Arthrosis causes

Arthrosis and arthritis are diseases in the presence of which joints are affected. What is the difference between arthrosis and arthritis?

Arthrosis is a gradual ongoing age-related deformation of the joints. Most often, the development of arthrosis occurs in old age (from 45 years and older). Arthrosis is considered a degenerative disease and is associated with slow destruction of cartilage inside the joint. With arthrosis over time, changes occur, the restructuring of the articular ends of the bones, inflammatory processes occur and degeneration of the periarticular tissues occurs.

Arthritis begins most often at a young age (up to 40 years old). With arthritis, inflammation of the joints can be manifested by their redness, swelling, severe pain that does not go away when a person is at rest. In some cases, there is an increase in pain at night. Such inflammation can be caused either by infection or by a malfunction and overly active activity of the immune system, which erroneously directs its forces against its body. Sometimes arthritis indicates a general metabolic disorder.

With arthrosis, only joints suffer. Arthritis is an inflammatory disease of the whole organism, and inflammation of the joints is only the “tip of the iceberg”, which hides some other processes that occur inside the body.

Classification of Arthritis Joints

Arthritis is divided into two main classes:

Inflammatory arthritis includes:

Degenerative arthritis includes:

  • traumatic arthritis;
  • osteoarthrosis.

Video – Reactive Arthritis

Classification of arthrosis of the joints

The degree of development of arthrosis:

  • first;
  • the second;
  • the third;
  • the fourth is deforming (gonarthrosis, coxarthrosis).

Location of arthrosis:

  • Hip joint
  • knee-joint;
  • arthrosis of the hands;
  • the spine;
  • arthrosis of the feet.

Arthrosis localization form:

  • localized
  • generalized (polyarthrosis).

Type of localization of arthrosis:

  • knee joint (gonarthrosis);
  • hip joint (coxarthrosis);
  • elbow joint;
  • shoulder joint;
  • ankle joint;
  • cervical arthrosis.

The classification of arthrosis of the joints includes primary and secondary arthrosis. The occurrence of primary arthrosis occurs in 40-50% of all cases of the disease. The disease develops on a previously healthy joint, and its cause may be, for example, hard physical work. With secondary arthrosis, the deformation of the joint affected by the disease occurred even before the disease, for example, as a result of a trauma.

Causes of arthrosis of the joints

The occurrence of arthrosis of the joints can contribute to intoxication, the transfer of infectious diseases (for example, typhoid, syphilis, etc.). In addition, the joint arthrosis may be caused by joint injuries (damage to the articular cartilage, fracture of the joint ends of the bones), significant functional overload of the joint (for example, loaders, ballet dancers, etc.). A common role belongs to the common cold (for example, the occurrence of arthrosis in workers in hot shops).

The development of arthrosis can occur against the background of rheumatic soil. This applies to people with chronic rheumatism. Sometimes diseases come in whole “sets”, when rheumatism, varicose veins with thrombosis, vascular sclerosis, stroke, etc. occur with arthrosis. Arthrosis can manifest itself as an autoimmune disease. This means that a sudden attack of the immune system on healthy cells begins.

But in most cases, arthrosis acts as a sign of rheumatoid arthritis, and is a course of destructive changes in the cartilage and bone tissue that can occur with age as a result of natural aging.

Causes of Arthritis Joints

The reasons for the development of arthritis of the joints include the transfer of a bacterial, viral or fungal infection, trauma, the presence of allergies, the occurrence of metabolic disturbances, diseases of the nervous system, and insufficient intake of vitamins. As a rule, the infection enters the joints from another part of the body through the circulatory system, which occurs during surgery, trauma.

Symptoms of joint arthrosis

At the heart of the development of arthrosis of the joints is a violation of the nutrition of the articular (epiphyseal) ends of the bones. As a result of changes in patency or damage to blood vessels, through which bone nutrition is provided, aseptic necrosis occurs, which aggravates lesions in the joint.

