Arthritis of the knee joint symptoms treatment

Arthritis of the knee joint is an inflammatory disease of the knee joint of various etiologies that occurs in the form of monoarthritis or is a manifestation of polyarthritis. Clinical signs of arthritis of the knee include pain at rest and with movements, limitation of function, swelling, flushing of the skin over the joint, tenderness to palpation, and local temperature increase. In the diagnosis of arthritis of the knee joint, an important role is played by the data of radiography, ultrasound, MRI, thermography, joint puncture with the study of synovial fluid, arthroscopy, synovial biopsy. Depending on the etiology and nature of the course of the disease, treatment of arthritis of the knee joint may include drug therapy, intraarticular injections, immobilization, physiotherapy, exercise therapy, and in severe cases, surgical treatment.

Overview

Arthritis of the knee joint (gonarthritis, persecutes, osteoarthritis) is an acute or chronic inflammation in the knee joint that affects its bone-cartilaginous ends or capsule. The complexity of the anatomical structure and the large size of the test load determine the high frequency of damage to the knee joint, as well as the variety of clinical forms of gonarthritis. According to rheumatology and arthrology, the share of knee arthritis accounts for 35% -52% of joint inflammations of different localization. The disease can develop in people of various age groups, but is more common in people 40-60 years old. A prolonged or recurrent course of arthritis of the knee joint can lead to a restriction or complete loss of movement in the joint and permanent disability of the patient.

The knee joint is formed by three bone structures – the patella, femur and tibia. The articular surfaces of the bones are covered with cartilage, which helps to reduce the friction of articulated surfaces. The joint stabilization function is performed by intraarticular and extraarticular ligaments, and the knee amortization function is performed by the cartilaginous layers (menisci). All elements of the joint are enclosed in a joint bag, externally covered with dense fibrous tissue, and lined with a synovial membrane from the inside, producing a small amount of synovial fluid. The knee joint is the largest supporting joint, providing flexion and extension, as well as rotational movements of the lower limb.

Classification

Self-classification of arthritis of the knee joint has not been developed. Like arthritis of other localizations, due to the occurrence of gonarthritis is divided into primary (which is an independent nosological form) and secondary (associated with other diseases). Given the clinical picture, arthritis of the knee joint may be acute or chronic.

By etiology, arthritis is divided into infectious (specific, non-specific, infectious-allergic), rheumatoid, reactive, post-traumatic, aseptic. Depending on the nature of the resulting inflammatory exudate, arthritis of the knee joint can be serous, serous-purulent and purulent; by the number of joints involved – unilateral or symmetrical.

Causes of Knee Arthritis

Primary arthritis of the knee joint, as a rule, is the result of injuries (bruises, open wounds, rupture of the knee capsule, damage to the meniscus), which ensure the penetration of the infection directly into the joint cavity. Perhaps the development of gonarthritis after performing a diagnostic puncture of the knee joint or surgery. Secondary arthritis of the knee joint can occur against the background of systemic diseases (rheumatism, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, SLE, Reiter’s disease, etc.), infections (tuberculosis, syphilis, gonorrhea, brucellosis, dysentery, chlamydia, etc.), purulent processes of a different localization ( osteomyelitis, boil, phlegmon, erysipelas). Reactive arthritis develops as a result of a genitourinary or intestinal infection. Arthritis of the knee joint is often found in patients with hemophilia, sarcoidosis, gout, and malignant tumors of the internal organs.

Knee ligament injuries, bursitis, tendonitis, overweight and obesity, severe physical (including sports) loads, hypermobility of joints, flatfoot can predispose to the development of arthritis of the knee joint. Often, the manifestation of acute arthritis of the knee joint provokes infection, vaccination, an allergic reaction, surgery, abortion or childbirth, hypothermia.

Symptoms of Knee Arthritis

Despite the fact that various forms of arthritis of the knee joint have their own clinical features, they all share some common symptoms. The main local (articular) signs of gonarthritis are pain, swelling, and joint deformation.

Pain in the knee joint (arthralgia) can be of a different nature. In most cases, the intensity of pain increases gradually; Initially, pain occurs periodically, intensifies after physical exertion or in the evening. Sometimes, from the very beginning, patients with arthritis of the knee joint note “starting” pains that develop after a period of rest. Often, pain is combined with stiffness and stiffness of the affected joint, which deprives a person of the ability to move without auxiliary assistance or support.

Arthritis of the knee joint is characterized by all the signs of an inflammatory process: swelling occurs in the joint area, which makes the knee look swollen and enlarged; there is hyperemia of the skin over the affected area, a local increase in temperature. As a result of pain, swelling and muscle tension, the amplitude of passive and active movements is limited. With the accumulation of a significant amount of exudate, the symptom of balloting of the patella is determined. Due to the active or prolonged course of arthritis of the knee joint, bone deformities, flexion contracture of the joint, muscle hypotrophy, ankylosis of the knee joint and loss of limb function may develop.

