions of any complexity. A person’s ability to work and his ability to self-service depend to a large extent on them. Therefore, it is necessary to take care of your hands and do everything necessary to avoid possible joint diseases.

Osteoarthrosis of the hands

One of the most serious diseases that affect joints is arthrosis. They can develop in any joints, but most often occur in larger than small ones. Osteoarthrosis also did not bypass the joints of the fingers and hands. Untimely treatment of pathology can cause deforming arthrosis, in which the mobility of the fingers and hands becomes limited, or completely lost. It is important to identify the symptoms in time, consult a specialist and diagnose the disease before it becomes severe.

Causes of osteoarthritis of the hands

As with any other arthrosis, the main reason is age. Over time, all joints and cartilage are erased, their nutrition and blood circulation are disturbed. Osteoarthritis of the hands often develops in the elderly and women during menopause. Other common causes are:

  • injuries to the joints of the hands, fingers;
  • hereditary predisposition;
  • birth defects and developmental pathologies;
  • impaired metabolism;
  • excess weight;
  • violation of the endocrine system;
  • excessive constant pressure on the hands.

Why does osteoarthritis of the hands occur

Symptoms of osteoarthritis of the hands

Although the disease develops rather slowly, it requires immediate treatment at the first sign. The main symptoms of osteoarthritis of the hands are:

  • pain when moving in the joints;
  • numbness of the extremities and swelling;
  • violation of mobility and accuracy of actions with hands;
  • swelling may occur in the affected area;
  • the appearance of growths and nodules of Heberden in the fingers;
  • visible change in the shape of the fingers;
  • crunching of joints during movement;
  • response to weather conditions by pain.

Osteoarthrosis can also be confused with other diseases, so you should not make a diagnosis on your own. See a doctor as soon as possible.

Stages of development of the disease

Osteoarthrosis is a progressive disease. It has its own developmental stages, which differ in symptoms and changes in the joint. With each new degree of development of the disease, treatment is becoming more difficult. There are three main stages:

  1. First degree. It is characterized by rare pain that is easily confused with fatigue or overstrain. Pain can occur due to weather conditions, after sleeping or lifting weights. At this stage, the distance between the joints decreases, blood circulation and nutrition of the cartilage tissue are disturbed. At this stage, the disease can be cured with folk remedies, special gymnastics and massages.
  2. Second degree. Severe pain that can occur at any time. Swelling and swelling appears in the lesions of small joints of the fingers. Painful cysts can form, which are located between the nail and the lesion. These formations can be opened independently, releasing a kind of liquid. When moving with fingers and hand, a crunch is heard, mobility is limited. Performing small work becomes almost impossible, due to the growth of bone tissue. At this stage, arthrosis becomes deforming. It is easy to identify the disease using x-rays. Treatment at this stage is to slow down the development of osteoarthrosis.
  3. Third degree. The advanced stage of osteoarthritis of the hands, in which the pain becomes unbearable. Movement in the joints is almost completely limited. The fingers have a specific shape, the phalanges are curved in different directions and various growths and nodules formed on the joints are clearly visible on them. Cartilage tissue at this stage is almost completely destroyed. Joints can grow together. Treatment of this stage has practically no effect, surgical intervention is necessary.

Stages of osteoarthritis

Hand Osteoarthrosis

Osteoarthrosis is a very serious progressive disease, the timely treatment of which will help to avoid many problems. The disease proceeds slowly and in stages. The initial stage is treated quite simply if you consult a doctor on time. In the future, it is only possible to slow down the development of arthrosis and remove pain.

The disease is treated for a long time, so you need to be patient. The course of treatment should be comprehensive, you can supplement it with folk remedies for greater effectiveness. First of all, it is necessary to relieve pain, inflammation, swelling, as well as restore blood circulation and nutrition of cartilage, slow its destruction. Medication includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, various ointments, gels, injections of hyaluronic acid, painkillers.

In the early stages, the use of chondroprotectors helps to restore cartilage. In this case, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are used, which are introduced into the joint. These drugs provide it with nutrients, restore the structure, normalize the formation of synovial fluid. In advanced cases, these funds are useless.

In the joint treatment complex, it is necessary to include special exercises, shock-wave and laser therapy, phonophoresis, electrophoresis. It is also important to follow a special diet.

From folk remedies, cosmetic clay can be distinguished. It helps to stop the destruction of cartilage. It relieves inflammation of chamomile, cabbage leaf with honey, beeswax.