Arthrosis has a progressive character. First of all, painful changes cover the inner (so-called synovial) shell of the joint bag, then they capture the cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of the articulating bones. As a result of this, a gradual destruction of the cartilage occurs, which entails exposure of the bone. In some places, bone tissue is diluted, in some places it is compacted, and bone-shaped spike-like outgrowths form. In most cases, the development of arthrosis occurs in the hip, knee and first metatarsophalangeal joints.

Does the knee joint hurt? We recommend that you contact Dr. Bubnovsky centers in St. Petersburg for their treatment:

The symptoms of joint arthrosis include the appearance of pain. They are characterized by periodic occurrence, exacerbation after sharp physical exertion or after being at rest for a long time. Against the background of the presence of painful sensations, mobility in the joint is limited. Arthrosis accompanies inflammation of the tissues surrounding the joint and nerve trunks. Functional purpose of the joint also suffers due to protective muscle tension.

Symptoms of Arthritis Joints

With arthritis, pain appears in the joint, in particular, they are felt during movement. Often mobility is limited in the joint, swelling appears, and the shape changes. In some cases, the skin above the joint turns red and fever appears.

Symptoms of infectious arthritis include the appearance of redness, swelling, a sensation of pain when pressed, the presence of common symptoms of an infectious disease is often noted – the appearance of chills, fever, the occurrence of pain throughout the body.

Arthritis can be one joint (monoarthritis) and many joints (polyarthritis). The onset of the disease can be sharp, and it can be accompanied by the appearance of severe pain in the joint (acute arthritis), or gradual (chronic arthritis).

Joint Arthrosis Treatment

For the treatment of arthrosis, it is necessary to conduct outpatient activities prescribed by a doctor and visit the spa conditions. In the treatment of arthrosis of the joints, the prescription of painkillers, hormonal drugs (adrenocorticotropic series), physiotherapy (thermal procedures, ultrasound), therapeutic exercises, massage. If the case of the disease is severe, then there is a need for a surgical operation (arthrodesis, arthroplasty).

If the cartilage is not very worn out, then preparations containing glucosamine sulfate, a natural substance obtained from the shells of marine animals, can help. They have a positive effect on the metabolism in cartilage and improves joint mobility.

Joint Arthritis Treatment

Depending on the form of arthritis, a treatment is prescribed for the disease. First of all, it is necessary to eliminate the root cause of its occurrence (excessive physical exertion, malnutrition, alcohol abuse). During the treatment of arthritis, the doctor prescribes antibiotics.

In addition, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, administered intraarticularly, is provided. During the treatment of arthritis of the joints, specialists also pay great attention to conducting physiotherapeutic procedures and performing therapeutic exercises, which is necessary in order to maintain joint mobility and preserve muscle mass.

3. Diseases of the spine and joints. The causes of arthrosis

With arthrosis, pain after exercise intensifies

Deforming osteoarthrosis – this diagnosis sounds so right, in everyday life it is called “salt deposition”, but for brevity we will use the term “arthrosis”. What are the causes of arthrosis, and what consequences, in the end, it can lead to.

We will not consider joint injuries as the causes of arthrosis, as they are usually random. Let’s look at the reasons that will naturally lead to this arthrosis itself, if they are not stopped in time. And this, fortunately, is quite within our power.

Articular cartilage, like all representatives of connective tissue, consists of water, special types of proteins and complex carbohydrates. We have already examined the role of water and movements in the fate of joints. And now let’s talk about its most important components: the COLLAGEN and ELASTINE proteins, which, after combining with COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES, create an elastic and slippery glycoprotein skeleton (glycos sugar, protein protein) of all parts of our body, including the spine and joints.

Collagen and elastin are animal proteins that we heat-treat: meat, eggs, dairy products, fish. It is known that boiled (denatured) protein cannot be fully absorbed. Scientists have found that this assimilation, at times, does not reach 30%. Moreover, products of its incomplete digestion cause putrefactive processes in the intestine and, being absorbed into the blood, overload the liver, which, over time, disables it. As a result: the body loses a reliable filter.

