Arthritis Symptoms

Arthritis is the most common pathology of articular structures. Depending on the cause of the disease, 5 of its main forms are distinguished: rheumatoid, reactive, infectious, gouty and psoriatic. Symptoms of arthritis and its manifestations in each case will depend precisely on the clinical variant of the disease.

Ailment can affect different joints

Symptoms of reactive arthritis

Reactive arthritis is an inflammatory disease of a non-purulent nature, which manifests itself after an acute genitourinary or intestinal infection. This pathology often affects young men.

The first signs usually appear in the form of a general malaise: weakness, increased fatigue, headache. Sometimes there is an increase in total body temperature, which rarely exceeds 38 ° C.

A characteristic symptom of this form of the disease is asymmetric damage to the joints of the legs (for example, ankle, knee or hip), which appears a few days after non-specific signs (that is, signs of the disease that are not associated with joint damage). Sometimes the joints between the pelvic bones are involved in the pathological process. Often inflamed ligaments and tendons (for example, damage to the Achilles tendon). The pains have varying degrees of severity, but are rarely intense.

These symptoms in parallel can be accompanied by an inflammatory process in the organs of the genitourinary system. In this case, there is constant urge to urinate (a sharp desire to urinate) – there may also be a burning sensation and pain at this moment.

Soreness, irritation and redness of the eyes, as well as a violation of visual acuity, are associated with the appearance of conjunctivitis (the inflammatory process of the mucous membrane covering the eyelid and eyeball), which can occur both before the onset of joint damage and at the same time.

Red eyes may be a sign of arthritis, although at first glance, damage to the eyes and joints is in no way related.

Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic chronic disease, the symptoms of which lead to a significant decrease in the quality of life, primarily due to pain and changes in the shape of the joints. This pathology often becomes a causal disability.

Classical rheumatoid arthritis (it may be erroneously called rheumatic) has quite characteristic symptoms:

First signs: metacarpophalangeal joints on the middle and index fingers become swollen and inflamed. Often this is combined with a similar lesion of the wrist joint.

In almost every case, the joints are affected symmetrically (that is, the same, for example, on the right and left leg).

Arthritis pain intensifies at night, closer to the morning. It is quite intense until noon, and then almost stops. If the pathology is at the initial stage, then the painful sensations disappear after exercise. But the feeling of relief is never long – after a few hours or in the morning, the pain attack resumes.

Stiffness of the body in the morning, feeling of weakness. A patient may complain of a “feeling of a numb body,” “tight gloves on his hands,” or “a tight corset on his body,” with which people describe their condition. These sensations disappear 1-2 hours after waking up, but in the case of a severe form of the disease, they can disturb a person throughout the day.

Often along with the inflamed joints of the hands, the small joints of the feet that are at the base of the fingers are also affected. The process is also symmetrical. On examination, the patient notes pain while pressing on the toes of the toes.

If the disease progresses, then the inflammation passes to larger joints (for example, knee, shoulder, elbow or ankle). But it happens that at the initial stage, the calcaneal tendons and larger joints become inflamed, and after this the process spreads to the feet and hands – this form of the disease is often manifested in elderly people.

Rheumatoid nodes arise – small dense formations under the skin in areas where elbows, hands and feet are bent. These nodules can constantly change in size, then disappear, then reappear, and sometimes not change for years. They do not cause any sensations, they simply create a cosmetic defect.

With the advanced stage of the disease, the symptoms intensify, severe deformation of the hands and fingers occurs. Such a violation can occur when the hands and fingers begin to deviate outwards, and the wrist is fixed in the wrong position – because of this, mobility in the wrist joints decreases. As a result, blood circulation and innervation * of the hands are disturbed: they turn pale, muscle atrophy appears.

* Innervation – the connection of organs and tissues with the central nervous system through nerves.

The disease is accompanied by periodically occurring signs of intoxication of the body, which include the following symptoms: weakness, chills, weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite, fever up to 38,5 ° C.

Over time, the disease affects all articular surfaces. The larger ones can become inflamed without significant discomfort, but their mobility is noticeably worse.

A Baker cyst may appear – a symptom that occurs when an excess fluid accumulates in the knee capsule, which stretches it. If there is a lot of this fluid (exudate), then this can lead to rupture of the cystic formation. As a result, the liquid impregnates the tissues on the back surface of the lower leg, there is swelling and pain in this area.

There may also be other signs accompanying rheumatoid arthritis:

  • inflammation of the salivary glands,
  • numbness of the limbs
  • pain in the eyes
  • chest pain while breathing.

Rheumatoid joint damage differs from rheumatism in that the inflammatory process is more persistent, because the painful sensations and swelling of the tissues can bother for many years. The disease differs from arthrosis in that the painful sensations do not intensify under exertion, but rather subside after active exercises.

Symptoms of Infectious Arthritis

An infectious variant of the disease, also called septic or pyogenic, is a serious infectious disease. It is based on the penetration of microorganisms into articular structures, followed by active inflammation of the latter. This condition needs emergency medical attention.