With various forms of arthritis of the knee joint, extra-articular lesions of various systems can be noted: cardiovascular (pericarditis, myocarditis, acquired heart defects), pulmonary (pneumonitis, alveolitis), digestive (enterocolitis), urinary (kidney amyloidosis, glomerulonephritis, chronic renal failure), visual ( conjunctivitis, keratitis, uveitis), skin (rash), etc. Arthritis of the knee joint can be combined with arthritis of the ankle, hip, shoulder and other joints.

Purulent arthritis of the knee joint (empyema of the joint) is accompanied by severe intoxication syndrome: fever, chills, headache, myalgia. Due to the increase in edema, the contours of the joint become vague; there is a feeling of fullness in the knee joint. The pain is unbearable in nature, both at rest and during movement, forcing the patient to give the limb a forced position (the leg is half bent at the knee joint). Purulent arthritis of the knee joint can be complicated by the destruction of ligaments, pathological dislocations, phlegmon joint capsule, sepsis.

Diagnosis of knee arthritis

When conducting diagnostic measures, the main efforts should be aimed at identifying the etiology of arthritis of the knee joint. In this regard, patients with gonarthritis may need not only the advice of a rheumatologist and arthrologist, but also an orthopedic traumatologist, TB specialist, venereologist and other specialists. Examination of a patient with arthritis of the knee joint begins with an examination, clarification of the medical history of the disease, past and related diseases.

In acute arthritis, a clinical blood test reveals signs of an active inflammatory process (increased ESR, leukocytosis); in a biochemical analysis of blood – markers of inflammation (CRP, seromucoid, RF); in immunological analysis (ELISA) – antibodies to infectious agents. X-ray of the knee joint reveals a reduction in articular surfaces, a narrowing of the joint gap, fibrous or bone ankylosis. In the differential diagnosis of gonarthritis and gonarthrosis, an MRI of the knee joint is performed. The nature and amount of articular effusion is specified using ultrasound of the knee joints. Among the hardware studies, joint thermography, contrast arthrography and pneumoarthrography are of auxiliary value.

Invasive diagnosis of arthritis of the knee involves a diagnostic puncture followed by a study of synovial fluid; if necessary, diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee joint, synovial membrane biopsy.

Knee Arthritis Treatment

In the active phase of the course of arthritis of the knee joint, it is shown that the load on the lower limbs is limited, and the affected joint is immobilized. Drug treatment of arthritis of the knee joint may include antibiotic therapy, NSAIDs, chondroprotectors, local rubbing of ointments, applications of dimexide. With syphilitic, tuberculous gonarthritis, specific therapy is performed. In some cases, intra-articular injections of corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are indicated. In the recovery period, joint therapeutic gymnastics, massage, physiotherapy (pulsed magnetotherapy, ultraphonophoresis, UHF, laser therapy, mud applications, mineral baths, etc.), acupuncture are prescribed. Patients are advised to use adaptive devices (canes, orthopedic shoes, knee pads). In order to reduce the load on the joints, normalization of body weight is recommended.

If the conservative tactics are ineffective in the treatment of arthritis of the knee joint, surgical methods can be used: joint lavage, arthroscopic debridement of the foci of infection, arthrotomy, joint resection, excision of the synovial membranes, knee joint replacement, etc.

Prognosis and prevention

In general, the outcome and consequences of gonarthritis largely depend on its form, timeliness of diagnosis, completeness of treatment, following the recommendations of the attending physician. Chronic progressive course of arthritis of the knee joint sooner or later leads to persistent dysfunction of the lower limb and disability of the patient. The most dangerous in its consequences is empyema of the joint. In many cases, arthritis of the knee joint can be prevented by avoiding injuries, excessive physical exertion, hypothermia, avoiding weight gain, etc. Prevention of secondary arthritis requires adequate treatment of infectious and rheumatic diseases.

Arthritis of the knee joint – symptoms and treatment of the disease

It is known that the stronger the bones, the lower the risk of developing diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Alas, there are many factors that worsen a person’s condition. For example, the knee joints, which have the maximum load, are very vulnerable. In them, inflammatory processes can develop that can make a person disabled.

What is knee arthritis

Arthrologists and rheumatologists with concern note the fact of growth and “rejuvenation” of this disease. What is knee arthritis? This is the name of the disease in which inflammation occurs in the patella. Gonarthritis progresses slowly, but surely, causing great discomfort in people. The primary form occurs in the case of an infectious agent in injuries, fractures, bruises, the secondary – through the flow of blood, lymph in various diseases. Some types of disease:

  • rheumatoid;
  • arthroso-arthritis;
  • reactive;
  • tuberculosis;
  • post-traumatic.

Causes of Arthritis

The disease can occur as an independent disease, is concomitant with others. The main causes of knee arthritis are:

  • infection;
  • injuries, bruises;
  • an allergy, for example, to drugs;
  • metabolic disorders in bone structures;
  • heredity, the presence of genetic pathologies;
  • long standing position during the day;
  • malposition of bones;
  • untreated diseases;
  • general hypothermia, frostbite of the legs;
  • the presence of diseases: tuberculosis, Behcet’s disease, gonorrhea, syphilis, croupous vein inflammation, lupus erythematosus, gout (gouty arthritis), leukemia and others;
  • the bite of some species of insects.

