Children’s arthritis refers to an etiologically diverse group that combines various rheumatic diseases. The disease is characterized by inflammation of all, without exception, elements of the joints. Arthritis in children can provoke various conditions.
Moreover, different forms cause various factors. The most commonly diagnosed rheumatic form of the disease, which develops due to a predisposition at the gene level. In addition to this, causes of joint damage include the following factors:
- bacterial infections (e.g., streptococci). Often such a pathology is caused by scarlet fever, tonsillitis, otitis media, etc .;
- extraarticular infections;
- viral infections. For example, hepatitis or influenza can cause illness. Joint infection can occur through blood or an open injury. Viral arthritis is diagnosed in children very often;
- vaccination (a variant of its complication);
- hypersensitivity of an organism to a specific medicine, product or allergen;
Also, adverse living conditions can lead to the appearance of such an ailment. In connection with such a variety of reasons for the development of arthritis in young children, many pediatricians (Komarovsky and others) recommend that you contact your doctor immediately if the initial signs of malaise appear.
- Symptoms and manifestations
- Diagnosis in children
- Video “Arthritis in children”
- Arthritis in children: symptoms, treatment features, causes of development
- clinical picture
- Common symptoms for all forms
- Reactive arthritis
- Rheumato >Manifestations of signs of arthritis in a child are observed in the acute inflammatory process of joint tissues. Symptoms:
- Infectious and allergic
- Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis
- Treatment of arthritis in children
- Symptoms, signs of a disease in a child
- Reactive arthritis
- Infectious or septic arthritis
- Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
- Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis
- Juvenile psoriatic arthritis
- Arthritis in children and its varieties
- Causes of Arthritis in a Child
- Symptoms of Arthritis in Children
- The main types of arthritis in children
- Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
- Reactive arthritis
- Infectious Arthritis in Children
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Allergic arthritis
- Principles of treatment
Symptoms and treatment of this disease are directly dependent on the form. Today, doctors distinguish these types of this ailment:
- rheumatoid arthritis. Appears as a consequence of rheumatism. It develops after a streptococcal infection;
- rheumatoid juvenile type. Rheumatoid arthritis in children develops after the appearance of a chronic focus of inflammation of the joint. It is often diagnosed at the age of five. In addition to 5 years, he often occurs in 12-14 years. And the girls are sick;
- juvenile ankylosing spondylitis. The second name is ankylosing spondylitis;
- reactive. They develop due to the presence of a predisposition at the gene level or the presence of an extra-articular infection;
- the type associated with various infections;
Also, sometimes in children of different ages, polyarthritis occurs. It must be remembered that rheumatoid arthritis in a child and other forms of the disease have both similar and excellent symptoms. These manifestations must be known so as not to miss the onset of the disease and begin treatment on time. After all, arthritis in children with different causes should be treated according to different schemes.
Symptoms and manifestations
Despite the causes of the appearance, all types of arthritis, manifested in children, provoke the appearance of an inflammatory focus in the articular elements. This condition is accompanied by hyperemia, swelling and severe pain. Large joints are often affected. In the morning, their stiffness can also be observed, as well as a change in gait. Babies affected by an illness in 2 years can stop walking altogether. Lymphadenopathies, uveitis, and polymorphic skin rashes are also common. Such symptoms are identified as articular syndrome.
In the acute stage of the pathology, the temperature often rises (38–39 ° C). Perhaps an increase in the size of the spleen and liver. In some forms, an allergic rash, polyserositis, myocarditis, and anemia develop. If there is progressive childhood arthritis, then the symptoms of such an ailment will manifest themselves in persistent bending of the joints, impaired mobility, the appearance of amyloidosis of the internal organs (kidneys, heart, etc.). Such a development of events often ends with disability. Usually, rheumatoid arthritis in juvenile children has such an outcome.
In all cases of the disease, the baby becomes moody and weak. Such a variety of symptoms in the detection of arthritis in children requires an accurate study. In order for the diagnosis to be reliable, in this case, laboratory tests (various tests), MRI or CT of the joints, as well as x-rays and ultrasound are used.
Diagnosis in children
Due to the fact that the child has rheumatoid or any other arthritis is characterized by a polysymptomatic course, the diagnosis of the exact form can be difficult for his attending physician. Therefore, various specialists take part in the diagnosis: pediatrician, dermatologist and rheumatologist, etc. Moreover, participation in the diagnosis of a doctor depends on what signs appeared. After all, rheumatoid arthritis in children can have the same symptoms with various other forms of the disease.
