Arthrosis causes and treatment

Arthrosis is a disease with a chronic course of a non-inflammatory nature. Arthrosis is characterized by cartilage degeneration with changes in the bones of the affected joint and synovitis. With the progression of the disease, there is a decrease in mobility in the joint up to complete immobilization due to fusion of the articular ends of the joints of the bones.

The causes of this disease remain unknown until now. Allocate only predisposing factors that can serve as an impetus for the development of arthrosis.

These factors are considered the mismatch between the load on the joint and its ability to resist this load. This occurs during hard physical work, especially when the same joints are constantly involved in the work. Exacerbates this cause and possible obesity, because of which the pressure on the joints is growing steadily.

Types of Arthrosis

The diagnosis of primary (idiopathic) arthrosis is made in the case of the exclusion of all possible causes of development.

Secondary develops for the following reasons:

  • Injury;
  • Congenital disorders of the musculoskeletal system;
  • Endocrine diseases (obesity, diabetes mellitus);
  • Metabolic disorders (gout, hemochromatosis);
  • Change in static-dynamic balance (flat feet, curvature of the spine);
  • Chronic hemarthrosis.

Primary arthrosis is divided into 2 main clinical forms:

  • Local arthrosis (1-2 joints);
  • Generalized arthrosis (3 or more).

In the acute form of arthrosis, all the symptoms of the disease manifest themselves much stronger and longer: the pains are unbearable, if the synovial membrane is involved, then a local increase in temperature and redness of the skin area appears. In the chronic form, the disease is prolonged, sluggish, with sometimes occurring periods of exacerbation.

According to the ICD – 10, arthrosis refers to diseases of the musculoskeletal system and occupies a whole block called “Arthropathy.” In this block, the disease is divided into smaller components according to the location and degree of damage: polyarthrosis (3 or more joints are affected), coxarthrosis (hip joint), gonarthrosis (knee joint), etc.


The main and most important symptom in the diagnostic plan (especially at the initial stage of the disease) is a feeling of pain or joint pain, usually of a mechanical nature, i.e. associated with the movement. It appears at the end of the day, in the evening, after hard physical work in the joint, its excessive activity during the day, and disappear when the joints are at rest.

Patients note increased pain during the descent of the stairs. Patients often complain of pain at the beginning of the movement, the so-called starting pain. As the movements continue, discomfort passes. This is associated with stagnation of blood in the tissues surrounding the joint, when making movements, circulation improves and, accordingly, all manifestations pass.

Any long-term pain is accompanied by muscle spasm, the same effect occurs with arthrosis – around the joint, the muscles are in a state of contraction, and the pain syndrome becomes more pronounced. When nerve fibers are involved in the pathological process, signs of radicular pain appear.

In the initial stages of the disease, the pain appears occasionally, after an excessive load on the joint and quickly disappears when it stops. But as arthrosis progresses, pain becomes more intense, their duration increases, and worse, they stop. Therefore, it is necessary to suspect the symptoms of incipient arthrosis in the early stages of development and prescribe adequate treatment, otherwise the risk of disability is high.

Another important symptom of arthrosis is morning stiffness. It lasts no more than 30 minutes, develops both after daytime and after a night’s rest.

So, with damage to the joints of the back, patients complain of pain and limited movement in the lumbar region and back, the inability to straighten out after sleep and rest. It is often difficult for them to choose a comfortable posture in bed, so these patients fall asleep for a long time. Involvement of the joints of the hands may also be accompanied by stiffness. When lower limb joints are involved, gait changes. It is difficult for them to go down the stairs, each movement is accompanied by soreness and constraint. Crepitus and crunch accompany the remaining symptoms of arthrosis.