Diagnostics

To cure a person, the doctor diagnoses the disease. First, he conducts an external examination of the patient, listens to complaints, checks motor activity. To diagnose arthritis, a radiography is definitely prescribed, on which the signs of the disease are visible: reduced bone density, fusion, deformation of the articular surfaces, joint immobility, erosion, nodes.

In addition to x-rays, the patient is sent for a blood test. A general study in pathology shows an increased number of leukocytes, platelets, an increase in ESR, a biochemical one – the presence of rheumatoid factor, CRP. In rare cases, for the diagnosis of the disease, MRI, ultrasound, thermography, Burnet test, contrast arthography, computed tomography, synovial biopsy are used.

Arthritis of the knee in children

The described disease affects babies for various reasons, including: impaired metabolism, poor immunity, heredity, trauma, hypothermia. Arthritis of the knee joint in a child under 2 years of age is very difficult to determine, since the baby cannot describe unpleasant symptoms, but is only naughty, avoids sudden movements. You can determine the disease by lameness, whims when making any movement. A complete examination is needed to cure her.

Symptoms

The symptoms of arthritis are largely dependent on the cause of the disease. Nevertheless, there are several common symptoms that manifest with any etiology. It:

  1. Pain The symptom is unstable, at the initial stage appears periodically, as it progresses, it can become permanent. Strengthens after heavy loads, worries in the morning. In acute course, the pain in the knee is pulsating, not allowing to make sharp movements.
  2. Swelling in the periarticular region. It appears due to an inflamed joint, does not decrease on its own.
  3. Limitation of range of motion in the knee.
  4. Deformation. At first, the symptom appears due to pain, then the wrong position can be fixed.

Other possible symptoms of knee arthritis:

  • redness in the affected area;
  • massive tissue edema;
  • a feeling of heaviness in the leg;
  • fever, chills;
  • abscesses;
  • increased sweating;
  • erosion of a damaged surface;
  • general weakness;
  • atrophy of adjacent muscles;
  • decreased appetite;
  • accumulation of scar tissue, exudate in the joint.

Arthritis of the knee – treatment

To improve a person’s condition, relieve inflammation, eliminate the consequences, prevent the spread of infection, it takes a long, complex therapy. When diagnosed with arthritis of the knee – symptoms and treatment should be of interest to you. As a rule, doctors use conservative methods: medicines, local injections, exercise therapy, vitamins, physiotherapy. With excessive accumulation of pus, severe cases, the operational method is used. Learn more about how to treat knee arthritis with these methods.

Arthritis Medicines

How to treat knee joints, what arthritis medicine to use? The most common groups of drugs prescribed by doctors:

  1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory tablets to reduce pain, block the cyclooxygenase enzyme. These are: Butadion, Ibuprofen, Nimesulide.
  2. Corticosteroids for quick pain relief, elimination of swelling: Hydrocortisone, Diprospan tablets. Injections are made into the cavity of the joint capsule.
  3. Chondroprotectors. They contain substances that restore deformed articular cartilage, normalize metabolic processes. These medication pills, injections differ in effect with the first degree of damage. These are: Terflex, Arthra, Collagen Ultra.
Read the article:  Exercises after arthroscopy of the shoulder joint

As with arthrosis, ointments are often used for external use. They are quickly absorbed into the skin, reach the damaged area and relieve pain, soothe inflammation. Can be used:

  1. Fastum gel. A popular pain reliever for arthritis of the knee containing ketoprofen.
  2. Diclofenac. The course of treatment with cream is no more than 3 weeks. Refers to non-stero >

During periods of remission of arthrosis and arthritis, patients are shown a diet, special exercises designed to strengthen muscles, restore cartilage, and reduce pain. As a rule, gymnastics for arthritis of the knee joint is performed lying or sitting. It is useful to do it in water. Helps to cure and massage. It removes stiffness in the legs, is a prevention of muscle atrophy. In addition, massage provides access to blood to damaged areas. Examples of effective exercises for treatment:

  • sit on a chair, swing back and forth, first with your left foot, then with your right;
  • in a sitting position raise one leg parallel to the floor, after 5 seconds release it; repeat the same with another.

Arthritis treatment at home with folk remedies

Traditional medicine methods should be used simultaneously with medicines, injections, massage, ointments, proper nutrition. A simple method is to use a cabbage compress. You need to remove the leaves from the head and apply honey on the concave side. Treated cabbage leaves should be applied to the knee in the evening. Leave for sleeping, remove in the morning. The procedure is done within a month. Treatment of the knee joint with folk remedies can be done with apple cider vinegar, taking it about 5 times a day, diluting 1 teaspoon in a glass of water. The duration of treatment is 3-4 weeks.