Doctors, to determine the diagnosis, must take into account the development of the disease over time. Especially if the appeal was carried out in an advanced stage. They carefully examine the affected joint. Very often, in order to clarify the diagnosis, laboratory tests are performed (for example, determination of antinuclear antibodies, etc.).
The treatment of arthritis in children depends on the form and stage of the course. The main method of treatment is medication. The doctor prescribes a therapeutic ointment and specific medications. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in children and other forms of the manifestation of the disease also includes:
You can also treat the disease through immobilization of the joint for a certain time. As practice shows, the best results are given by complex therapy.
If rheumatoid or other arthritis in children had the correct treatment, which was provided in a timely manner, then after its completion no development is observed.
However, if there was an infectious infection, then a reactive variant of the disease may occur as a relapse. With a long course of the disease, a violation of the mobility of articular elements is possible. Their deformation or destruction also occurs, which ends in disability.
In order to protect the child from the risks of complications, parents should know the first signs of the development of joint damage of an inflammatory type. This disease, developing in babies, in the case of treatment is necessary does not carry a clear danger. However, delaying treatment may not end well.
Video “Arthritis in children”
From this video you will learn how to identify arthritis in children.
Arthritis in children: symptoms, treatment features, causes of development
Arthritis in children is a group of diseases that differ in the course and etiology, pathologies of this type affect every first child out of a thousand. The social significance of the disease is determined by the widespread incidence of disability. In severe cases, arthritis in children leads to a limitation of motor activity. An important role is played by the timely diagnosis of the disease; medications, physiotherapeutic procedures, folk recipes, and diet are used in the treatment.
The reasons for the development of arthritis in children are very different, the most common are injuries to the joints, immunodeficiencies, diseases of the central nervous system, metabolic disorders. The development of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is associated with a combination of damaging factors and an increased sensitivity of the body to their influence.
- viral diseases – arise due to the spread of the virus throughout the body – pathogenic microorganisms penetrate into the joint tissue;
- hormonal changes – often manifested in adolescence;
- vaccination – is less common due to an increase in the quality of drugs;
- living in poor living conditions, which are cons >Experts identify many reasons for the development of pathology
Arthritis of the ankle joint occurs with flat feet, overweight children. If symptoms occur, consult a pediatrician.
With arthritis, the child begins to tire, he has pain in his legs, he often crouches, deliberately reduces the movements of the limbs, does not play active games, constantly cries. In the next stage, typical signs of arthritis join. Sometimes pathology is accompanied by fever, malaise, muscle pain, swelling of the joints. Any motor activity is accompanied by pain, sleep disturbance, loss of appetite. Violations also occur from other organs, conjunctivitis, gingivitis are observed.
The child may complain of leg pain and fatigue.
There are several classifications of the disease, arthritis in a child goes through several stages.
Stages of the development of the disease:
- signs of osteoporosis – in the absence of destructive changes in the joint tissues;
- a slight decrease in the width of the joint spaces, symptoms of cartilage destruction, the occurrence of single erosions;
- noticeable narrowing of the gap, destruction of the cartilage, multiple erosion;
- joint ankylosis.
At the initial stage, the patient feels a moderate restriction of motor activity while maintaining the possibility of self-care and any activity. With the development of arthritis, all opportunities are gradually lost, up to the impossibility of self-care.
Common symptoms for all forms
The main signs of arthritis in the initial stages of the development of the disease are weak, arthritis in the child manifests itself in the form of fever. It can change several times during the day, is not amenable to treatment with drugs.
Later, the following symptoms occur:
- severe pain in the affected joints;
- muscle pain;
- tumors in the joints;
- lack of appetite;
- inflammation, enlarged lymph joints;
- restriction of motor activity (especially in the morning);
- inflammation localized in the area, pericardial pleura; sharp weight loss;
- worsening gait, lameness;
- specific crunch in the joints.
The first symptom of arthritis in a child may be fever
Children with arthritis become lethargic, lethargic, suffer from poor appetite. Manifestations of chronic arthritis depend on the classification of the disease, its severity.
Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.
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Reactive arthritis occurs against the background of infections.
- temperature – a symptom occurs a month before the onset of the inflammatory process, the process is accompanied by frequent urination, diarrhea;
- swelling of the joint tissue, a change in the color, shape of the skin;
- asymmetric pain in 3-4 joints;
- joint pain, heel when walking;
Reactive arthritis in a child occurs due to infections
Pathology can be accompanied by tearing, photophobia, erosive processes of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, and heart complications also arise.