The most common signs of arthritis of infectious origin:

  • A sharp start. In rare cases, a gradual increase and intensification of symptoms over three weeks (for example, the disease in infants).
  • Symptoms of intoxication: fever (usually above 38,5 ° C), chills, pain in the muscles, headache. Young children may have vomiting or nausea.
  • Severe swelling of the affected joint, constantly growing and causing a change in its shape.
  • Most often affected are the knee, elbow, shoulder, hip, wrist joints and articular surfaces of the fingers.
  • Increased pain during movement. For example, when the hip joint is affected, the pain radiates to the inguinal region and intensifies during walking.
  • Movement becomes limited, and the position of the limb is forced: one in which pain is felt the least.
  • An increase in temperature in the area above the affected joint (skin is hot).
  • In older people, the symptoms may be more erased, and in young children, on the contrary, the clinic is very stormy.

Hip Joint Reactive Arthritis

Symptoms of Gouty Arthritis

Gout – a disease associated with metabolic disorders and the accumulation in the body of an excessive amount of uric acid salts. As a rule, the disease affects the joint tissue.

The following symptoms are characteristic of this form of the disease:

  • A sharp onset of a pain attack, most often at night and after a significant error in the diet – eating large amounts of meat and alcohol.
  • Most often, the first joint of the big toe is affected, less often the knee or elbow is inflamed.
  • The affected area becomes red, swollen, touching it causes severe pain.
  • Fast resolution of the attack. Even without treatment, all clinical manifestations disappear after a few days.
  • The general condition of the patient is not greatly disturbed, body temperature does not rise.

A typical manifestation of gout is damage to the joint of the big toe.

Symptoms of Psoriatic Arthritis

The psoriatic variant of the disease develops against the background of a specific lesion of the skin and nails. It can affect absolutely any joint in the human body, but most often its manifestations are found in the fingers.

Inflammation in the joint tissues develops gradually, with swelling and redness of the affected areas (when the fingers are damaged, they become “sausages”), as well as a local increase in temperature. In the initial stages, pain and limitation of mobility are not characteristic. As the process progresses in the morning hours, stiffness of movements appears, which disappears during the first hour. Inflammation can also spread to the periarticular structures, causing damage to the tendons and ligaments.

Joint manifestations of the disease are accompanied by the appearance of red scaly spots, itching and discomfort on the skin and scalp.


In addition to the common forms of arthritis considered in this article, there are more rare variants of arthritis: for example, idiopathic, endocrine. For more information about them, see the section “Arthritis”.

As you can see, arthritis is a serious disease with a variety of manifestations. It is important to diagnose the disease on time, and treatment should be carried out under the guidance of qualified specialists. Self-medication can lead to serious complications or even disability.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical joint damage and inflammation of the internal organs.

The cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. The possible cause can be various viruses, bacteria, trauma, allergies, heredity and other factors.

The frequency of occurrence is 1% in the general population. The prevailing age is 22–55 years. The predominant gender is female (3: 1).

  • Fatigue
  • A slight increase in body temperature
  • Enlargement of lymph nodes
  • Losing weight.

Symmetry of joint damage is an important feature of rheumatoid arthritis (for example, the right and left elbow joints or the right and left knee joints are affected)

  • Morning stiffness of joints lasting more than 1 hour
  • Rheumatoid brush: deformations of the type of “buttonhole”, “swan neck”, “hands with lorgnet”
  • Rheumatoid foot: 1 toe deformity
  • Rheumatoid knee joint: Baker cyst, flexion deformities
  • Cervical spine: subluxations of the atlantoaxial joint
  • Cervical joint: coarsening of the voice, impaired swallowing.

Damage to the periarticular tissues

Tendosynovitis in the area of ​​the wrist joint and hand (inflammation of the tendon, characterized by swelling, pain and a distinct creak during movement).

Bursitis, especially in the area of ​​the elbow joint.

The defeat of the ligamentous apparatus with the development of increased mobility and deformities.

Muscle damage: muscle atrophy, often drug (steroid, as well as with penicillamine or aminoquinoline derivatives).

Rheumatoid nodules are dense subcutaneous formations, in typical cases localized in areas often subjected to trauma (for example, in the region of the ulnar process, on the extensor surface of the forearm). Very rarely found in internal organs (for example, in the lungs). Observed in 20-50% of patients.

Anemia due to a slowdown in iron metabolism in the body caused by impaired liver function; platelet count reduction

Felty’s syndrome, including a decrease in neutrophil blood, an enlarged spleen,

  • fever 39 ° C and above for one or more weeks;
  • joint pain 2 weeks or more;
  • spotted rash of the color of a salmon appearing during a fever.

Sjogren’s syndrome – dryness of the mucous membrane of the eyes, mouth.

Also, with rheumatoid arthritis, signs of osteoporosis (this is a rarefaction of bone tissue), amyloidosis can occur.

Often there are ulcers on the skin of the legs, inflammation of the arteries.

In general and biochemical analysis of blood:

  • anemia,
  • increase in ESR,
  • increase in the content of C-reactive protein.