IN LIVER DISEASES, the joints are the first to send alarm signals. Patients feel pain in the joints and spine BEFORE other symptoms of failure of the cleansing function of the liver. This is understandable, since the joints are in an extreme position with food, and then poorly purified blood comes to them. The appearance of irritating chemical impurities in the joint fluid causes a painful reaction and FAST DESTRUCTION of THE ARTICLE Cartilage, which is the essence of arthrosis. Add to this lack of movement, smoking, alcohol, smog of large cities, food preservatives, etc.

Further, patients with a diseased liver overwhelmingly have an OVERWEIGHT and INCREASED NUMBERS of SUGAR blood. To “catch” this increase is possible only when the liver is filled with adipose tissue, which has the medical name “fatty hepatosis”. And only then does a record about the revealed diabetes appear on the card.

Oh, there would be a third hand!

Why these details? In the described situation, several damaging factors act on the joints at once. FIRST: overweight, constantly pressing on the elastic articular cartilage, in itself creates a nutritional deficiency in it. Dear housewives, remember your feelings when you have to carry some kind of cargo, the same bags from the bazaar. How easy it becomes when, finally, you are freed from them. Overweight is the same load that, alas, our skeleton, including the delicate and plastic tissue of the articular cartilage, cannot lose, as we lose heavy luggage.

SECOND: with this type of diabetes mellitus, the beginning of which, as a rule, is due to obesity of the liver, there is a lot of sugar and its metabolic products in the blood – ACID. Increasing blood acidity is a powerful chemical factor that destroys tissue. In this case, absolutely all tissues pass out of life faster and require a change in the cell generation. At this point, a person becomes the “owner” of countless medical diagnoses, the main of which is ATEROSCLEROSIS with its inevitable companions: a persistent increase in blood pressure, and sometimes, myocardial infarction or stroke. Against this background, diseased joints, at times, fade into the background, as more serious health problems appear.

All of these factors are the causes of early aging of articular cartilage – the very deforming arthrosis. Due to the large load, the knee and joints of the hands are more often affected.

So articular cartilage is destroyed

The process of cartilage destruction is supported by periodic hits of a microscopic piece of destroyed cartilage in a narrow joint gap. This piece, which has become a foreign inclusion, like a grain of sand in the eye, immediately provokes a response in the form of excessive production of articular fluid to wash out this foreign body. Remember the violent lacrimation when a grain of sand enters the eye. But, with regard to the eyes, the excess of tear fluid is freely removed along with a grain of sand. But in a closed joint cavity this cannot be done quickly.

The joint swells, the movements become extremely painful, i.e. a typical inflammation reaction develops for the body. Anesthetics are used, all as one, extremely toxic to the liver, lotions and poultices. A person for this period due to pain loses the last opportunity for movement, which, as you now understand, further aggravates the position of articular cartilage.

Gradually, a piece of the rejected cartilage dissolves, the pain subsides and the joint takes its previous shape. We are so arranged that we quickly forget everything. We continue the usual way of life: we eat what we want, drink what we have to, we don’t remember about charging, we gain weight . until the next attack.

It can be seen that the cartilage is completely destroyed. This is grade 3 arthrosis, in which only replacing the joint with an artificial joint can help

Over time, the deformation of the joints is fixed, and on x-rays, the joint gap gradually decreases over the years. The ability to sit down somewhere disappears and, bending down to put on our shoes, we “look, but what else can be done at that moment?” – this phrase is not mine, but someone’s humorous, but very accurate definition of old age, but in our An example is a visiting card of diseased joints of the lower extremities and the spine, especially its lumbar region.