Diagnosis of arthrosis

  • The doctor treating arthrosis – a rheumatologist – will begin his work with a survey in which he will find out the time of the onset of the first symptoms and which joints are affected.
  • Before determining how to treat arthrosis in a patient, he will collect a family history in which he recognizes the presence of similar symptoms in relatives.
  • Next, he will examine and palpate the affected joints and appoint to undergo studies, such as an x-ray. The radiograph will determine the possible narrowing of the joint gap, the presence of bone growths, areas of ossification of the joint capsule (ossification).
  • Then the doctor will make a diagnosis in which the group (primary or secondary), the affected joint or joints, the degree of violation of their function and stage (acute or chronic) are reflected. If the patient turned during an exacerbation, then this is indicated in the diagnosis.

You can contact a rheumatologist both by registration and as a specialist from a private clinic in any diagnostic center. It is impossible to say exactly where it is better to treat, because it is not always where the more expensive in quality is better than free medical care. It all depends on the skills and abilities of a specialist, and this is extremely difficult to determine by “cost”.


Treatment for arthrosis begins with a correct diagnosis. In order not to ask questions “What about my joints?”, “And how to cure?” You should immediately contact a doctor for help. After receiving all the necessary data, the doctor will decide which drugs and which procedures are suitable for this particular patient, will take into account all of his concomitant diseases and general condition and prescribe the most effective treatment – drugs, exercises, physiotherapy and other modern methods.

With almost any diagnosis, two methods of treatment are possible: drug and non-drug.

Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologistShishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.

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Medication for arthrosis

Drug therapy consists of the following groups of drugs:

    Nonstero >

Non-drug treatment of arthrosis

Non-pharmacological methods of treatment include:

  • weight correction (weight loss);
  • decrease in high load on the affected joints;
  • lifestyle changes with optimally selected doses of physical activity;
  • reduction of static loads;
  • normalization of sleep and wakefulness;
  • nutrition correction.

What is arthrosis: causes, treatment methods and consequences of the disease

Joint diseases, Arthrosis – What is arthrosis: causes, treatment methods and consequences of the disease

What is arthrosis: causes, treatment methods and consequences of the disease – Joint diseases, Arthrosis

What is arthrosis of various joints, not even all those people who have already encountered this disease know. Arthrosis is a systemic disease based on a process of degenerative changes in the cartilage that receives insufficient nutrition (trophism) or, as a result of an injury, changes its configuration.

Important! Arthrosis of the joints along with arthritis is included in the list of the most common diseases of the musculoskeletal system. The vast majority of patients are older people. If measures are not taken in time and adequate treatment is not started, the disease can lead to disability and complete immobilization of the arms and legs. There are several types of illness.

Arthroso-arthritis is a disease characterized not only by degenerative and dystrophic processes occurring in diarthrosis, but also by its inflammation.

Deforming osteoarthritis is a disease for which the growth of bone tissue is typical, as a result of which deformation of the joint ends of the bones occurs.

Periarthrosis is a degenerative change in which degenerative processes are observed in the joint itself and in the tissues adjacent to it (ligaments, tendons).

Hemarthrosis is a hemorrhage in the joint cavity.

Causes and symptoms of joint arthrosis

The main cause of arthrosis of the joints is considered to be a violation of the metabolic metabolism that occurs in the tissues of the cartilage. The consequences of these processes – cartilage loses elasticity and gradually collapses.

The reasons for the development of degenerative changes and metabolic disorders can be a variety of factors:

  • Disorders in the endocrine system.
  • Gender (women get sick more often than men).
  • Loss of proteoglycans.
  • Depreciation and aging of the body.
  • Excessive loads on the articular apparatus due to the specifics of the profession or the presence of extra pounds on the body.
  • All kinds of chronic pathologies.

Note! The cause of ankle osteoarthritis in women can be long wearing narrow and uncomfortable shoes, especially with high heels. Deformations of the joints of the upper extremities can be seen in representatives of those professions in which a large load on the hands is assumed.

In addition, arthrosis of the knee, ankle or hip joint causes all kinds of injuries, even minor ones (post-traumatic arthrosis).