The joint fluid is cloudy, with a low viscosity, the number of leukocytes and neutrophils is increased.

Rheumatoid factor (antibodies to class M immunoglobulins) is positive in 70–90% of cases.

Urinalysis: protein in the urine.

Increased serum creatinine, urea (assessment of renal function, a necessary step in the selection and control of treatment).

Diagnosis Criteria for Rheumatoid Arthritis of the American Rheumatological Association (1987). At least 4 of the following symptoms are present:

  • morning stiffness for more than 1 hour;
  • arthritis of 3 or more joints;
  • arthritis of the joints of the hands;
  • symmetric arthritis;
  • rheumatoid nodules;
  • positive rheumatoid factor;
  • radiological changes.

Drug therapy includes the use of three groups of drugs:

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Representatives of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are

These drugs have a minimal side effect and retain high anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity.

Meloxicam (movalis) at the beginning of treatment with the activity of the inflammatory process is prescribed at 15 mg / day., And then move on to 7,5 mg / day. as maintenance therapy.

Nimesulide is prescribed in a dose of 100 mg twice a day.

Celecoxib (celebrex) is prescribed 100-200 mg twice a day.

For the elderly, the selection of the dosage of the drug is not required. However, in patients with a body weight below average (50 kg), it is advisable to start treatment with the lowest recommended dose.

A combination of two or more non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided, as their effectiveness remains unchanged and the risk of side effects increases.

Basic preparations are recommended immediately after diagnosis.

The main drugs for the basic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are:

Ineffective basic preparations for 1,5–3 months should be replaced or their combinations with hormones in small doses should be used, which reduces the activity of rheumatoid arthritis.

Six months is a critical period, no later than which an effective basic therapy should be selected.

In the process of treatment with basic drugs, the activity of the disease and side effects are carefully monitored.

The use of high doses of hormones (pulse therapy) in combination with slow-acting agents can increase the effectiveness of the latter.

With a high degree of inflammation activity, hormones are used, and in cases of systemic manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis, in the form of pulse therapy (only hormones or in combination with a cytostatic cyclophosphamide), without systemic manifestations, as a course of treatment.

Hormones are also used as supportive anti-inflammatory therapy for the ineffectiveness of other drugs.

In some cases, hormones are used as local therapy. The drug of choice is diprospan, which has a prolonged effect.

Ointments, creams, gels based on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, piroxicam, ketoprofen, diclofenac) are used in the form of applications for inflamed joints.

To enhance the anti-inflammatory effect, applications of the above ointment forms of drugs are combined with applications of a dimethyl sulfoxide solution in a dilution of 1: 2–1: 4.

In the absence of a response to standard drug treatment in patients with high activity of rheumatoid arthritis, plasmapheresis and lymphocytapheresis are used.

An important point in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is the prevention of osteoporosis – the restoration of impaired calcium balance in the direction of increasing its absorption in the intestine and reducing excretion from the body.

For this, a diet with a high content of calcium is used.

Sources of calcium are dairy products (especially hard cheese, as well as processed cheese; to a lesser extent cottage cheese, milk, sour cream), almonds, hazelnuts and walnuts, etc., as well as calcium preparations in combination with vitamin D or its active metabolites.

The drug, which can be attributed to the basic anti-osteoporotic drugs, is myakaltsik. It is available for intramuscular injection at 100 ME and in the form of a nasal spray; prescribed according to the scheme in conjunction with calcium preparations (calcitonin) and derivatives of vitamin D.

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Laser therapy is also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Especially in severe exacerbations of rheumatoid arthritis in recent years, extracorporeal methods of treatment (primarily hemosorption and plasmapheresis) are widely used.

Laser therapy is especially indicated in the early stages of the process. The course is no more than 15 procedures.

In order to reduce pain and eliminate spasm of periarticular tissues, cryotherapy (cold treatment) is applied, for a course of 10-20 procedures.

In order to influence allergic processes, improve tissue nutrition and eliminate inflammation, other physical methods of treatment are also used.

In the early stage of rheumatoid arthritis, ultraviolet irradiation of the affected joints, electrophoresis of dimethyl sulfoxide, calcium, salicylates is recommended.

When more persistent changes in the joints appear and in the absence of signs of high activity, hydrocortisone phonophoresis, magnetotherapy, and pulsed currents are prescribed.

Physiotherapy exercises and massage are prescribed to all patients in order to relieve muscle spasm, the quickest restoration of joint function.

All patients with rheumatoid arthritis should be systematically observed and examined by a rheumatologist.

Patients with a slowly progressing course without damage to internal organs should appear at the rheumatologist 1 time in 3 months. In the presence of damage to the internal organs, patients are examined by a rheumatologist 1 time in 2-4 weeks.

Spa treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is recommended to be carried out annually outside the acute phase.