So look how healthy joints and spinal tissues can be here: our connective tissue from its three components does not receive a single full-fledged component. Water and protein are lacking in both quantity and quality. Sweet and refined foods supplanted fiber. It turns out that the joint tissues have neither a full-fledged structure, nor an adequate load. And the most unpleasant thing is that in such patients movements in the joints become impossible due to pain. At this point, the nutrition of the diseased cartilage is disturbed even more, which, as you know, exacerbates the problem.

What to do? With the development of arthrosis, its condition can be improved only by a set of measures.

1. Help the liver in its cleansing function, for which you simply do not need to eat what causes its overload. This is primarily an excess of simple sugars and superheated fats. Already this measure will reduce the aggressive components in the joint fluid, as well as reduce weight and blood sugar.

2. Necessary daily movements are necessary, for pain – in a prone position.

3. Use products that improve cartilage metabolism: collagen hydrolyzate, D-glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, as well as hyaluronic acid – the main component of joint fluid and cartilage cells. Also shown are products with calcium (preferably citrate) and magnesium. All of the above can be found in the assortment of network companies, in pharmacies or sports nutrition stores. From the usual and familiar food, getting the right amount of collagen and elastin is simply IMPOSSIBLE. And if you are offered to regularly eat jelly, remember how many hours it is cooked?

4. And yet, we must not forget that the “queen” of our metabolism is WATER

Causes of Arthrosis

Arthrosis is a common disease that destroys the cartilage tissue inside the joint, leading to the death of periarticular tissues.

In recent years, the likelihood of developing the disease is high, especially in old age. It develops in men, women after 30 years.

The disease occurs during the destruction of metabolic processes in the joints. Cartilages lose their inherent elasticity, there is a lack of protein, small cracks form on the cartilage.

The main reasons for the destruction of cartilage are metabolic processes, hormonal disruptions, lack of blood supply to the joints, heredity, age limits, injuries, and diseases. A significant cause of the manifestation of the disease is considered to be significant overwork of the joint due to the heavy load on them.

Causes of arthrosis:

  • Leg injuries (dislocations, fractures, torn ligaments);
  • Failures in metabolic processes;
  • Excess weight, which increases the load on the joints of the legs;
  • Inflammatory processes in the joints (for example, arthritis);
  • Advanced age;
  • Inadequate eating of healthy foods;
  • Long stay of the body in conditions of low air temperatures;
  • Diseases that contribute to the development of harmful antibodies in the body;
  • General malaise due to the penetration of harmful substances into the body;
  • Problems with flat feet;
  • Weakened immunity;
  • Peculiar diseases (syphilis, tuberculosis, encephalitis);

Identify the causes of arthrosis due to genetic factors:

  1. Improper formation in the structure of ligamentous, articular components, leading to a change in the development of tissues, organs;
  2. Violations in the composition of collagen lead to accelerated destruction of cartilage tissue.

At risk are people who, by occupation, can get injuries that contribute to the rapid development of arthrosis: miners, masons, blacksmiths, metallurgists, fishers, people whose profession requires significant physical labor. Treatment should be applied comprehensively, when using drugs, physical exercises, alternative methods.

If the disease is at the initial stage of development, treatment consists in the use of simple physical exercises, procedures (massage).

Arthrosis is not only for the elderly

One of the main causes of arthrosis is considered to be old age. Early arthrosis occurs in young people with injuries, inflammation in the joint tissues. The causes of arthrosis among young people are explained by factors:

  • Violation of the musculoskeletal system due to congenital dysplasia of the joints;
  • Damage sustained during adolescence;
  • Occupation by professional sports.

Arthrosis at a young age is gaining momentum. Birth defects in the area of ​​ligaments, bone structure negatively affect the development of the articular apparatus. It is dangerous for a healthy child to get bruises, fractures, dislocations – they will leave indelible harm to the body.

It is worth following the right approach in sports activities, not chasing great achievements, causing discomfort to the body. Refuse bad habits leading to disruption of organs, the immediate development of the disease at a young age.

Timely detection of the disease in youth will allow you to apply the necessary measures to prevent the disease, prescribe treatment.