In order to avoid the re-development of the disease, it is worth taking seriously prevention. You need to eat right, monitor the condition of your hands, consult a doctor on time to ensure the restoration and nutrition of cartilage, joints. This is especially important for those who are at risk for developing arthrosis.

Osteoarthrosis of the hand

A disease such as osteoarthrosis of the hands is diagnosed in 1 out of 5 cases of arthrosis. As a result of the development of the disease, cartilage tissue is destroyed. More prone to such an ailment are precisely women who have a genetic predisposition or are in the menopause. The causes of the onset of the disease are difficult to determine.

What triggers the development of pathology?

Osteoarthritis of the hands develops under the influence of the following factors:

  • Age. The older the patient, the more pronounced the processes of cartilage depletion. Elasticity sharply decreases, vulnerability to active physical activity develops.
  • Hormonal changes. Osteoarthritis of the joints of the fingers is a common occurrence in women during menopause. Most often, it is at this moment that calcium deficiency is observed, which contributes to the development of the disease.
  • Metabolic disease. It plays a significant role in the development of concomitant pathologies.
  • Work. Monotonous movements of the fingers lead to arthrosis.
  • Genetic predisposition. One of the most important factors affecting arthrosis of the toes and hands.

Symptoms that accompany the disease

Not everyone knows about the existence of such a pathology as osteoarthritis of the fingers, so at the first stages it does not attach importance to the signs of the disease. The main symptom of the disease is damage to the joints of the fingers, which is accompanied by the appearance of nodules. At the same time, such signs as appear:

  • Stiffness in movement. Fine motor skills of the hands worsen, the ability to control the fingers of the hands is lost.
  • Crunch and pain. Similar symptoms of osteoarthritis of the joints appear with minimal movements. At the last stage of the disease, the brush becomes square.
  • External changes in the hands. The limbs swell, nodes appear.

A characteristic sign of arthrosis is the inability to write with a pen. After this inconvenience appears, people often go to the doctor.

Extent of the disease

The disease is conditionally divided into 3 stages of development. Pathology of the 1st degree is characterized by a gradual loss of cartilage in the hands of elasticity. The patient has the presence of aching pain attacks, which often worsen in the evening. Muscle tissue is under tension, swelling appears. At the initial stage of the disease, the ability to make finger movements is not limited.

Osteoarthrosis of the hands of the 2nd degree begins with the first cartilage deformities. The joint bag is gradually inflamed. The pain syndrome is more pronounced, in particular, discomfort is manifested when the load on the fingers is performed. The skin around the affected cartilage becomes inflamed, the temperature rises, and redness appears. Joints increase in size, muscles atrophy.

Deforming arthrosis of the last (third) stage consists in the complete immobilization of the affected hands. The fingers are deformed, bent, stop working, as the cartilage is almost completely destroyed. In the absence of treatment and further progression of arthrosis disease, there is a risk of developing ankylosis – total immobilization of the articular complex.

Osteoarthrosis Treatment

The treatment process depends on many factors, including the degree of development of the disease and the accuracy of the diagnosis. It is necessary to treat osteoarthrosis of the wrist joint comprehensively. The complex includes drug therapy, exercise therapy (physiotherapy exercises), an established mechanism of nutrition, massages and physiotherapy. In some cases, it will be useful to use traditional medicine.

The initial stage of the disease involves the use of medications. Depending on how quickly the diagnosis is made, the effectiveness of the entire treatment depends. The first symptoms after which you urgently need to run to the doctor are clicks and problems in making movements in the joints. And in this case, not only the hands are affected, the disease can begin to develop from the big toe. The doctor prescribes anti-inflammatory drugs in combination with painkillers. The use of ointments, tablets, injections is allowed. Among which:

It will be useful to take drugs whose action is aimed at restoring and protecting against damage to cartilage tissue. An important condition is the absence of inflammatory formations of the joint. In parallel with chondroprotectors, medications are prescribed to normalize blood flow. Examples of tools:

Folk remedies

Osteoarthritis of the joints of the hands of the hands is a complex disease in which all treatment methods are good. But previously, doctors can’t do this without consulting doctors, since the most harmless home remedies can provoke complications. At the initial stage, pain can be eliminated and the blood supply to small capillaries can be improved using ointments based on propolis, honey. It is recommended to apply compresses from horseradish broth several times a day. When taking baths, it is recommended to add pine tree extract or any other essential oil to which there is no allergy.

