Finger polyarthritis – features, causes, symptoms and treatment

Finger polyarthritis is a common joint disease. Acquisition risks increase in proportion to age. Every 4 people after 60 years have primary or specific symptoms. Despite the fact that in severe stages, pathology is incurable, for many species there is a favorable prognosis. Simple preventive measures can prevent the disease or slow down progress for a long time.

General concept

A characteristic disease of old age, specularly affecting the small joints of the fingers. Most often occurs against the background of rheumatic viruses.

Pathology is accompanied by inflammation of the synovial joint bag and surrounding tissues. This is the cause of severe pain, loss of fine motor skills and, at the last stage, complete immobilization of the hands.

In 90% of cases, this disease takes on a chronic form. All joints are alternately involved in the process, and irreversible deformation occurs. As a rule, the disease cannot be completely cured and requires constant stabilization.

Despite the fact that the disease is more characteristic of older people, there are many cases of detection at a young age. This is due to the general “rejuvenation” of arthritic diseases. For a young age, the prognosis is more favorable and completely depends on a timely visit to a rheumatologist.

Clinical picture of the disease

An anamnesis of pathology of the hands is individual, depending on the etiology of the disease.

  • Pain syndrome;
  • Swelling of the phalangeal joints;
  • Fever in the affected area;
  • Impaired blood circulation in the fingers;
  • Feeling of tightness.

For diagnosis in the early stages, every detail of the patient’s condition is important. First of all, the epicenter of the disease, symmetry, constant or modified inflammation, the presence of typical diseases having complications in the form of polyarthritis are determined. Laboratory studies complement the clinical picture. In conjunction with an external examination, they provide the basis for a diagnosis.

The presence of rheumatoid index, uric acid, antibodies in double-stranded DNA, and antinuclear factor in the analyzes determines the causes of the disease.

In some cases, a biopsy of the synovial fluid is necessary. The study of the biochemical composition is an important stage in the accurate diagnosis. The picture of the disease may vary from the causes of the development of pathology. Each type of disease is characterized by its features and characteristics. Type identification is the initial goal of early diagnosis.

Classification of the disease

The disease has several varieties. Classification divides the disease depending on the nature of the occurrence and course:

The disease is a complication of viral and bacterial pathologies, such as tuberculosis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, brucellosis. The main provocateur enters the joints through the circulatory system. Staying in a favorable environment of synovial fluid, the infection begins to gradually destroy the joint. This type has a rapid course and pronounced symptoms. Fingers swell strongly, shape and size change. The color of the skin becomes purple-red. The pain is so strong that simple movements become impossible.

It is a consequence of bruises, dislocations, fractures. It differs from other species in a favorable prognosis. Proper treatment ensures complete recovery. The characteristic symptoms are constant aching pain in the fingers, a feeling of aches. With flexion, extension of the fingers, a crunch is heard.

It is caused by the negative vital activity of pathogenic microorganisms that cause such dangerous diseases as hepatitis C, botulism, encephalitis, smallpox. A side complication is polyarthritis of the fingers. Symptoms accumulate gradually and do not always manifest themselves in the early stages, which is a significant difficulty for diagnosis. There is slight swelling of the fingers and pulling pain, which is often lost against the background of the underlying disease.

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The disease with an unknown etiology. Causes of occurrence have not been established to date. They can be either genetically determined or due to non-obvious factors – hypothermia, trauma, age. It develops against the background of multiple lesions of internal organs. Almost always has a chronic form.

The disease destroys the outer shell of the joint and cartilage. The signs are extensive, in the primary stages there is an increase in the phalangeal joints and a slight swelling.

It is the result of excessive accumulation of salt crystals in articular bags. This is directly related to metabolic disorders in the body. Slow metabolism does not remove excess minerals. It is characterized by pain and impaired motor function of the fingers.

It develops against the background of psoriasis – a chronic lesion of the epidermis. The reasons and provocateurs are not clarified. The first signs may appear as early as 6 months after the main diagnosis. Most often observed in young people. Symptoms are not specific – some discomfort and a little stiffness in the fingers.

Causes

Polyarthritis of the hands is very common. Due to the lack of a large accumulation of muscles and constant physical activity, small joints are affected by negative factors much more often than other joints of the musculoskeletal system.

The main causes of the development of the disease are:

  • Genetic predisposition;
  • The development of rheumatic viruses in the circulatory system;
  • Autoimmune diseases, oncology, malignant neoplasms;
  • Specific infectious diseases;
  • Pathological changes in internal organs;
  • Psoriasis and other epidermal diseases;
  • Fungal lesions;
  • Past injuries – bruises, fractures.