Symptoms and effective treatment of knee arthritis

Causes of Knee Arthritis

The causes of knee arthritis are varied. One of the main ones is the infectious diseases that the patient has had, and his weakened immunity. Often, arthritis of the knee occurs due to a hereditary predisposition or in connection with age-related physiological changes.

The inflammatory process in the tissues of the knee can also begin in connection with the deterioration of blood circulation or against the background of autoimmune diseases of a systemic nature.
Arthritis of the knee joint also has such causes:

  • metabolic disturbance, which leads to the appearance of excess weight in humans;
  • excessive constant physical activity associated with work;
  • injury or hypothermia.

Inadequate locomotor activity contributes to the development of knee arthritis, or vice versa: professions who are constantly on their feet are affected by the disease. Often, the so-called after-load ailment affects sellers, hairdressers, professional athletes, as the work is accompanied by a systematic load on the legs. Overweight, which is an additional load on the legs, negatively affects bone health. Because of this, the joints are deformed and wear out ahead of time. An important factor is age: 80% of older people are diagnosed with arthritis.

Symptoms of the disease

To determine arthritis of the knee, the doctor conducts a diagnosis. Different forms of the disease have a number of similar symptoms. Firstly, pain that intensifies during movement. Secondly, swelling and swelling of the knee.
Thirdly, the temperature rises with arthritis. The patient can feel heat both in the whole body and in the area of ​​inflammation. Fourth, the restriction in movement.

Symptoms of Knee Arthritis

Symptoms of arthritis of the knee joint are different. It all depends on the degree and level of affliction of the disease. However, there are general indicators.
For example, this is the stiffness of movements in the morning, which usually lasts no more than half an hour. Aching or burning pain in the knee, which periodically becomes acute. Redness at the site of inflammation is also observed. The advanced stages of the disease are characterized by a partial loss of motor activity and a change in the shape of the joint.

What is rheumatoid arthritis of the knee? The disease is characterized by simultaneous damage to the right and left knee joints. It affects the disease and other groups of bones.

Concomitant symptoms: fever and high fatigue. With arthritis of the knee joint, which lasts quite a while, Baker cysts form, destructive processes occur in the joint, atrophy of muscle tissue and decreased tendon mobility. The disease can manifest systemically, affecting the eyes, heart, lungs. The infectious type of the disease is accompanied by fever, severe swelling, pain in the bones of the whole body, dermatitis.

The gouty type is characterized by a worsening of the patient’s condition after drinking alcohol, blueness of the skin or the appearance of crimson spots on it. Reactive arthritis of the knee joint is a chronic ailment that “makes itself felt” during periods of spring and autumn exacerbation. Reactive arthritis of the knee requires systematic treatment during exacerbations.

Treatment rules

Having arthritis of the knee joint, having discovered the symptoms of an ailment, they turn to the doctor who prescribes treatment for them.
How to treat arthritis and what the doctor determines after examining the patient and making a diagnosis.

The treatment for any type of knee arthritis depends on the severity of the disease and the condition of the patient.

Usually, the disease is treated comprehensively, using medications, physiotherapy, therapeutic exercises. In addition, patients are advised to change their lifestyle. In some cases, if the disease is very neglected, surgery is performed to replace the damaged joint of the knee.

Medical methods

Drug treatment of arthritis of the knee joint is carried out using various groups of drugs. Antibiotics are used to cure a disease of an infectious nature. Antifungal medications will help treat a disease caused by mycoses. The treatment of inflammation is carried out using anti-inflammatory drugs that anesthetize and eliminate negative symptoms.

Glucocorticosteroids are injected at the junction of the bones, or they pierce the inflamed area for pain relief. For patients with reactive arthritis of the knee, prescribe maintenance treatment in the form of a complex of vitamins and calcium. Similar therapy will also help prevent osteoporosis and treat rheumatoid arthritis.

Immunosuppressants are used if the disease has developed as a result of certain processes in the body.
In order to treat knee arthritis, local drugs are also widely used. They are used outside. These are ointments, creams or gels. The most common drug in this group is Menovazin.
Do not engage in self-medication in any case! That way you can only hurt yourself.

Folk methods

Knee arthritis, knowing its symptoms and consulting a doctor, can be treated at home. In this case, use such folk remedies:

  1. Decoction from oats removes toxins from the body and relieves the patient with an infectious disease.
  2. Applications with mustard are good for relieving inflammation and relieving pain. Apply this tool externally, by applying a bandage to the lesion.
  3. Radish juice. A compress is made from black radish juice and applied to the affected area for half an hour.

It is best to treat knee inflammation in alternative ways after consulting a doctor. It will help to understand why inflammation occurs, which will increase the effectiveness of the use of folk remedies.
So, knee arthritis is an inflammation that occurs for various reasons, including as a result of stressful effects on the legs.

You can get rid of the disease by determining why it arose and observing the recommendations of your doctor. Do not delay with a visit to a doctor. When the first signs appear, be sure to seek qualified help.