Signs of arthrosis vary in the degree of tissue damage:

  1. In the first degree, the joints remain mobile. The X-ray image does not yet provide the opportunity to observe visible changes. The patient may be disturbed only by a slight cracking in the joints and a slight aching pain.
  2. The second degree of arthrosis is characterized by the appearance of discomfort in the joints, impaired mobility of the limb and the duration of severe pain. An ultrasound of the joints of the lower extremities or an x-ray reveals early signs of joint deformation.
  3. With the third degree, mobility in the joints is limited, the patient experiences excruciating pain even in a state of absolute rest. On x-rays, characteristic changes are observed.

Sometimes doctors also diagnose a fourth degree of arthrosis, which is characterized by intense pain and significant deformities.

Osteoarthritis rheumatoid and unvertebral

This term most often refers to degenerative-destructive changes – the consequences of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis itself changes the configuration of the joints, which causes an aggravation of dystrophic processes in the periarticular and articular tissues and a violation of the congruence of diarthrosis.

In addition, Jura stands out – juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, which affects children and adolescents.

But arthrosis is unvertebral – these are manifestations of the occurrence of degenerative-destructive changes in the cervical spine. The main symptoms of arthrosis of such localization:

  • Blood pressure jumps.
  • Dizziness and headache.
  • When turning the head, you can hear a pronounced crunch.
  • After a prolonged standing or sitting position, pain in the neck is observed.

An X-ray examination reveals a subluxation of the joints of the cervical spine.

In addition, arthrosis is classified by area of ​​localization:

  1. Coxarthrosis is an arthrosis of the hip joint.
  2. Gonarthrosis is an arthrosis of the knee.
  3. Cruzarthrosis is an arthrosis of the ankle.
  4. Arthrosis of the lower joint of the lower jaw.
  5. Arthrosis of different parts of the spine.

Arthrosis Treatment

Treatments for all arthrosis

Before starting treatment for arthrosis at home, I use different methods, their safety and advisability should be consulted with a doctor. This is necessary to prevent the possible consequences of self-medication.

To prescribe adequate treatment, the doctor conducts an initial examination of the patient and assigns him a series of laboratory tests, which include:

  • all kinds of biochemical blood tests (for example, for the presence of a rheumatoid factor, for acute phase reactions);
  • X-ray;
  • methods of MRI, ultrasound or CT diarthrosis;
  • diagnostic arthroscopy is occasionally prescribed.

Based on the above studies, the doctor can make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe a competent treatment for the disease.

Arthrosis treatment is based on:

  1. to eliminate the cause of the disease. In the case of psoriatic or rheumatoid arthritis, treatment is aimed at the underlying disease and should achieve a stable remission;
  2. to normalize the nutrition of the joint, blood circulation, metabolism. For this, chondoprotectors, antiplatelet agents, vitamins, hyaluronic acid drugs, drugs that improve local and systemic blood flow are prescribed;
  3. symptomatic treatment includes painkillers and anti-inflammatory methods. Nonsteroidal drugs (ketanol, diclofenac) are usually prescribed for severe pain.

In addition, ointments, creams, gels with distracting and anti-inflammatory effects are applied to the area of ​​affected diarthrosis 2-3 times a day, use rubbing, apply compresses with dimexide.

Physiotherapeutic treatments

To relieve inflammation and pain, it is widely used:

  • UFO, which is prescribed in erythema doses;
  • electrophonophoresis;
  • UHF, microwave, laser therapy;
  • Spa treatment;
  • therapeutic exercises for diarthrosis.

Operative intervention

In some cases, the patient requires a complete or partial replacement of the joints, its plastic. The procedure can be carried out by the traditional method or by means of minimally invasive and endoscopic surgery.

Operations are prescribed in situations where conservative therapy has not brought the expected results, when the joint has lost its mobility, and its deformation is pronounced.

How to prevent the disease

Prevention of arthrosis, first of all, consists in correcting nutrition, increasing physical activity, preventing hypothermia.

With arthrosis, nutrition does not provide for any serious restrictions. This is just a balanced diet, which includes the main groups of products. The patient should drink plenty of fluids, fresh fruits and vegetables.