Causes of arthrosis in the knees

It is impossible to single out one factor that affects the occurrence of arthrosis of the knee joint. These are many factors that lead after some time to serious disorders in the body. The main stages of arthrosis:

  • The primary stage is associated with the aging of the body, with the passing of the past years, the causes of the disease (overweight, genetic predisposition, severe overstrain of the body);
  • Secondary stage – the remaining cases in the development of arthrosis of the knee joint (bruises, dislocations, fractures). Symptoms of the disease can occur after several months, years, depending on the severity of the injury.

Causes of arthrosis of the knee joint occur with the late onset of active physical activity (running exercises, squats) for an unprepared body. The age of 40 years suggests changes in the joints – any physical activity will lead to a negative effect on the joints, on the whole body.

The likelihood of acquiring a disease of the knee joint occurs with spinal injuries, diabetes mellitus, and neurological diseases. In 60% of cases, arthrosis of the knee occurs due to cramps in the muscles of the hips. The disease is not detected immediately, manifests itself in the form of a general malaise.

If treatment is not scheduled in time, the knees will be able to move with difficulty over time. In other cases, the causes of arthrosis of the knee charter are muscle cramps acting in the hip area. Symptoms for a long time do not make themselves felt, are weak, are similar to the usual malaise (fatigue, heaviness in the legs, pain in the knee joint).

To detect arthrosis of the knee joint, methods of magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography (X-ray), which detect violations in the structure of tissues, clearly express the picture of the disease. Treatment includes a number of medication procedures. Sometimes patients are offered to undergo treatment in special sanatoriums.

Psychological causes of arthrosis of the legs

Psychosomatics – studies the influence of psychological factors on the occurrence of bodily diseases. Scientists have tried to explain the psychological causes of arthrosis with the help of a psychological factor that plays a role in the formation of the disease. One of the main causes of the disease is the constant stressful depression of the patient. The release of a certain hormone into the blood (produced due to stress) stops the production of “lubricant” for the joints. The cartilage in the joint dries out, leading to their destruction.

For women who are depressed, it is worth choosing a special treatment, it is difficult for them to accept changes in life. Often the disease concerns people who hold emotions within themselves, do not give them a way out. People rich in emotional manifestations rarely know about such a disease. Therefore, smile more often, do not keep psychological problems in yourself, turn to friends and specialists for help. The treatment of the disease is to saturate the day with positive emotions, drugs.

Arthrosis: causes, symptoms, stages of arthrosis. New treatments for arthrosis

Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologistShishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.

I have been treating joints for many years. I can say with confidence that the joints are always treatable, even in the very ripe old age.

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Hondrostrong gel for joints

Our medical center was the first to receive certified access to the latest drug for osteochondrosis and joint pain - Hondrostrong. I confess to you when I heard about it for the first time, I just laughed, because I did not believe in its high efficiency.

But I was amazed when we completed testing: 4567 people were completely cured of diseases of the organs of the musculoskeletal system, and this is more than 94% of all subjects. 5.6% felt significant improvement, and only 0.4% did not notice any improvement.

Hondrostrong cream allows you to forget about back and joint pain in the shortest possible time, literally from 4 days, and even very difficult cases can be cured within a couple of months. In addition, the manufacturer of this product is now offering a 50% discount of the full cost of Hondrostrong cream.

What is arthrosis. Types of Arthrosis

Arthrosis (deforming arthrosis, the popular name is salt deposition) is a chronic disease of the joints of a degenerative-dystrophic nature, in which the destruction of the articular cartilage, joint capsule, deformation of the bone itself occurs.

It should be noted that arthrosis is a whole group of joint diseases that have a different origin and similar development mechanisms. The most common arthrosis of large joints:

  • deforming arthrosis of the knee joint (gonarthrosis),
  • deforming arthrosis of the hip joint (coxarthrosis),
  • as well as arthrosis of the shoulder joint.

These are the most severe types of arthrosis.