In most cases, the disease is a complication of other diseases. Violation of the normal function of the circulatory, immune and endocrine systems leads to articular pathologies. Joint tissues, not receiving the necessary amount of nutrients and oxygen, respond to inflammation, the development of diseases of the arthritic group.

symptomatology

Like all diseases of the musculoskeletal system, the disease has three stages of development:

Symptoms of the initial stage are almost invisible. Painful sensations in the fingers rarely occur, for example, after prolonged work in the country or the transfer of heavy bags. In the morning, the hands are swollen, movements are constrained. The phalanges of the fingers acquire a reddish tint.

Fingers change their normal shape. Nodules, thickenings appear in the articular folds. The pain syndrome is still mild, but is constantly present.

Elevated body temperature steadily lasts more than 4 weeks. Signs are especially pronounced during adverse weather conditions. Hands “feel” rain or snow in 2-3 days.

The fingers lose their motor function and are completely modified. Deformation is visible to the naked eye. Joints almost double in size. The growth of bone tissue is so strong that it damages the epidermis – ulcers and wounds appear. The pain is excruciating, constant.

Hand polyarthritis treatment

Therapeutic measures for joint pathologies include the methods of traditional and traditional medicine – medical, physiological, homeopathic. Complete and effective treatment cannot be carried out independently.

Only the attending physician can prescribe the necessary funds and give useful recommendations, after a complete study of the clinical picture of the disease. First of all, drug treatment is carried out. This is necessary to relieve pain and inflammation.

The treatment regimen includes several mandatory drug groups:

  1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Drugs are necessary to suppress inflammatory processes, relieve swelling and nonspecific symptoms. Depending on the stage of the disease, the simplest ones are Citramon, Acetylsalicylic Acid, Ibuprofen, Voltaren, Diclofenac. So are the more advanced Arkoxia, Movalis, Nimelis.
  2. Antibiotics. Appointed with infectious polyarthritis of the fingers. Effective in the fight “Spiramycin”, “Ciprofloxacin”, “Lomefloxacin”, “Azithromycin”, “Doxycycline.”
  3. Corticosteroids. Hormonal drugs inhibit the production of large amounts of cortisone, which is the main culprit in inflammatory processes. The most common is Hydrocartisone. It is prescribed in most cases. Good action was shown by Prednisolone, Aldosterone, Betamethasone, and Cortinef.
  4. Anti-rheumatic drugs. They are prescribed in combination with basic medicines. They relieve pain in the joints of the fingers, tend to accumulate in the tissues and provide a stable result. “Methotrexate”, “Sulfasalazine”, “Adalimumab”, “Hydroxychloroquine”, “Etanercept”, “Infliximab”.
  5. Chondroprotectors. The drugs of the group are aimed at the regeneration of cartilage. Requires long-term use, at least 6 months. “Alflutop”, “Rumalon”, “Mukartrin”, “Arteparon”, “Chondrolon”, “Chondrex”, “Mukosat”, “Structum” – the choice is very large, both in characteristics and in the price category.
    Additionally, anesthetics, ointments, gels can be prescribed. In severe cases, pain medications for the opiate group are indicated.
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Physiotherapy

It is carried out in combination with drug treatment. Procedures are carried out on the hands using special equipment or manually:

  • Ultrasound therapy;
  • Magnetotherapy;
  • Electrophoresis;
  • Paraffin baths;
  • Manual therapy;
  • Massages
  • Mud baths;
  • Low temperature treatment – dry ice and nitrogen;
  • Laser correction of cartilage tissue.

All methods are united by one goal – the removal of pain and the return of mobility to the fingers.

Prevention

The disease can deprive a person of the main function. The inability to carry out the movements laid down by nature, puts the patient in a dependent position on others. Simple preventive measures can prevent the development of the disease as such or prevent progression to a chronic form:

  • Avoid hypothermia, use gloves in the winter;
  • When pain occurs, make warm baths, with the addition of medicinal herbal preparations;
  • Periodically massage your hands, this improves blood circulation;
  • If possible, visit the pool, a kind of hydrotherapy positively affects the functionality of the joints of the fingers;
  • In no case do not soar your hands. Warming procedures should be prescribed only by a doctor. Otherwise, you can create a favorable environment for inflammation;
  • Treat all infectious diseases to the end;
  • Do not refuse a routine examination, even if there are no pronounced symptoms.

It should be remembered that the disease in advanced form is incurable. A timely visit to a rheumatologist will help maintain full mobility of the limbs to a very old age.

Shishkevich Vladimir
Shishkevich Vladimir
Orthopedic doctor, traumatologist
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I have been treating joints for many years. I can say with confidence that the joints are always treatable, even in the very ripe old age.

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