Video “Arthritis of the knee joint”

In this video you will learn how to treat knee arthritis.

Arthritis of the knee – causes, symptoms and treatment

Arthritis is an inflammatory disease of the joint in which the entire joint cavity is affected. It can be both a major disease and a consequence of another pathology. It proceeds in acute or chronic form.

Arthritis leads to other dangerous inflammatory diseases: tendonitis, lymphadenitis, bursitis, synovitis and can cause joint deformation. Infectious arthritis can cause blood poisoning.

According to MKB-10, the pathology has a code from M00 to M25.

Causes

Causes of knee arthritis can be:

  • Long-term static load on the joint.
  • Knee injuries.
  • Degenerative joint diseases – arthrosis, deforming osteoarthrosis, etc.
  • Inflammatory processes in the body.
  • Inflammatory diseases of the musculoskeletal system (myositis, bursitis, synovitis, etc.).
  • Damage to the integrity of the skin near the knee.
  • Allergic reactions.
  • Endocrine diseases.
  • Autoimmune diseases.
  • Salt deposits in the joints (gout).
  • Overweight.
  • Genetic predisposition.
  • Postponed surgery on the joint bag.
  • Reduced immunity.
  • Hypothermia of the legs.

Pathologies are affected by people who often walk a lot or stand and put their knees under heavy stress.

Symptoms

In the acute form, the disease develops rapidly, the patient complains of severe pain in the knee, redness of the skin in the affected area, a sharp increase in temperature, headache, weakness, body aches. The sore spot feels hot to the touch and begins to throb. Usually an acute form of arthritis occurs as a result of infection in the joint cavity.

In the chronic form of the patient, the following symptoms worry:

  • Slight knee pain.
  • Stiffness, worse in the morning.
  • Redness and swelling of the skin in the area of ​​inflammation.
  • Joint enlargement in volume.
  • Joint deformation.
  • Lameness.

Diagnostics

A whole group of doctors is involved in the diagnosis of arthritis: an arthrologist, a rheumatologist, an orthopedist, and a traumatologist.

For a complete and accurate diagnosis, you will need to go through a series of procedures and pass the necessary tests:

  1. General blood test – allows you to detect the presence of an inflammatory process in the body.
  2. Biochemical blood test – shows a rheumato >

Treatment

First of all, the affected knee is immobilized and the load on it is reduced. During the treatment period, wearing a special dressing or elastic bandage is indicated.

First of all, medication is prescribed:

  • NSAIDs – eliminate pain and inflammation, reduce temperature.
  • Glucocorticosteroids are hormonal drugs prescribed for severe pain.
  • Antibiotics (for infectious arthritis).
  • Chondroprotectors – with visible deformities of the articular bag, in the initial stages of arthrosis.
  • Immunomodulators – to enhance immunity.
  • Vitamin and mineral complexes.
  • Ointments and gels – can relieve inflammation, swelling, redness, eliminate pain and stiffness.
  • Compresses with dimexide – stop pain and inflammation.

At home, the use of therapeutic decoctions, tinctures, infusions and compresses is indicated. In the treatment of inflammatory diseases, plants such as chamomile, nettle, calendula, St. John’s wort have worked well. They must be brewed and compresses made with them on the sore spot.

With arthritis, tincture of saberfish is often prescribed. This plant eliminates inflammation and pain, improves blood circulation. You can buy tincture at the pharmacy or prepare it yourself.

After removing the main symptoms of arthritis, the patient is prescribed exercise therapy. Therapeutic exercises help to normalize blood circulation in the affected area, improve motor activity, strengthen the musculoskeletal system. Classes should be supervised by an experienced instructor.

Also, the patient is prescribed physiotherapy and massage. These procedures can improve blood microcirculation in the affected area and improve metabolic processes in the joint tissue. They also help to normalize the motor activity of the legs and eliminate pain.

With arthritis, you cannot warm your knees – exposure to heat provokes the formation of pus and the spread of inflammation.

With severe neglect of arthritis and deformation of the joint bag, endoprosthetics are performed, during which the affected joint is removed surgically and replaced with an artificial one. A puncture can also be prescribed – through the punctures from the joint cavity, the synovial membrane is pumped out, then an antibacterial solution is poured there and the wound is sutured.

Prevention

To prevent the development of pathology, a number of preventive measures must be observed:

  1. Lead a healthy lifestyle – go in for sports, eat a balanced diet.
  2. Observe moderation when playing sports.
  3. Prevent knee injuries.
  4. In time to cure all infectious, viral, fungal diseases.
  5. Carefully treat wounds and abrasions near the knee joint to prevent pathogens from entering.
  6. Do not supercool your feet.

Arthritis of the knee joint

Gonarthritis or arthritis of the knee joint occurs under the influence of many pathological factors that must be considered when choosing a treatment regimen. The disease is characterized by severe symptoms, which worsens as the pathology progresses. An arthrologist treats arthritis, it is to him that it is recommended to make an appointment for suspicious symptoms. Treatment should be comprehensive, if conservative methods have been powerless, you can’t do without surgery.