Arthrosis of small joints is less common. Often there are deforming arthrosis of the interphalangeal joints of the hands, as well as the metacarpophalangeal joints of the thumbs of the hand. Patients note pain in the interphalangeal joints, a decrease in their mobility, the appearance of seals near the joints (Heberden and Bushar nodules). This type of arthrosis is more common in the elderly. Often there is arthrosis of the joints of the foot.

Polyarthrosis, or generalized arthrosis, is characterized by damage to several joints at once.

Arthrosis of the joints of the spine – spondylarthrosis – belongs to the group of diseases of the spine, although it has a development mechanism similar to other arthrosis.

The main clinical symptom of arthrosis is joint pain, a decrease in its mobility. The specific symptoms are determined by the stage of arthrosis and depend on the degree of destructive changes in the joint.

Causes of Arthrosis

Arthrosis is usually divided into primary and secondary. Primary (idiopathic) arthrosis is the result of disturbances in the recovery processes and increased degeneration in the cartilage tissue of the joint without any deviations in the functioning of the whole organism. Secondary arthrosis occurs as a result of other pathological processes in the body, or in a joint already damaged by some external influence, with partial destruction of the articular surfaces.

The mechanism of development of arthrosis

The development of arthrosis begins with the destruction of cartilage. As a result, pain and crunch appear during movements. The width of the joint space is gradually reduced, bone spikes-osteophytes form along the edges of the articular surfaces.

Ultimately, the joint is deformed, the range of motion in it decreases. This is how involutive arthrosis associated with aging of the body develops. The development of this form of arthrosis usually occurs gradually over many years.

There are 3 degrees of arthrosis:

  • I degree of arthrosis – the disease does not interfere with the work, although it complicates it,
  • II degree of arthrosis – a disease prevents the performance of work,
  • III degree of arthrosis – disability.

In the initial stage of the disease in the morning, after rest, stiffness, difficulty in movement in the joints, which gradually disappears some time after the start of movement, are noted.

With the further development of arthrosis, the pain becomes more significant, becomes acute

Osteoarthritis of the 3rd degree is a severe, advanced stage of the disease. At this stage are observed:

  • significant joint deformity
  • sharp restriction of movements,
  • sharp pain not only when moving, but also in a state of complete rest –
  • joint inflammation
  • joint sensitivity to weather changes.
  • the muscles around the knee are spasmodic and atrophied;

Osteoarthritis 4 degrees

The state of complete destruction of the joint with arthrosis, when the joint completely ceases to function. The so-called “blockade of the joint” is observed – an acute pain syndrome

Arthrosis Treatment

Treatment of arthrosis in the initial stage of the disease – as early as possible.

At this stage, drugs are useful – chondroprotectors that improve the structure of cartilage tissue, as well as vitamin and mineral complexes, physiotherapy exercises, proper nutrition, as well as preventive measures

Treatment of arthrosis 2 – 3 degrees:

  • removal or reduction of pain
  • removal of inflammation in the joint.

Treatment of arthrosis of the 4th degree

surgery and replacement of a diseased joint with an endoprosthesis.

Movement is the most important weapon against arthrosis. These include various types of running, swimming, walking. This drives off excess weight, which is the enemy of the joints and the whole body.

All joints do not tolerate cold. Especially sharply react to his knees. The use of special knee pads (preferably from dog hair) can retain heat in the joints. A diet for the prevention of arthrosis is of great importance: it is advisable to remove foods containing a lot of fat from the diet.

Low-fat meat, seafood, vegetables, fruits and steamed dishes should be regular participants in meals. It is very important to control your weight. Extra pounds overload the hip and knees. We must try to prevent falls and bruises.