Rheumato >Manifestations of signs of arthritis in a child are observed in the acute inflammatory process of joint tissues.
- inflammation, swelling of large joints;
- pain, restriction of motor activity of affected tissues;
- abdominal pain;
- decreased visual function;
- enlarged lymph nodes;
- fragility of bone tissue.
Signs of the disease appear in the acute course of the disease
Untimely therapy leads to irreversible changes, destruction of bones, cartilage, a decrease in the space between bone tissues.
Infectious and allergic
The causes of infectious and allergic arthritis in children have not been fully identified. Most often, this species is considered a reaction to an infectious process that occurs in the nasopharynx. The disease develops two weeks after infection.
- decreased appetite;
- constant moods;
- pain in the affected area.
With infectious-allergic arthritis, the patient is lame
When diagnosing infectious-allergic arthritis, previously identified allergic reactions are taken into account.
Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis
It develops in patients under 16 years of age, the acute period lasts no longer than a month and a half. The disease belongs to the category of autoimmune, its own immune system perceives articular tissues as foreign, tries to tear them away. The reasons for this reaction of the body are still unknown. Pathology is accompanied by the release of a large volume of articular fluid, the subsequent hardening of which has a devastating effect on the cartilage.
The main symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis:
- swelling, redness, alteration of articular tissues;
- an increase in temperature in the affected area;
- slowing down the growth rate of the affected limb;
- crying, limitation of motor activity.
Juvenile ankylosing spondylitis is most common in children younger than 16 years old.
In the morning or after waking up, pain occurs in the affected joint, which disappears during movement.
Chronic juvenile arthritis in children is severe, there is a risk of assigning a disability group. The speed of diagnosis depends on the speed of going to the doctor.
- fever, at the peak of a rash;
- joint pain;
- early deformations of articular tissues;
- resizing organs.
Treatment of arthritis in children
It is believed that elderly people are faced with arthritis, this is not so. Many cases have been recorded when the disease manifests itself, worsens in children. The treatment of childhood arthritis is a complex process, the scheme depends on the specific case, primarily on the type of disease.
Symptoms, signs of a disease in a child
Signs of the development of childhood arthritis, the manifestations of symptoms are different, depending on many factors, including the age of the child, the type of disease, the cause of joint inflammation. It is difficult to identify the disease in infants – they cannot report their condition. Assays will help identify the disease.
Symptoms in children:
- Redness, swelling in the joints.
- Anxiety, tears, when shifted, do massage.
- Unreasonable increase in temperature.
- Lack of movement in the legs.
- Lack of weight, loss of interest in food.
With schoolchildren and preschoolers under 16 years old is easier. Symptoms at this age:
- Swelling, redness of the affected area of the legs.
- An increase in body temperature.
- Refusal to participate in outdoor games.
- Complaints of leg pain, stiffness.
- Decreased appetite, high fatigue, weight loss, constant moods.
The treatment for arthritis in children depends on the type of inflammation. Types of disease are different.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a consequence of the development of rheumatic fever. Processes begin more often after infection, after a while. The causes of rheumatoid arthritis are infections caused by streptococci – tonsillitis, pharyngitis, scarlet fever. The disease manifests itself after a time after the underlying cause.
- Increase in temperature to 39 degrees.
- Large joints of the legs are more often affected. The skin of the affected joint is red, hot to the touch, the joint swells.
- The defeat is of a symmetrical type.
- Severe pain, a significant limitation of mobility.
If signs appear in a child, you should consult a doctor who will prescribe studies for diagnosis.
- Blood tests contain a high level of white blood cells, ESR.
- A blood test for ASLO will be required, according to the results it is clear whether antibodies to the pathogen are present. An increased level will give the likelihood of a diagnosis of rheumatism.
- X-rays will reveal deviations in the composition of the joints, degree, nature.
The principles that treatment adheres to are bed rest, courses of medications. Bed rest is prescribed for the period until the temperature is removed, inflammation of the joints of the legs, for a period of four weeks.
The main prescribed drugs are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. If drugs of this group do not give a result, anti-inflammatory drugs on hormones are introduced into the treatment. To destroy the remaining infection, a course of antibiotics will be required.
There is a positive trend in treatment, the type of disease rarely leads to complete destruction of the joints, wheelchair. It is dangerous because with delayed therapy, complications with the work of the heart are manifested. At a young age, a heart defect is established in a child.