With a benign course of the process without marked changes in the joints, the use of radioactive baths in Tskhaltubo and Belokurikha is indicated; with a typical progressive process – treatment with hydrogen sulfide baths in Sochi, Sernovodsk, Pyatigorsk, Kemeri; with severe deformations and contractures – treatment with mud applications in Yevpatoriya, Saki, Pyatigorsk, Odessa.



Arthritis is a condition in which an inflammatory process occurs in a person’s joints. In patients diagnosed with arthritis, the symptoms are manifested by pain during movement or when lifting weights. The joints gradually become less mobile, they can change shape. Sometimes with arthritis, tumors appear, redness of the skin over the joint, fever may occur.

With a sharp manifestation of the disease, the patient is diagnosed with acute arthritis, with its gradual formation – chronic arthritis.

Arthritis can be an independent disease, and arise as a manifestation of another disease. According to statistics, arthritis is observed in every hundredth person in the world. The disease is diagnosed in people of different age groups, but most often arthritis affects the elderly and middle-aged women.

Among the risk factors for the disease, genetic (sex, the presence of hereditary problems with the joints) and acquired (obesity, smoking, allergic tendency) are distinguished.

Signs of Arthritis

The symptoms of this disease are most often a feeling of some stiffness in the joints, as well as an increase in the temperature of the tissues over the joint. A person feels pain in a joint affected by arthritis, later a swelling appears, the joint begins to move less clearly.

If the patient has pronounced acute arthritis, the symptoms may be more diverse. Under such circumstances, the patient has bouts of fever, a constant feeling of general malaise and weakness, leukocytosis. Inflammation is manifested primarily in the inner lining of the joint. Sometimes in the joint cavity there is an accumulation of inflammatory effusion – exudate. Later, the pathology grows on the joint bones, cartilage, joint capsule, spreads to the tissues near the joints – ligaments, tendons.

Types of Arthritis

By the number of affected joints, arthritis is usually divided into monoarthritis (one affected joint), oligoarthritis (two or three affected joints), polyarthritis (many affected joints).

Acute arthritis is characterized by fairly intense pain in the joint. Chronic arthritis, which develops gradually, is accompanied by periodically manifested pains, less severe than in the acute form of the disease.

According to the types of joint damage, several types of the disease are distinguished. Traumatic arthritis is manifested in the presence of open and closed joint injuries and in the case of regularly occurring minor injuries.

Dystrophic arthritis is manifested due to changes in metabolic processes, with strong cooling, excessive physical stress, vitamin deficiency.

Infectious arthritis manifests itself under the influence of a specific infection.

If the patient manifests arthritis, the symptoms of the disease can be reduced to a lower intensity for several days or for a longer time. Most important for patients with arthritis is to prevent the inflammatory process from intensifying again. Therefore, with this disease requires constant monitoring and supervision of an experienced doctor.

arthritis treatment

It is important to consider that the treatment of arthritis is time-consuming and difficult. The main task in the treatment of arthritis is the reduction of the manifestations of the disease, the resumption of metabolic processes in the joint. All efforts should also be directed towards preserving the functions of the joints affected by arthritis to the maximum.

A number of factors that negatively affect the healing process are also highlighted. They should be anticipated during treatment. So, it is important to carry out effective treatment of the disease that has become the root cause of arthritis, or the cause of arthritis should be eliminated.

Today, some types of treatment for arthritis are used, which are selected depending on the type and characteristics of the disease. Therapy of arthritis can be complex, long-term, systematic.

In this case, the treatment of this disease without fail includes methods aimed at restoring processes in the cartilage tissue, as well as methods of complex effects on the patient’s body.

In the treatment of the disease, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods are used, as well as surgical methods. When using the pharmacological method of treating arthritis, the patient is prescribed local therapy using non-steroidal ointments or creams with anti-inflammatory effects. Glucocorticosteroid drugs are also administered intraarticularly or periarticularly. If the pain in the joints is not too severe, then the periodic use of conventional analgesics (for example, paracetamol) is possible. Of great importance in the process of treating arthritis with the help of pharmacological agents are drugs that not only anesthetize, but also slow down or reverse pathological processes in the joints. These drugs, called chondroprotectors, stop the production of an enzyme that destroys cartilage, and at the same time improve the synthesis of the main substance of the cartilage. Such drugs significantly reduce pain and practically do not cause side effects.

As non-pharmacological methods of treatment, the use of special orthopedic shoes, knee pads, arch support, a cane while walking is used. It is recommended that the patient minimize the load on the joints, if necessary, lose weight, exercise physical therapy and undergo a course of individually selected physiotherapeutic treatment. In no case should you perform exercises that include squats, as well as exercises on bent knees. The latter is especially important for those who are diagnosed with arthritis of the knee joint. The ideal sport for arthritis patients is swimming.

An important step in the treatment of arthritis is the fight against bad habits. So, a patient with arthritis should stop smoking, do not abuse coffee.

As a surgical treatment, the method of joint replacement is used. Such treatment is advisable exclusively in severe forms of the disease.

If a person has already developed arthritis, he should be very competent in choosing exercises for sports. No need to stand too long. Particular attention must be paid to the selection of products for everyday diet. Animal fats, flour, spicy should be excluded. At the same time, cereal fiber is an extremely useful food for arthritis.