Causes

Arthritis of the knee is a pathology of an inflammatory and degenerative nature, in which intra- and periarticular structures are affected. The main reason for the progression of this disease is increased physical activity on the lower extremities. But inflammation of the joints can also occur under the influence of such negative factors:

  • violation of metabolic functions of the body;
  • injuries, bruises, dislocations, subluxations and broken legs;
  • age changes;
  • excess body weight;
  • hereditary predisposition;
  • weakening of immune protective properties;
  • complication after infectious diseases;
  • violation of blood circulation and nutrition in the knees.

It is impossible to completely cure arthritis of the left or right knee, however, if you find out the causes of the pathology and follow all the doctor’s recommendations, you can prevent relapses and prolong remission for a long time.

What types of gonarthritis are there?

Given the nature of progression, arthritis of the knee joint can be of such varieties:

  • Rheumatoid. It is considered the most common type of pathology, the main reason for the development of which is autoimmune disorders and staphylococcal joint lesions. Often the symptoms of this kind begin to bother people who have had a severe viral infection, are prone to allergic reactions, with endocrine disruption. With rheumatoid arthritis, signs are pronounced, and the sooner you begin to treat the disease, the more positive the prognosis for recovery.
  • Allergic arthritis. An exacerbation develops in people who are allergic to foreign proteins. Pathology is often found in childhood, but often it affects adult men and women. With such an ailment, the symptoms are acute, but if the treatment is done correctly, the disease can be successfully cured and the remission can be prolonged for a long time.
  • Arthritis arthrosis. A disease of a degenerative-dystrophic nature, in which the knee meniscus is destroyed, after inflammation flows to other soft tissues and bone structures. As a result, the joint is deformed and ceases to function normally. If arthritis of the knee joint of grade 3 is progressing, and the patient does not seek medical help, the risk of disability increases.
  • Post-traumatic. Symptoms of arthritis of the knee joint begin to develop after a severe injury with damage to the meniscus and other joint structures. If timely treatment is not started, the functioning of the joint is disrupted, osteophytes begin to grow in the inter-articular space.
  • Exercise arthritis. It occurs in people whose knee joints are subject to constant increased physical exertion.

Other varieties

Depending on the severity of symptoms, acute arthritis of the knee joint and chronic are distinguished. Given the etiology of origin, these types of arthritis of the knee joint are described:

  • enteropathic;
  • psoriatic;
  • pragmatic;
  • lupus erythematosus;
  • scleroderma;
  • juvenile;
  • infectious.

Symptoms characteristic of arthritis of the knee joint

All forms of pathology have a different etiology of development, however, the accompanying symptoms are not significantly different. Common signs of knee arthritis are:

  • Acute pain syndrome, which becomes more pronounced as the disease progresses. Symptoms worsen after physical exertion or a long walk. Over time, joint pains bother all the time, not stopping even at night and after a long rest.
  • Stiffness of work of limbs after waking up. In the mornings, the joint is difficult to develop; there is a “jamming” of the limb.
  • Swelling of the knee. Due to the progression of inflammation, the articulation swells, the temperature of the skin increases locally, and redness is observed.
  • Joint deformation. It is observed in advanced cases. In such a situation, the functioning of the sore leg is completely or partially disrupted, the person becomes disabled.

Aftermath

If you determine the disease in a timely manner and do not delay the treatment, the prognosis for recovery is positive. Otherwise, the patient runs the risk of receiving such complications:

  • inflammation and destruction of the ligament-tendon apparatus;
  • dystrophy of muscle tissue;
  • the formation of cystic growths;
  • complete immobilization of the limb;
  • disability.

Dangerous complications develop with rheumatoid arthritis. In this case, internal organs suffer – the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and liver.

How is it diagnosed?

With characteristic signs of arthritis, you should urgently consult a doctor. After the initial examination and medical history, the doctor will direct the patient to a number of laboratory and instrumental research measures, with which it will be possible to confirm or refute the diagnosis. Laboratory diagnostics includes:

  • General blood analysis. If arthritis develops, the result will show an increase in white blood cell count and ESR rate, a decrease in hemoglobin levels and a decrease in red blood cell volume.
  • Biochemical analysis. The level of uric acid, C-reactive protein, creatinine, urea is investigated.
  • Serological testing for antinuclear factor and antibodies (AT) to DNA.
  • General urine analysis. Appointed for differential diagnosis. Helps to exclude or confirm other pathologies that progress in the body against arthritis.

A complete diagnosis of arthritis of the knee joint is not complete without instrumental methods. The most informative research methods:

What treatment is prescribed?

Preparations

Given the nature of the occurrence of gonarthritis, the doctor selects complex treatment methods aimed at eliminating the symptoms of inflammation. The following groups of drugs are prescribed:

    Nonstero >Complex preparations make up for the deficiency of vitamins and nutrients in the body.