Pathology develops as a result of an infectious disease – intestinal, urinary tract infection. The reactive form of arthritis of the joints is associated with changes in the immune system. The number of years does not play a role.
A few weeks before the onset of joint inflammation, fever, diarrhea, frequent urination, and signs of infection are present.
Diagnosis is not much different from the previous type of disease, when conducting examinations, the picture is observed:
- Blood tests contain signs of the presence of bacteria that caused infections that preceded the disease.
- In the urine, the number of leukocytes and pathogens is increased.
- An analysis of feces reveals the bacteria that caused the infection.
- Fighting the original cause of the development of joint disease;
- Pain relief;
- Stopping the inflammatory process.
For the period of treatment, regardless of age, you will need to ensure complete peace. Initially, treatment is carried out with a course of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, if necessary, supplemented with drugs containing hormones. If the course is complex, severe, the use of anti-rheumatic injections is required. Depending on the type of infection detected, different types of antibacterial treatment are prescribed.
The duration of development, treatment of reactive arthritis is up to a year. If the form is not severe, significant relief in the condition occurs after two weeks of treatment. With the timely treatment of the parents, the correct diagnosis, the chosen effective treatment, there is a high probability of a full recovery. The consequences may be completely absent. If the infection reoccurs, relapses are present.
Infectious or septic arthritis
This type of arthritis is often diagnosed in children under three years of age, develops simultaneously in several joints. The development of the disease causes damage to the child’s body with dermatitis, fungi, other bacteria that enter the bloodstream, provoking the development of inflammatory processes in the joints of the legs.
- Inflammatory processes occurring in several large joints on the legs.
- Pain sensations are acute during movement. Children under one year old try to make the minimum number of movements with their feet, sometimes the legs do not move, the baby has nausea, drowsiness, irritability, high fever.
- In a general blood test, an increase in ESR, white blood cells.
- Puncture of intraarticular fluid. In the presence of pathology, a large number of leukocytes are found in it, pathogens of infection.
- Ultrasound of the joints of the legs.
If you do not consult a doctor in a timely manner, do not pass tests, the development of the disease will lead to the death of the baby. The treatment is carried out in a stationary mode, despite the number of years, antibiotic therapy is taken as the basis, the type depends on the type of pathogen. The duration of taking antibiotics is a month. In complex cases, surgery is required. It consists in making an incision in the joint, treating its surface with antibacterial agents. Viral arthritis cannot be left untreated; there can be serious consequences.
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, refers to a chronic form of pathology, the cause has not yet been definitely established. The first manifestations of the disease are observed after a year, up to four years. Signs of the disease:
- Inflammation in large joints.
- The joints change shape, increase.
- Pain during movement, in one case out of four pain does not occur.
- Lameness appears.
- With the occurrence of inflammatory processes, an increase in temperature is observed, reaching 40 degrees, the manifestation of a rash on the surface of the skin of the legs of a different nature, an increase in lymph nodes.
- Stiffness is more often felt in the morning hours, and gradually passes as you move.
When diagnosing juvenile arthritis, the doctor, in addition to a survey, a visual examination, prescribes laboratory, hardware studies. More often the patient is sent to:
- X-rays of bones, joints of the legs. With the disease, a narrowing of the intraarticular gap, osteoporosis, the presence of damage on the surface of the bone, cartilage tissue is observed.
- Computed tomography, which helps to make an accurate picture of the condition of the joints.
- Nuclear magnetic resonance helps to more accurately understand the nature and extent of lesions.
- Lab tests. An increase in ESR, white blood cells, the presence of specific antibodies.
Treatment consists of the following provisions:
A special diet that prov >
If treatment for juvenile arthritis is started in a timely manner, a complete recovery can be achieved with a small number of years. A prolonged course of the disease leads to disability of the child, the consequences are irreversible, they are difficult to treat.
Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis
The reasons for the development of pathology have not been established. Juvenile ankylosing spondylitis has symptoms:
- Pain in the legs, joints, lower back, back.
- The inflammation is symmetrical.
- Significant swelling of the surface of the joint.
- In parallel, there is inflammation in the joints of the spine.
- Against the background of the disease, other serious diseases develop – eye diseases, intestinal inflammation, Crohn’s disease.
- In the morning you feel stiff.
When diagnosing a disease, X-rays, blood tests, immunogenetic examination of the child for the presence of special genes have high information content.