Doctors often recommend that patients with arthrosis include jellied meat, aspic, or strong broths in their menu if these products are not contraindicated by another doctor. The only condition is that the food should be low in calories. This is necessary in order not to gain extra pounds and thereby not increase the load on the joints.

By itself, hot and spicy foods do not have much effect on arthrosis. Nevertheless, we must not forget that most often people suffering from arthrosis are forced to take anti-inflammatory and painkillers that adversely affect the gastric mucosa.

Any moderate physical activity and daily exercise improves blood supply to the joints and strengthens the muscles. With arthrosis, it is best to go swimming, walking and skiing. With gonarthrosis and coxarthrosis, combined with overweight, cycling and exercise on a stationary bike proved to be good.

Joints do not like cold. Therefore, dressing should be in accordance with weather conditions. In this case, all parts of the body must be uniformly protected. Any hypothermia can cause a weakening of the body’s defenses, and this, in turn, is fraught with inflammatory processes in the joints and dystrophic changes in them.

Arthrosis of the joints (osteoarthrosis)

Arthrosis of the joints (osteoarthrosis), causes and symptoms

Arthrosis of the joints

Arthrosis of the joints (osteoarthritis) is not often confused with arthritis, despite the fact that these are completely different diseases of the joints.
Let us dwell on the causes, symptoms and treatment of arthrosis of the joints (osteoarthritis).

A bit of anatomy about arthrosis

The bone tissue in the joints is covered with cartilage, the purpose of which is to reduce friction in the articulating surfaces, to facilitate movement. At the moment of movement, the cartilage of the joint experiences strong mechanical stresses that lead to its abrasion. In order to prevent premature wear, cartilage tissue needs to be constantly updated. The main role in this belongs to such organic compounds as collagen, elastin, calcium compounds, proteoglycans.

The physiological feature of articular cartilage is that its nutrition does not occur through blood vessels that it lacks, but through diffusion through synovial fluid. This fluid, placed in the joint bag, is not only the nutrition of the cartilage, but also the natural lubricant of the joint.

What happens with arthrosis

With a long-existing imbalance between the process of damage to cartilage tissue and regeneration, its wear occurs, degenerative changes and degeneration begin. This is the main essence of arthrosis.

Symptoms of osteoarthrosis

This disease affects all the joints of the human body. The most vulnerable to osteoarthritis are the knee joint (gonarthrosis) and the hip joint (coxarthrosis). The lumbar region can also be affected, such a disease is called spondylarthrosis.

The first symptom of osteoarthritis is pain, at first mild and appearing only with physical exertion, and in the process of progressive changes in the joint, more severe, turning into a constant. Even relaxation cannot weaken it, and in the evening and at night it intensifies even more.

Another typical symptom of a disease is impaired mobility. First, it manifests itself in the form of temporary stiffness in the morning, during the day the stiffness disappears. During movement, crunching, crepitus may be observed. If inflammation occurs, the joint may increase in volume, redness of the skin and an increase in temperature at the joint site occur. Severe exacerbations of the disease can cause general fever.

The lack of proper timely treatment leads to an increase in structural and functional disorders.

The joint cavity can gradually be replaced by connective tissue, limiting mobility more and more, ankylosis may develop. Sometimes a diametrically opposite development of the disease occurs, in which pathological mobility occurs in the joint due to progressive degeneration of tissues (muscles and ligaments).

Diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis of the joints

At the very early stage of the development of the disease, diagnosis is carried out by the radionuclide method. It lies in the fact that in synovial fluid, when the composition is changed due to illness, the ability to excrete and absorb radionuclides is impaired. To identify this pathology, a puncture is taken from the joint and a biopsy of the cartilage tissue is done.

Accurately accurate information about the state of health and possible pathology can be detected by laboratory tests that analyze the chemical composition of blood, make rheumatic tests, isolate protein fractions, determine electrolytes, sugar levels, etc.

With deforming osteoarthrosis, the correct diagnosis is made using x-rays. The exact condition of the joints is investigated by modern methods of CT and MRI.