Understanding the types, types and degrees of arthritis

Arthritis is a disease that often appears in people over the age of 40. But today there are rare types of the disease, which are manifested in childhood. Why does the disease appear, and what species exist? Let’s find out.

Why arthritis appears

Arthritis occurs as a result of inflammation in the body. Acute pain appears in the compounds, it intensifies at night and with movement. If you start the disease, there is a risk of arthrosis, this is a more serious disease.

The disease is divided into two types, depending on the appearance:

  1. Acute form – which appears unexpectedly.
  2. Chronic – the disease develops gradually.

And although one of the symptoms of arthritis is joint pain, their presence is not a sign of this particular disease. Therefore, it is better to consult a doctor.

The disease occurs in old age, when there is a natural wear of the fabric. But there are other unfavorable factors that are the cause of the onset of the disease. For instance:

  • Improper nutrition and lack of vitamins.
  • A man sits a lot and moves a little.
  • Excessive body weight.
  • Наследственность.

Arthritis occurs in people who play sports. The parts of the body on which the load was most severely suffer. Also, the cause of the appearance is an injury, for example, sprain during a game of football. Inflammation of the joint appears after a strong blow to an object or after a heavy object falls on a limb (leg or arm). This causes injury, as a result of the disease.

Perhaps the body lacks minerals and vitamins. He begins to suck out the necessary substances from the tissues. There is inflammation. In such cases, vitamins should be taken, but you need to find out which component is not enough for the normal functioning of the body.

Scientists have long identified the causes of the disease. If it arose as a result of infection, then pathogenic microorganisms entered the body. In this case, an immune reaction is triggered, which tries to get rid of the source of pain. And she gets rid of not only foreign cells, but also of her own – especially from cartilage.

Inflammation also occurs as a result of injuries or a birth defect. Also, the ailment appears due to excessive body weight – the load on the joints is stronger than usual. The disease occurs in women in the process of hormone disruption as a result of menopause or endocrine disease. If the cause was hereditary, arthritis appears in youth and even in childhood.

Types of Arthritis

Scientists continue to deal with the causes of the onset of the disease, since there are several types of the disease and it is not always possible to determine the source immediately. The causes of some types of arthritis are still considered a mystery, for example, the psoriatic variety. But still it was possible to determine most of them, as well as the reasons for their appearance:

  • Infectious and reactive arthritis. The cause of the appearance is an infection. It occurs due to the ingestion of fungi, infections or microbes. The immune system begins to secrete antibodies that attack foreign organisms. Unfortunately, it damages the cells of the body, and then inflammation occurs.
  • Gout. The cause of the appearance is a metabolic disorder. This type of arthritis appears with malnutrition and a lack of vitamins and minerals. Also the cause of gout is obesity.
  • Rheumatoid. It appears as a result of infectious diseases, such as flu. The disease was difficult to flow and damaged the cells of the body. As a result, inflammation appeared. Rheumatoid arthritis also appears as a result of a malfunction of the hormonal system, for example, menopause in women. Another reason for the appearance is allergic reactions, the disease is often found in people who suffer from allergies, but little is known about it, scientists have not yet been able to determine the cause in more detail. Rheumatoid arthritis also appears due to diseases of the nervous system. Symptoms also include stress and insomnia. If a person has worked too much lately, overstrained and slept little, there is a risk of such a disease.
  • Traumatic arthritis. Occurs after an injury. This kind of variety most often affects people who play sports, for example, footballers develop inflammation on the leg, because they often run and apply force when the ball hits, the muscles of the legs strain.
  • Osteoarthritis. Appears as a result of hypothermia. For a long time a person was in the cold, and he severely damages the cells of the body. To avoid this disease, you should dress warmly and not stand in a draft.

Each type of arthritis has a separate reason, and therefore the treatment is different. Symptoms may also vary, but in all types, joint pain is the main one. The disease can be defined as follows:

  • Joint pain. It can be twitching or intense. It intensifies at night. Symptom occurs in all varieties of arthritis.
  • Raise the temperature of the damage to 40 degrees. Most often appears as a result of injuries, because muscle tissue is the most affected.
  • Swelling and swelling. Also appears as a result of trauma, less often with other diseases.
  • Violation of the motor function of the joints. If the affected area hurts and swells, it becomes more difficult to move. It occurs due to injury.
  • Stiffness and weakness in the body. But these symptoms are more related to rheumatoid and infectious arthritis. Perhaps the person has been tired and nervous a lot lately. Or the hormonal system malfunctioned.
  • Weight loss. Also occurs with rheumatoid arthritis. Perhaps the person is suffering from obesity, and the body is trying to remove all the excess or weight loss has become the cause of an infectious disease.


If a person does not contact a doctor in a timely manner, there is a risk of exacerbation. Complication manifests itself in two ways:

  1. Sepsis, i.e. purulent inflammation of the joint. A dangerous disease, because when it enters the bloodstream, pus is transferred to other internal organs. In such cases, there is a risk of death.
  2. Arthrosis is a deformation or destruction of a joint. Another dangerous disease, because it is chronic, it is impossible to cure a damaged joint.