The basis of therapy principles:
- Complex use of medications;
- Maintaining the activity of the child.
Among medications, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-rheumatic drugs, and biological drugs are isolated. A positive effect is achieved by regular physical therapy exercises under the supervision of a physician. He selects a specific set of exercises for a specific case.
Juvenile spondylitis with prolonged development without treatment leads to destruction of the spine, to the disability of the child.
Juvenile psoriatic arthritis
The disease develops with psoriasis. Often juvenile arthritis appears in the joints before signs of psoriasis appear on the skin. More often inflammatory processes occur in one of the toes. Treatment, diagnosis of arthritis is not different for both children and adults.
Arthritis in children and its varieties
Children’s arthritis is a whole group of diseases, one of the symptoms of which is inflammation of the joints. Among the main causes of damage to the articular apparatus include injuries, infections, allergic reactions and malfunctions of the immune system. In children, arthritis can be both chronic and acute, it can proceed both favorably and leaving serious consequences after itself, affecting one joint or several at once. In this article, we will examine why the joints of a child become inflamed, how to suspect something is wrong, and what to do in such cases.
Causes of Arthritis in a Child
The causes of joint inflammation in children are many. Consider only those that are most common.
Rheumatoid arthritis in children takes first place in prevalence and is one of the symptoms of rheumatism, or acute rheumatic fever. The development of the disease is based on the genetic tendency and the provoking effect of a bacterial infection, especially group A streptococci. Angina, nasopharyngitis, otitis media, streptoderma, scarlet fever and other bacterial infections can be a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis.
Juvenile rheumatoid polyarthritis is in second place in prevalence. This is a systemic autoimmune chronic progressive inflammation of the joints of unknown etiology, which affects mainly children under 16 years of age. The peak incidence occurs in 5-6 and 12-14 years, girls are sick 2 times more often than boys.
In addition to the joint, the disease can cause damage to internal organs, which lead to severe complications, for example, heart disease or chronic renal failure. Rheumatoid inflammation with the progression of the pathological process often leads to deformation of the joints, their subluxations, damage to the ligaments, muscle atrophy, which causes the loss of their function and disability of the child.
Reactive arthritis is an inflammation of the components of the joint of an infectious etiology, although the genetic tendency to a similar disease plays an important role. Arthritis develops as a result of an extraarticular infection, so inflammation is considered aseptic. There are 2 groups of reactive arthritis:
- postenterocolitic (intestinal infections are the cause) caused by yersinia, salmonella, dysentery bacillus, Escherichia, etc .;
- urogenital (causes – urinary tract infections) caused by chlamydia, ureaplasma, mycoplasma, Escherichia coli, etc.
Infectious arthritis, or septic, develop as a result of pathological microorganisms entering the joint cavity. They can be bacterial (gonorrheal, tuberculosis, brucellosis, staphylococcal, streptococcal, anaerobic), viral (rubella, hepatitis, adenovirus, mumps, flu) and parasitic. Infection can enter the joint in two ways: through blood or directly from the external environment with open injury.
Allergic arthritis most often develops as a complication after vaccination, with a child’s hypersensitivity to certain foods or other allergens, medications.
Important to remember! Determining the etiology of joint inflammation is necessary in each case, since the treatment is significantly different for arthritis that has arisen for various reasons.
Symptoms of Arthritis in Children
Unlike adults, signs of arthritis in children can be divided into local and general.
Local signs of joint inflammation:
- swelling and enlargement of the affected joint in volume;
- severe pain, which intensifies with any movement;
- redness and fever over the affected joint;
- impaired function of the patient articulation.
Common signs of arthritis:
- crying and anxiety of the child during movements;
- an increase in body temperature to subfebrile indicators, sometimes to febrile;
- impaired appetite, sleep, impaired weight gain and weight loss;
- weakness and fatigue of the child.
Features of the course of various types of arthritis, as well as how they are treated, depends on the cause, as well as on the age of the child. The clinical features of the most common types of joint inflammation are discussed below.
The main types of arthritis in children
Features of the clinical picture of a particular type of joint inflammation make it possible to suspect the disease and prescribe the necessary examinations to confirm the diagnosis.
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
A variant of this disease in children is not the same as in adults. Their pathology exists in two forms: articular and visceral-articular. In the first case, only joints are affected. The disease can occur as monoarthritis (one large joint is affected, for example, the knee, ankle), oligoarthritis (inflamed from 2 to 4 joints) and polyarthritis, in which it suffers from 5 joints. In the pathological process, joints of the limbs, spinal column, especially the cervical spine, temporomandibular, sternoclavicular joint can be involved.