Temporary relief will be given by wraps with onion gruel. To prepare a compress, chopped onions are mixed with kefir. In the fight against edema, diuretics, tinctures, and natural decoctions of nettle are also used. Treatment with folk remedies is not complete without homemade ointments based on such components as:

Exercise therapy (physiotherapy exercises)

Treatment of DOA of the hands using special exercises will not be able to get rid of the disease, but it will completely improve the overall picture of what is happening. You can ask your doctor what is the best set of exercises to use in treatment, so that in no case worsen the situation. An individual course is selected for each patient, including flexion and extension, simple tapping of fingers on a hard surface.

Success from physiotherapy exercises depends on the regularity of all tasks.

Fast Recovery Nutrition

What the patient includes in the daily diet depends on how quickly osteoarthritis of the hands is cured. It is important to give preference to dishes containing gelatin and collagen, these products strengthen the tissues of cartilage and interphalangeal joints. It is recommended to include more lactic acid products in the diet. It is necessary to abandon the use of alcoholic beverages, since many drugs for the treatment of joint pathology are incompatible with alcohol, moreover, alcohol destroys already weak bones and cartilage. The menu should dominate healthy foods in the form of vegetables and fruits, herbs. They are rich in vitamins, antioxidants and vital ingredients.

Massage effect

Deforming arthrosis needs massage treatments. To learn how to massage yourself, you need to consult a specialist for advice. Each finger of the right and left wrists, forearms and hands is rubbed. These simple manipulations help improve blood circulation. And also a warm-up of fingers and palms is done. The best assistant in this case is a rubber ball.

Physiotherapy for osteoarthritis of the hands

In order to reduce pain attacks in the hands and stabilize the metabolism in the cartilage, patients are shown physiotherapy: electrophoresis, paraffin treatments, magnetic sessions, laser therapy. After physiotherapy, the nutrition of the hands and fingers improves markedly. Indications for physiotherapy are determined by the doctor, depending on the stage of neglect of the disease.

Symptoms and treatment of osteoarthritis of the hands

Joint diseases are increasingly manifested. They affect both large and small joints. Osteoarthritis of the hands, the treatment of which is based on medical or surgical methods, is characterized by significant changes in the cartilage tissue. This disease in recent years often affects women. The cause of such disorders in the human body is difficult to establish.

Why the disease occurs

Deforming osteoarthritis of the hands can occur at any age. The disease does not know the limitations, it is common for him to appear both in schoolchildren and in older individuals. Degenerative pathology has many reasons that contribute to the beginning of its formation:

  • congenital defects of the joints of the fingers;
  • genetic predisposition to the destruction of cartilage;
  • professional activities (pianists, IT specialists, painters, stucco, gift wrappers, sellers and other professions that require the same finger movements);
  • pathology of the endocrine system, patients often suffer when the diagnosis of diabetes is indicated on the medical chart;
  • aging;
  • hormonal changes.

Osteoarthritis of the fingers can occur due to microtraumas that a person can get while working behind the loom, in case of accidental impact on the door jamb, during a fall or when typing on the keyboard. The disease is characterized by education due to malnutrition. Also, osteoarthrosis of small joints appears when wearing heavy weights and when overweight.

What are the symptoms of pathology?

Symptoms of the disease depend on the stage of development. With damage to the joints of the hands, osteoarthritis passes through 3 degrees of formation. Detailed clinical picture of the disease:

  1. The pathological process does not begin immediately. Sometimes the disease goes unnoticed for a long time, it progresses and deforms the joint every day. Most often, a person does not pay attention to aching pain after a long working day or carrying a heavy load. At 1 degree, bouts of pain appear periodically, pass at rest. Movement is not difficult, stiffness is not observed.
  2. The disease with 2 degrees of formation is characterized by more frequent manifestations of pain. Swelling and redness of the joints appear. At this stage, chronic inflammation of the interphalangeal joints of the hands begins. The disease is characterized by stiffness, stiffness appears in the morning, which lasts up to 15 minutes. Atrophy of the muscles gradually occurs, the affected joint increases in size.
  3. The third degree is the most difficult. During this period, constant aching, sharp pains are observed. The finger is so swollen that it is difficult for the patient to move it. Symptoms bother constantly, even during the rest period. The functioning of the hand is disrupted, the amplitude of movements decreases. The deformation becomes pronounced, visible to the naked eye. Nodular formations appear.

Attention! Further progression and alteration of the cartilaginous surface may completely deform the hand; surgery will be necessary. The disease leads to the appearance of ankylosis, in which the joint becomes completely immobilized.