Arthritis can also result in damage to internal organs, for example:

arthritis treatment

Treatment will be slightly different depending on the variety, but there are common factors – you need to reduce the load on the affected area and take vitamins. It is not recommended to strain and carry heavy objects. Depending on the type of arthritis, the following treatment is prescribed:

  • Infectious. It is important to get rid of the infection. The doctor prescribes drugs, most often antibiotics. Their goal is to get rid of the source of the disease, that is, from the virus. The inflammation itself will pass over time, but you can use the ointment to relieve symptoms.
  • Gout. Vitamins should be taken, they are prescribed by a doctor.
  • Traumatic. The doctor prescribes drugs to relieve pain (for example, based on ibuprofen), usually the inflammation goes away on its own. Physiotherapy helps well.
  • Osteoarthritis. Physiotherapy and warming ointments are also prescribed.
  • Rheumatoid. It all depends on the cause of the disease. For obesity, vitamins and diet are prescribed, for stress, antidepressants, and for complications after illness, vitamins.

Treatment for any kind of arthritis should begin with a doctor. It is he who establishes the cause of the disease and the methods of its treatment.

There are many varieties of arthritis, and not all of them are fully understood. But the methods of treatment are similar, because the effect of most drugs against arthritis is aimed specifically at eliminating pain and inflammation of the tissue.

Arthritis and arthrosis: symptoms, prevention and treatment

At first glance, arthrosis and arthritis are very similar, but these diseases differ significantly. Today we will talk about what are the symptoms of these ailments and what preventive methods will help prevent the disease.

What is the difference between arthritis and arthrosis?

Both arthritis and arthrosis cause joint damage, but these are different diseases. If arthrosis affects only joints, then arthritis implies an inflammatory process throughout the body. Inflammation can be caused by infection, abnormalities in the immune system or metabolic disorders. Therefore, with this disease, not only joints are often affected, but also internal organs: liver, kidneys, heart.

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The age group, in which diseases are most often found, also differs: arthritis usually manifests itself before the age of 40, while arthrosis is mainly affected by older people.

Symptoms of arthrosis and arthritis

This is one of the main signs of arthrosis and arthritis, however, the nature of the pain in these diseases is different. So, with arthrosis, pain manifests itself mainly only with movement and a strong additional load, while it may not be very strong (especially in the first stage of the disease). That is why often people do not attach any importance to it, starting the disease. In the second stage, the pain manifests itself even with a small load, and in the third – even at rest. However, it can subside if a person manages to take a comfortable position.

But in the case of arthritis, the pain at rest does not subside. Particularly characteristic for arthritis are night pains – between three and five in the morning.

Crunch with arthrosis occurs due to the fact that the cartilaginous layer is destroyed, and bone friction occurs. However, if your joints sometimes crack, then this is not a reason for panic. Crunch with arthrosis has a specific sound: it is not a slight click, but rough, dry. The higher the stage, the stronger the crack in the joint.

3. Reduced mobility and stiffness

With arthrosis, the amplitude of motion in the affected joint decreases. Arthritis is characterized by stiffness throughout the body or in the joint.

With arthrosis, the appearance of the joint changes, but in this case there is no swelling, as with arthritis. Symptoms of arthritis can be inflammation, swelling, the appearance of dense nodules, an increase in temperature at the site of inflammation (it can be hot to the touch).

With arthritis, joint inflammation can also be accompanied by:

  • fever;
  • psoriasis
  • inflammation of the eyes (as if sand in the eyes);
  • chills or excessive sweating;
  • weakness;
  • secretions from the genitals.

Prevention of arthritis and arthrosis

Any moderate load helps to reduce weight, increase blood circulation, strengthen the muscle corset, which is very important for the prevention of arthrosis and arthritis. However, it is important to exercise caution: excessive load on the joints, injuries or improper performance of certain exercises, on the contrary, can lead to problems. Therefore, at first it is necessary to conduct classes with a doctor or instructor. However, for prevention, you can perform the so-called articular gymnastics – it is quite simple and does not require special equipment. Activities in the pool are also good, as in the water the load on the joints is much less.

It is about the prevention of arthrosis and arthritis. If you already have one of the diagnoses, then you can do it only after consulting a doctor (and in the acute period, training is contraindicated at all!) And only under the supervision of a kinesitherapist who will develop an individual training program for you.

It is also worth reconsidering your attitude to nutrition. To prevent arthrosis and arthritis, it is better to abandon red meat and foods with a high fat content. It is good if fish and seafood, vegetables and fruits are present in your diet. Cartilage and gelatin (e.g. jellied meat) are also good for bones. In addition, doctors recommend increasing water intake to two to three liters per day.

Give up alcohol. You can start taking vitamins (groups A, D, B) and calcium.