  • Vitamin Aids. To support the body and accelerate recovery, prescribe vitamins for arthritis:
    • Vitrum;
    • “Complivit”;
    • “Supradin”;
    • The Milgamma.

If the knees are inflamed, swollen and sore, gels and ointments for external use cannot be dispensed with. Well proven:

What should be the nutrition?

In order for the treatment of arthritis of the knee joint to be as effective as possible, it is important to establish a diet and go on a sparing diet, which must include:

  • fresh fruits, vegetables, greens;
  • lean meat, fish;
  • seafood;
  • sour-milk drinks;
  • porridge;
  • bran bread;
  • liver;
  • dried fruits, nuts, seeds.

It is recommended to use salt, hot spices and seasonings, fatty sauces and dressings, animal fats to a minimum. It is also important to give up bad habits, alcohol, and smoking. Do not use chocolate, sweets with creamy toppings, sweet soda, store juices. It is necessary to establish a drinking regime by drinking at least 1,5-2 liters of pure water per day.

Physiotherapy

As an adjunct therapy and for prevention, it is useful to undergo a course of physiotherapeutic procedures, for example, such:

Gymnastics

It is important to play sports and do exercises for gonarthritis under the strict supervision of a doctor. The basic set of training includes such classes:

  • Lie on the floor, place your hands along the torso. Glide over the surface, bending-unbending knees.
  • Sit on a chair, put your palms on your knees. Imitate cycling.
  • Concentrating the load in the hands, carefully move on your knees on the floor.

With arthritis, you can do yoga, Pilates, water aerobics, swimming.

Surgery

If conservative methods have not helped, surgery is prescribed. The following options apply:

  • aspiration or pumping of pathological exudate from the joint cavity;
  • arthroscopy, in which the affected joint structures are removed;
  • arthroplasty.

Prevention

Following preventive recommendations, it will be possible to prevent relapse of arthritis and prolong the stage of remission. For joint health, it is important to exercise every day, not to cool, to dose the load on the limbs. It is important to abandon bad habits, monitor diet, lead an active and healthy lifestyle, and do not self-medicate.

Arthritis of the knee – types, causes, symptoms and treatment

Arthritis of the knee joint is an inflammatory process of the periarticular and intraarticular areas of one or both knees. The disease is slow, constantly progressing and is accompanied by pain and discomfort during movement. Another name for pathology is chasing or gonarthrosis (from the Greek. Gony – “knee”). According to ICD-10, the disease codes are as follows: from M00 to M25, but more precisely, only by finding out the etiology of arthritis.

Arthritis affects various age groups.

Rheumatoid

The most common form. It progresses very slowly, therefore it is most acute in old age. It can begin both after 30 years, and after 50. The cause may be a genetic weakness of the immune system. The presence of a viral infection (rotovirus, herpes virus or others) in the body and the inability of the immune system to resist them leads to the occurrence of inflammatory processes of the knee and other joints.

Rheumatoid arthritis is accompanied by swelling, pain and impaired mobility.

This type of arthritis is also found in children due to infection with streptococci (tonsillitis, scarlet fever, pharyngitis, otitis media), the cell structure of which is similar to the cell structure of the cells of the synovial membrane of the joint.

Arthroso Arthritis

occurs due to circulatory disorders and nutrition of articular cartilage. The amount of articular fluid decreases, and bone surfaces come into contact with each other. This leads to inflammation and severe pain. This pattern of development is also characteristic of constant excessive loads and engaging in power sports.

This species is characterized by stiffness and pain after heavy exertion. In the initial stage, the pain disappears after some time, but in the chronic stage it becomes constant and leads to limited mobility.

With similar symptoms and not fully understood cause of the disease, the species is classified as idiopathic.

Reactive

It is a consequence of the penetration of infection into the body (is no exception and sexually transmitted). In addition to pain, it is accompanied by fever, vomiting, diarrhea, general weakness, swelling of the joints. This form begins after an incubation period (2-4 weeks) and proceeds sharply. This is her danger. If you tighten with the start of treatment in a short period of time, the joint will be deformed and destroyed due to the transition to the most severe form of acute suppurative arthritis of the knee joint, in which the health worsens sharply, the temperature rises to critical levels, the joint is swollen and hot to the touch. Requires immediate hospitalization.

One of the complications of osteomyelitis, an error during surgery on the knee joint, a purulent form can also develop. A very dangerous form, which can, with untimely initiation of treatment, have a fatal outcome due to the development of sepsis. Self-medication is excluded!

Causes

  • injuries (dislocation, fracture, damage to periarticular and intraarticular tissues);
  • joint inflammation and dystrophy;
  • infection;
  • violation of blood circulation and joint nutrition;
  • impaired metabolism;
  • weakening of immunity;
  • genetic predisposition.

The onset of the disease is not difficult to miss, as the symptoms are accompanied by pain.