Who to contact

Which doctor treats osteoarthritis of the thumb and other fingers? With this pathology, it is better to contact a therapist, he will give a referral to the right specialist. If the disease began to form due to injury, you need to visit a traumatologist.

In other cases, the therapist will refer you to a rheumatologist or arthrologist. These doctors work directly with pathologies of the musculoskeletal system.

Medicines used to treat

How to treat degenerative disease? An integrated approach is needed here. Therapy of osteoarthritis of the hands is carried out with the use of drugs, physiotherapy, sometimes surgical intervention is required. It is necessary to treat the disease at the first and second stages of development with the help of medications and physiotherapy. Among the drugs for internal use, it is recommended to use:

  1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are necessary to relieve soreness, inflammation, swelling. The advantage is given to such drugs as Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Celebrex, Nise and others.
  2. Chondroprotectors are an integral part of treatment. Means are taken to restore and regenerate the cartilage of damaged joints. The substances that make up the preparations can restore it only if small areas of cartilage are still present. For example, Teraflex, Alflutop, Movex.
  3. Injections of hyaluronic acid into damaged joints stop the development of degenerative processes. Corticosteroid injections (Cortisone) are also given if NSAIDs do not help, and the pain returns after using them.

Treatment with ointments is possible at any stage of development. Of course, at the last stage of the formation of pathology, they will not help much, but on the first and second degree, as well as after surgery, funds for external use in the form of gels, creams and ointments remarkably contribute to the relief of pain and inflammation. Well-functioning Butadion, Indomethacin, Diclofenac.

In addition to treatment with drugs, it is important to observe nutrition. The diet is necessary for the restoration of joints, it is adhered to both during therapy and after it. The exclusion of fatty, fried, spicy, salty foods will significantly improve the patient’s condition.

Combination therapy of finger osteoarthritis also consists of physiotherapy. They suggest the use of electrophoresis, exposure to laser and ultrasound. Magnetotherapy has proved its effectiveness, recently it has been used more often. It is also useful to use mud and paraffin baths.

The treatment with Ultraton proved to be excellent. This unit uses high voltage and supersonic frequency. Ultratonotherapy normalizes blood circulation, has anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and analgesic effects on the joints.

Attention! Treatment with this method has many contraindications, therefore it can only be carried out in a hospital and after consultation with your doctor.

Clay treatment shows excellent results. Clay has amazing abilities, it heals, restores damaged tissue, relieves pain. Clay is selected depending on the symptoms of the disease, in this case it is useful to use a black and green look.

Is it possible to soar hands with osteoarthritis of the fingers? It is allowed to soar hands if the disease is in remission, the patient does not use corticosteroid drugs, and there is no purulent accumulation.

Therapy with folk remedies

How to treat finger osteoarthritis at home? Traditional healers offer several effective recipes that can be used at any age and at any degree of the disease. These recipes are:

  1. Rinse the celery root under running water, grind in a blender, squeeze the juice with gauze. Porridge, which remained not thrown out, is applied to the patients of the joint, fixed with plastic wrap, and fixed with a warm scarf. The juice obtained from celery root can be drunk. For two weeks, take 135 ml of juice divided into three parts daily.
  2. Cut aloe pulp. Weigh 55 g, mix with 150 ml of medical alcohol and 100 g of natural liquid honey. The medicine is insisted for a week. Use for compresses.

Advice! Treatment with folk remedies can be carried out as bathtubs with the addition of decoctions of medicinal plants that have a local and restorative effect.

Therapeutic exercise

Gymnastics is necessary to restore the mobility of the fingers and hands. It is carried out under the supervision of a physiotherapist. Exercise therapy promotes a speedy recovery. The complex of physiotherapy exercises for osteoarthritis of the fingers:

  1. Bend each finger alternately, and then bend it. Repeat 5-10 times.
  2. With your thumb, alternately touch the other fingers. Having reached the little finger, begin to do the exercise in the reverse order.
  3. Place your hand palm down on a hard surface. Move your thumb to the side to the maximum distance. Repeat 5-10 times.
  4. Now put your hand back on the table. Bend your thumb, trying to press it to the palm of your hand.
  5. Take a soft ball, squeeze it in a fist.

With osteoarthritis at home, you can come up with a lot of exercises. For example, scatter small objects, and now lift them, only change your fingers every time. For example, first lift large and forefinger, then large and nameless, etc.

Morozov Georgiy

Georgy Morozov, rheumatologist. For more than 20 years, he has been involved in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of joint diseases.