Also, the prevention of arthrosis and arthritis can be:

  • protection of joints from hypothermia;
  • wearing shoes with comfortable heels using individual orthopedic insoles;
  • the exception of crossing legs in a sitting position;
  • weight control;
  • healthy lifestyle, rest and sleep regimen, stress elimination.

Arthritis and Arthrosis Treatment

An integrated approach to the treatment of these diseases is important. First of all, the load on the joints is limited. With arthritis, anti-inflammatory drugs (including hormones) are used – ointments, injections. Physiotherapy exercises, orthopedic regimen, therapeutic diet, physiotherapy are used.

One of the procedures that can be prescribed for the treatment of arthrosis and arthritis is the introduction of the patient’s own platelet-rich plasma (plasmapheresis). The goal is to make cartilage in the joint more elastic and resistant to stress, to reduce pain.

The sequence of actions is simple: the patient takes blood from a vein into special tubes, is processed in a centrifuge, and then injected directly into the joint. After the procedure, the patient should limit physical activity during the day. The introduction of platelets into the joint stimulates the restoration of damaged cartilage. This procedure is almost painless.

Where can I get treatment for arthritis and arthrosis?

A comment on this issue was given to us by the leading doctor of the TAO Clinic of Traditional Chinese Medicine Zhang Zitsian:

“If the patient has discovered symptoms of arthritis or arthrosis, do not despair. First you need to contact a specialist so that he makes the correct diagnosis and prescribes treatment. However, you must carefully approach the choice of a doctor. The clinic of traditional Chinese medicine “TAO” employs professionals in this field. They graduated better from Chinese universities, and now they work under our contract, coming to Russia for at least a few years. This allows the patient to be observed by one specialist throughout the treatment. After all, the sudden need to interrupt the course and seek a new doctor can lead to unnecessary stress and complications.

It is also worth knowing that due to traditional Chinese medicine, surgical intervention can be avoided. The services of our clinic can help with this. For example, procedures such as acupuncture, various types of massage, vacuum exposure and others.

In the TAO clinic, specialists practice course treatment. Typically, one course consists of ten sessions. Thus, we try to be as attentive as possible to solving the problems of our patients. ”

PS When paying for the full course of treatment in the clinic of traditional Chinese medicine “TAO” a 15% discount is applied.

License for the provision of medical services No. LO-77-01-000911 dated December 30.12.2008, , was issued by the Moscow Department of Health.


Arthritis is a collective term, which is manifested by damage and inflammation of the joints, can be diagnosed in both adults and children.

According to statistics, approximately 70% of the population suffer from arthritis of the lower body, compared with diseases of the upper body: elbows, shoulder joints. The female half of humanity is most affected by arthritis of the upper extremities, men more complain of pain in the knees and legs.

People often go to the doctor late, more when arthritis makes itself felt and patients cease to walk. Then arthritis passes into arthrosis, and this is a more serious disease.

Often in medical practice, an error is made in the diagnosis of arthritis. Without understanding the patient’s complaints, the doctor can diagnose arthrosis, when in fact the disease is at the stage of arthritis. This phenomenon is called “overdiagnosis” – an overestimated estimate of the disease, the patient is not prescribed adequate treatment, but even the operation in general.

Symptoms of Arthritis

Symptoms of arthritis are manifested primarily by the limited mobility of the inflamed joint, its swelling. Often, changes in the shape of the joint, redness and fever are added to the symptoms of arthritis.

If the body temperature is elevated and pain is felt throughout the body, we can talk about infectious arthritis.

Arthritis can be both an inflammation of one joint, monoarthritis, and several joints – polyarthritis.

If the symptoms are pronounced and the pain is severe and the patient feels great pain, then they speak of the development of symptoms of acute arthritis.

If the pain with arthritis is not expressed, dull, aching and develops gradually – this is more a chronic form of the course of the disease.

Chronic arthritis is somewhat similar to pain with a bad tooth, it also aches and hurts. The movement of the joint is most often constrained and impaired.

  • Stiffness of the joint
  • Swelling
  • Pain
  • Redness and heat in a sore joint

Video: Arthritis – Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

The difference between arthritis and arthrosis

Arthritis is an inflammation of the joints, from the Greek it means “arthron” – a joint. With arthritis, the surface of the joints remains intact. The joint may hurt, the person is lame, the joint does not bend, it flows, but the joint is whole on the x-ray.

With arthrosis, the so-called starting pains are characteristic, when the pain in the joint increases at the beginning of the movement, and then decreases or disappears. Such pain can occur in the morning when getting out of bed. Then the patient “diverges” and the pain disappears.

As the disease develops, the pain appears after a load on the joint, and soon becomes permanent. The patient may complain of lameness, difficulty climbing stairs, stiffness in the joint. If you put your hand on the joint and at the same time make movements in it, a peculiar crunch is felt.

With arthrosis, an x-ray shows violations and deformation of the joint (violation of congruency). The joint is badly bent and unbent, it hurts with severe pain. Only then can the doctor prescribe an operation, preparing the joint for replacement with an endoprosthesis.