Symptoms

According to the symptoms, there are three stages in the development of arthritis:

  1. Mild pain in the knee joint, which occurs mainly after prolonged immobility of the joint (mainly after sleep), subsides if the leg is slightly bent. With strong flexion and extension is enhanced. It’s hard to climb stairs.
  2. The joint becomes inflamed, swells, the pain intensifies, and becomes constant, there is discomfort during movement. Over time, deformation of the joint begins, which leads to complete immobility of the leg. An acute leaking form is accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea, and a deterioration in well-being.
  3. The transition of the disease into a chronic form. Deformation of the knee joint, accompanied by antispasmodic muscle contractions in the joint.

Diagnostics

It is necessary to consult a doctor at the first pain in the knee, and undergo a comprehensive examination with a therapist, orthopedist, rheumatologist, arthrologist, physiotherapist and surgeon.

Laboratory studies will show the reason that led to the development of the disease.

  1. An extended blood test shows an increase in ESR, the number of leukocytes, platelets, red blood cells and other necessary indicators.
  2. A biochemical analysis will determine the amount of C-reactive protein, an increased amount of which indicates rheumatoid arthritis.
  3. Radiography will show the degree of destruction of the periarticular crevices and bone tissue.

This will make it possible to draw up a detailed history and determine at what stage and how intensively the disease and its type develop.

Treatment

The treatment of arthritis of the knee joint must be approached comprehensively. The sooner the measures are taken, the less time will be required to eliminate the cause of the disease and restore joint mobility. But you must understand that treatment takes a lot of time. Especially if the disease is in a state of neglect. We must not allow ourselves to the situation when complex methods are powerless and only surgical intervention is the way out.

Drugs are prescribed according to the concomitant symptoms and causes of the development of the disease based on an analysis of laboratory tests, x-rays and medical examinations.

Infectious form

In the infectious form, antibiotics are prescribed (ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin), antiviral and antifungal drugs. With the accumulation of pus in the joint bag, it is necessary to puncture for the introduction of antibiotics into the joint cavity.

Specific treatment

If the cause of the disease is psoriasis, tuberculosis, gout requires long-term specific treatment with steroid substances, NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) that promote the excretion of uric acid salts from the body. The role of NSAIDs is to restore joint function, relieve pain, lower fever, and relieve inflammation. They are used in the form of ointment, gel, cream, tablets, in / m and / in injections, candles. They have a number of contraindications, so take only as directed by a doctor. May cause allergic reactions, hypertension, gastropathy, reduce blood coagulation.

The restoration of metabolic processes in the cartilage tissue and the improvement of the condition of the knee joint is facilitated by the use of chondroprotectors, which contain components that prevent the progression of the disease glucosamine and chondroitin.

Steroid medications help relieve pain and stop inflammation. They are used for fluid accumulation in the knee joint and swelling. You can not abuse corticosteroids, since they have a lot of side effects.

In the case of an unclear etymology or autoimmune processes that provoked the disease, immunosuppressants (cyclophosphamide, imuran, arava) are prescribed.

When rheumatoid treatment is performed using gold preparations and monoclonal antibodies (infliximab).

In addition to drugs, calcium-containing preparations with vitamin D and vitamin complexes are also taken.

In addition to the medical treatment of arthritis of the knee joint, physiotherapy, massage and therapeutic exercises are used. Thanks to which the absorption of the effusion is accelerated, relapses are prevented, joint mobility is restored, muscles and ligaments are strengthened.

Exercises are mainly carried out in a lying initial position. First, a light horizontal stretching of the body is done (stretch as after a dream) and warm-up of the feet. Then the main part of the exercise therapy complex: alternate leg lift, “bicycle”, “butterfly”. The number of repetitions is 8 times. If severe pain occurs, discontinue immediately.

The experts consider the exercise “bridge” a very effective part of the exercise therapy complex

Surgical intervention is necessary with a purulent infectious form (mainly a severely advanced stage) in which therapeutic methods are not effective.

  • Arthroscopy Removing an inflamed, damaged cartilage fragment using an arthroscope.
  • Endoprosthetics. Restore mobility by replacing the joint with an implant.
  • Osteotomy Unloading of the knee joint is carried out by cutting out a bone adjacent to the knee joint in the form of a wedge and attaching brackets to it.

Foods with a high content of vitamins C, E, a, and group B should be included in the diet. Exclude strong tea, coffee, alcohol, smoked meats, and refined foods. Reduce salt and various preservatives.

Prevention

At the first appearance of pain in the knees, it is necessary to reduce the load on the legs. With increased body weight, change the lifestyle, reduce weight, switch to a low-calorie diet. It is shown to engage in sports with a gentle load (swimming, cycling), to do a complex of exercise therapy.

Shishkevich Vladimir
Shishkevich Vladimir
Orthopedic doctor, traumatologist
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I have been treating joints for many years. I can say with confidence that the joints are always treatable, even in the very ripe old age.

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Rheumatologist. For more than 20 years, he has been involved in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of joint diseases. Specialization: diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases and deformations of the musculoskeletal system.

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