The correct regimen of the day can be very useful to prevent arthrosis of the shoulder and other joints:

  • sufficient duration of sleep;
  • balanced nutrition;
  • frequent walks in the fresh air;
  • positive emotional background;
  • love for life and for oneself;
  • heels on shoes should be comfortable;
  • Do not sit in the “foot to foot” position;
  • if the day turned out to be difficult, exercise “bicycle” will help relieve static stress from the joints;
  • very well relieves joint fatigue aqua aerobics;

Only frequent, correct prophylaxis can prevent the development of arthrosis. Be healthy.

Doctor traumatologist of the surgical department of the clinic
State Institution “Yelets City Hospital No. 2” N.V. Drummers

State Healthcare Institution “Yelets City Hospital No. 2”

399772, Lipetsk region., City of Yelets, st. Kostenko, d.7

Why do arthrosis and arthritis appear?

A healthy joint is made up of living cells. Only living cells have the ability to regenerate and to recover completely. Why do arthrosis and arthritis appear? Most joints of the arms, legs, and jaws account for the constant action of a factor that can damage it – shock load.

It is in connection with this that diseases of the joints, in particular, of the joints of the legs, belong to intractable diseases. To eliminate the disease, first of all, you need to know the reason why the disease becomes chronic, and eliminate it.

What is the difference between arthrosis and arthritis?

Arthrosis and arthritis are diseases in the presence of which joints are affected. What is the difference between arthrosis and arthritis?

Arthrosis is a gradual ongoing age-related deformation of the joints. Most often, the development of arthrosis occurs in old age (from 45 years and older). Arthrosis is considered a degenerative disease and is associated with slow destruction of cartilage inside the joint. With arthrosis over time, changes occur, the restructuring of the articular ends of the bones, inflammatory processes occur and degeneration of the periarticular tissues occurs.

Arthritis begins most often at a young age (up to 40 years old). With arthritis, inflammation of the joints can be manifested by their redness, swelling, severe pain that does not go away when a person is at rest. In some cases, there is an increase in pain at night. Such inflammation can be caused either by infection or by a malfunction and overly active activity of the immune system, which erroneously directs its forces against its body. Sometimes arthritis indicates a general metabolic disorder.

With arthrosis, only joints suffer. Arthritis is an inflammatory disease of the whole organism, and inflammation of the joints is only the “tip of the iceberg”, which hides some other processes that occur inside the body.

Classification of Arthritis Joints

Arthritis is divided into two main classes:

Inflammatory arthritis includes:

Degenerative arthritis includes:

  • traumatic arthritis;
  • osteoarthrosis.

Video – Reactive Arthritis

Classification of arthrosis of the joints

The degree of development of arthrosis:

  • first;
  • the second;
  • the third;
  • the fourth is deforming (gonarthrosis, coxarthrosis).

Location of arthrosis:

  • Hip joint
  • knee-joint;
  • arthrosis of the hands;
  • the spine;
  • arthrosis of the feet.

Arthrosis localization form:

  • localized
  • generalized (polyarthrosis).

Type of localization of arthrosis:

  • knee joint (gonarthrosis);
  • hip joint (coxarthrosis);
  • elbow joint;
  • shoulder joint;
  • ankle joint;
  • cervical arthrosis.

The classification of arthrosis of the joints includes primary and secondary arthrosis. The occurrence of primary arthrosis occurs in 40-50% of all cases of the disease. The disease develops on a previously healthy joint, and its cause may be, for example, hard physical work. With secondary arthrosis, the deformation of the joint affected by the disease occurred even before the disease, for example, as a result of a trauma.

Causes of arthrosis of the joints

The occurrence of arthrosis of the joints can contribute to intoxication, the transfer of infectious diseases (for example, typhoid, syphilis, etc.). In addition, the joint arthrosis may be caused by joint injuries (damage to the articular cartilage, fracture of the joint ends of the bones), significant functional overload of the joint (for example, loaders, ballet dancers, etc.). A common role belongs to the common cold (for example, the occurrence of arthrosis in workers in hot shops).