Causes of Arthritis

The causes of arthritis are usually a sedentary lifestyle, especially in people whose profession is related to sedentary work, cashiers, accountants, programmers, etc. With a sedentary lifestyle, over the years, the joints lose their mobility, a person ages and the joints age.

The process of aging joints begins after 40 years,

  • the joints dry out
  • muscles lose their former flexibility
  • crunch and creak
  • then the first symptoms of arthritis begin to manifest.

As the saying goes, a man becomes decrepit not for years, but for his feet. Legs dry out, muscles do not develop. The legs should normally be stronger than the arms, 2-3 times, and not vice versa. Sometimes you see a man with developed arm muscles, but his legs are flimsy.

What the joint represents, first of all, is the muscle and ligament, plus joint fluid. If the muscles and joint work and move, then the joint receives the necessary fluid, the joint works, while the clock.


To prevent arthritis, you need to perform physical exercises, jumping, squatting, swinging legs. Even if you work as an accountant or an official and do physical exercises, it means that arthritis does not threaten you, if not, you are at risk for developing arthritis. Arthritis often occurs after joint injuries, frequent bruises, or joint surgery.

Of course, arthritis has several causes; among them can be noted:

  1. Traumatic arthritis
  2. Infectious arthritis
  3. Dystrophic arthritis

In total, up to 150 types of arthritis are currently recognized. Spurs (bone growths), gout (cones on the feet) are also types of arthritis of the lower extremities.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease.

first of all, damage to the joints with rheumatoid arthritis – one or many joints can be involved in the process.

Joint inflammation

Any joints can become inflamed: most often the small joints of the hands and feet, but also the knee, elbow, hip, temporomandibular joints, intervertebral joints of the cervical spine and others.

Causes of Rheumatoid Arthritis

The impetus for the development of this disease can be one of the following factors or a combination thereof:

  • genetic predisposition – the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis is increased by about 4 times in blood relatives of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It is not the disease itself that is inherited, but the disturbed reaction of the immune system to the action of infectious and other agents, during which arthritis develops.
  • infectious agents – several infectious agents have been identified that can trigger the development of rheumatoid arthritis (rubella, herpes, Epstein-Barr viruses, retroviruses, cytomegalovirus, mycoplasma, etc.). However, none can be the only reason for the development of rheumatoid arthritis. They are only the trigger mechanism of the pathological process.
  • psycho-emotional stress and excessive physical activity – childbirth or abortion, trouble in the family or social sphere, the influence of chemical, radiation, toxic factors on the body – also provoke the development of rheumatoid arthritis.

Reactive arthritis

Reactive arthritis is an inflammatory, non-purulent joint disease that develops after an acute intestinal or genitourinary infection.

Causes of reactive arthritis

One of the most common causes of reactive arthritis is chlamydial infection. In childhood, chlamydial arthritis is up to 80%.

Children and adults can become infected with chlamydia in contact with people who are carriers of the infection, as well as from animals (cats, dogs), birds. Infection occurs by airborne droplets, airborne dust, sexual, contact-household, as well as during the passage of the fetus through the infected birth canal of the mother.

The second most common causative agent of reactive arthritis is intestinal microorganisms. Yersinia, salmonella, shigella, campylobacter are among the causative agents of intestinal reactive arthritis.

Often doctors and private clinics that are not conscientious at hand find the alleged causes of arthritis in the infectious nature of the disease. Chladidia are detected and a very expensive course with antibiotics and immunomodulators is prescribed.

In practice, infectious arthritis is very rare and should be treated with some skepticism.

It is better to re-take tests in another clinic to confirm the diagnosis.

There are rheumatoid arthritis, but they are not infectious diseases, but as an autoimmune disease. With rheumatoid arthritis, phagocytes, cells of the body’s immune system, come to the fore. Phagocytes act as protectors for any inflammation and therefore are not the cause, but the result of arthritis. Often, phagocytosis can be a complication after antibiotic therapy.

Does arthritis occur in children

The appearance of arthritis in children is often manifested as a complication after an infectious disease and antibiotic therapy; it can be a complication after vaccinations.

Arthritis in children should not be in nature, in children a disease such as Perthes disease can occur.

The disease is associated with the death of the femoral head (necrosis of the femoral head) because of this, the joint may not work well.

Here parents can be advised not to immediately agree to the operation and all kinds of antibacterial therapies, and hormonal drugs. It is not an adequate treatment that can be the cause of the appearance of rheumatoid arthritis in children, already at 12 years old.

Antibiotics often destroy the child’s self-regulation system and joints can be affected as a side effect of such treatment. With children, you need to do hardening, exercise, develop their immunity, then there will be no issues with joints. Treat everything reasonably and without fanaticism.

Shishkevich Vladimir
Shishkevich Vladimir
Orthopedic doctor, traumatologist
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I have been treating joints for many years. I can say with confidence that the joints are always treatable, even in the very ripe old age.

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Morozov Georgiy

Rheumatologist. For more than 20 years, he has been involved in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of joint diseases. Specialization: diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases and deformations of the musculoskeletal system.