The treatment of osteoarthritis of the joints, even with a favorable diagnosis, is a long and complex process.

With conservative treatment, the main task is to anesthetize, stabilize the condition, expand the motor functions of the joint. For this, drug therapy, physiotherapeutic procedures, mud spa treatment of osteoarthritis are used.

Causes of arthrosis of the joints

The defeat of arthrosis is considered quite common. The risk of developing arthrosis increases significantly with age. The disease is characterized by the gradual destruction of cartilage tissue. Let’s consider in the article in more detail the causes of arthrosis of the joints. Pathology also affects the periarticular areas. With arthrosis, dystrophic processes develop in the cartilage zone.

  1. Causes of the disease
  2. Symptoms of joint arthrosis
  3. Prevention of arthrosis
  4. Diagnosis of arthrosis
  5. Arthrosis Treatment

Causes of the disease

A decrease in the elasticity of the cartilage tissue is detected with various hormonal changes. Various chronic pathologies contribute to the disease (psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis).

The first signs of arthrosis appear due to rupture of ligaments, bruises, fractures, dislocations. Symptoms of arthrosis are fixed after a strong physical overstrain. General intoxication and hypothermia can provoke the disease.

In addition, pathological changes occur against the background of overweight, thyroid disease, Perthes disease. Disorders in the joints are observed with tuberculosis, gonorrhea, syphilis, lupus erythematosus. And also some genetic diseases, congenital anomalies, gene mutations lead to the causes of arthrosis of the joints and its development.

Symptoms of joint arthrosis

The patient feels muscle cramps. Blood circulation in the periarticular tissues decreases. The range of rotation of the joint is reduced. A characteristic crunch appears when moving. Hyaline cartilage decreases, the process of formation of osteophytes begins. Acute bone growths further injure the joint.

There is pain. She is present not only when moving, but also in a state of complete rest. The disease is characterized by cyclicity, remissions change in acute periods.

Degenerative processes can be observed in the commas, fingers and toes, and in various joints (elbow, knee, hip).

Prevention of arthrosis

At the initial stage, the disease can still be affected. You can try at home to grind and night compresses from folk remedies:

  • Sliced ​​ficus leaves are placed in a half-liter capacity, pour vodka and insist for two weeks. As a result, we get a mixture that needs to rub sore spots.
  • We create a creamy mixture of kerosene, salt and dry mustard (composition in grams: salt – 200, mustard – 100, kerosene 100). As a result, we get an ointment that needs to be rubbed into the joints every night.
  • Making a compress on ammonia and rye flour. Knead the mixture, apply to sore spots and wrap.
  • Stir a mixture of 1 part honey and 1 part fine salt (you can take one tablespoon each). The resulting composition is laid out on a sore spot and insulated.

And you can go a simpler and easier way by visiting the clinic for the prevention of arthrosis of the joints. Conservative treatment can be obtained not only in Russia, but also abroad. For example, in Germany, read more on the website.

Diagnosis of arthrosis

During the examination, an x-ray is performed. As the disease progresses, narrowing of the cracks, extensive deformation zones and multiple osteophytes are visible in the images. In advanced stages, arthrosis significantly reduces the patient’s activity, leading to disability and joint destruction.

Arthrosis Treatment

Relieve pain with anti-inflammatory drugs. Ibuprofen, Butadion, Diclofenac are prescribed. Chondroprotectors are used in the treatment. They are composed of substances that help restore the structure of cartilage. In the phase of remission, physiotherapeutic procedures are used (ultrasound, electrophoresis), mud applications. If hormonal disruptions led to the appearance of arthrosis, then endocrinologists prescribe treatment for the underlying pathology.

In order to restore blood flow, relieve spasms using intraarticular oxygen therapy. With arthrosis, sanatorium treatment is often prescribed. That’s all the causes of arthrosis of the joints, if you still have questions you can ask them or leave feedback, than to treat arthrosis of the joints on the forum.

Morozov Georgiy

Georgy Morozov, rheumatologist. For more than 20 years, he has been involved in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of joint diseases.