Children complain of pain during any movement, which at first limits the amplitude, the joint swells, its shape changes, redness is rare in the rheumatoid process. Inflammation is asymmetric in nature, accompanied by morning stiffness in diseased joints.
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis has a chronic and progressive course. If no measures are taken, then various deformations develop over time and the function of the joint is lost, as a result of which the child may become disabled.
In the second form of pathology, in addition to articular syndrome, various lesions of internal organs are observed, for example, heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, with the development of severe consequences that can sometimes lead to death.
Reactive lesions of the articular apparatus develop 2-3 weeks after a genitourinary or intestinal infection. Joint syndrome is mono-or oligoarthritis. Patient joints swell, begin to hurt, the skin turns red above them, it becomes stretched and shiny, the color may be cyanotic. Due to pain, the motor and support function of the joints is disturbed.
Along with this, extraarticular symptoms are observed – inflammation of the eyes, genitourinary organs, skin rash, fever, enlarged peripheral lymph nodes.
Important! To treat reactive arthritis, it is imperative to identify the pathological microorganism that caused the inflammation.
Infectious Arthritis in Children
Bacterial septic arthritis is acute, with severe clinical symptoms of the joint syndrome and general intoxication. Moreover, for treatment, sometimes it is necessary to evacuate the purulent contents from the joint cavity by surgery.
The prognosis for this disease is good, as a rule, all symptoms disappear without residual effects. But with a prolonged course or a recurring course, amyloidosis of internal organs, glomerulonephritis, etc. can develop.
Despite the pronounced clinical symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, his prognosis is favorable. This inflammation lends itself well to treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and does not leave any consequences. The danger of rheumatism lies in the defeat of the heart, which leads to the development of heart defects.
Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by the following:
- violation of the general condition of the child;
- damage to large joints of the limbs;
- asymmetric inflammation;
- more and more new joints are gradually drawn into the pathological process;
- signs of inflammation are clearly pronounced – pain, swelling, redness, increased local temperature and impaired joint function.
The disease develops acutely, immediately after allergens enter the body. Large joints are mainly involved in the pathological process. Patients complain of pain during active and passive movements. Painful joints swell, an allergic rash may appear on the skin. Often the general condition of the child is disturbed: fever, nausea, vomiting, general weakness, palpitations, etc. appear. In parallel, other clinical variants of the allergy can be observed: Quincke’s edema, bronchospasm, itching of the skin.
In order to properly treat arthritis, first of all, it is necessary to determine the type and cause of the disease. The following methods are used for diagnosis:
- consultation of a pediatrician, rheumatologist;
- thorough objective inspection and performance of a number of functional tests;
- ultrasound examination of the joints;
- MRI or CT;
- the range of necessary laboratory tests (rheumatic tests, antibodies to pathological microorganisms that may cause inflammation, general clinical tests);
- joint puncture and microscopic examination of synovial fluid;
- articular membrane biopsy for morphological verification of the diagnosis;
- necessarily assigned methods that allow you to determine the condition of internal organs and in time to identify their damage, for example, ECG, ultrasound of the heart.
Principles of treatment
Treatments for childhood arthritis depend on the cause of the disease. But in each case, the therapy should be comprehensive and include a diet, observing a protective regime, immobilizing a diseased joint, prescribing adequate medication, physiotherapeutic methods of treatment, and if necessary, surgery, prosthetics, physiotherapy exercises and spa treatment.
To eliminate pain and inflammation, drugs from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chondroprotectors, glucocorticoid hormones are prescribed. In septic and reactive arthritis, antibiotics are prescribed. In case of inflammation of an allergic nature, antihistamines are used, autoimmune – cytostatics, targeted drugs.
Surgical treatment may be needed in the case of an acute purulent process, in which joint puncture, evacuation of pus and rinsing of the cavity with antiseptic and antibiotic solutions are performed. The operation can also be performed with articular deformities, for example, with rheumatoid arthritis.
Among the physiotherapeutic procedures, they most often resort to paraffin and ozokerite applications, UHF, magnetotherapy, ultrasound, shock wave therapy, electrophoresis, laser therapy, and mud therapy.
Making a conclusion, it is worth noting that arthritis in a child can be both a sign of a serious illness and a usual allergic reaction. Therefore, no case of joint inflammation in children should be left without medical attention.