The development of arthrosis can occur against the background of rheumatic soil. This applies to people with chronic rheumatism. Sometimes diseases come in whole “sets”, when rheumatism, varicose veins with thrombosis, vascular sclerosis, stroke, etc. occur with arthrosis. Arthrosis can manifest itself as an autoimmune disease. This means that a sudden attack of the immune system on healthy cells begins.

But in most cases, arthrosis acts as a sign of rheumatoid arthritis, and is a course of destructive changes in the cartilage and bone tissue that can occur with age as a result of natural aging.

Causes of Arthritis Joints

The reasons for the development of arthritis of the joints include the transfer of a bacterial, viral or fungal infection, trauma, the presence of allergies, the occurrence of metabolic disturbances, diseases of the nervous system, and insufficient intake of vitamins. As a rule, the infection enters the joints from another part of the body through the circulatory system, which occurs during surgery, trauma.

Symptoms of joint arthrosis

At the heart of the development of arthrosis of the joints is a violation of the nutrition of the articular (epiphyseal) ends of the bones. As a result of changes in patency or damage to blood vessels, through which bone nutrition is provided, aseptic necrosis occurs, which aggravates lesions in the joint.

Arthrosis has a progressive character. First of all, painful changes cover the inner (so-called synovial) shell of the joint bag, then they capture the cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of the articulating bones. As a result of this, a gradual destruction of the cartilage occurs, which entails exposure of the bone. In some places, bone tissue is diluted, in some places it is compacted, and bone-shaped spike-like outgrowths form. In most cases, the development of arthrosis occurs in the hip, knee and first metatarsophalangeal joints.

Does the knee joint hurt? We recommend that you contact Dr. Bubnovsky centers in St. Petersburg for their treatment:

The symptoms of joint arthrosis include the appearance of pain. They are characterized by periodic occurrence, exacerbation after sharp physical exertion or after being at rest for a long time. Against the background of the presence of painful sensations, mobility in the joint is limited. Arthrosis accompanies inflammation of the tissues surrounding the joint and nerve trunks. Functional purpose of the joint also suffers due to protective muscle tension.

Symptoms of Arthritis Joints

With arthritis, pain appears in the joint, in particular, they are felt during movement. Often mobility is limited in the joint, swelling appears, and the shape changes. In some cases, the skin above the joint turns red and fever appears.

Symptoms of infectious arthritis include the appearance of redness, swelling, a sensation of pain when pressed, the presence of common symptoms of an infectious disease is often noted – the appearance of chills, fever, the occurrence of pain throughout the body.

Arthritis can be one joint (monoarthritis) and many joints (polyarthritis). The onset of the disease can be sharp, and it can be accompanied by the appearance of severe pain in the joint (acute arthritis), or gradual (chronic arthritis).

Joint Arthrosis Treatment

For the treatment of arthrosis, it is necessary to conduct outpatient activities prescribed by a doctor and visit the spa conditions. In the treatment of arthrosis of the joints, the prescription of painkillers, hormonal drugs (adrenocorticotropic series), physiotherapy (thermal procedures, ultrasound), therapeutic exercises, massage. If the case of the disease is severe, then there is a need for a surgical operation (arthrodesis, arthroplasty).

If the cartilage is not very worn out, then preparations containing glucosamine sulfate, a natural substance obtained from the shells of marine animals, can help. They have a positive effect on the metabolism in cartilage and improves joint mobility.

Joint Arthritis Treatment

Depending on the form of arthritis, a treatment is prescribed for the disease. First of all, it is necessary to eliminate the root cause of its occurrence (excessive physical exertion, malnutrition, alcohol abuse). During the treatment of arthritis, the doctor prescribes antibiotics.

In addition, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, administered intraarticularly, is provided. During the treatment of arthritis of the joints, specialists also pay great attention to conducting physiotherapeutic procedures and performing therapeutic exercises, which is necessary in order to maintain joint mobility and preserve muscle mass.

Morozov Georgiy

Georgy Morozov, rheumatologist. For more than 20 years, he has been involved in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of joint diseases.

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