Arthritis of the knee joint symptoms and treatment in a child

In medicine, knee arthritis in children is considered a serious pathology that is difficult to diagnose. There are many reasons for the development of this disease, and if you do not take therapeutic measures, then soon arthritis will manifest itself in a more severe form. With timely therapy, it will be possible to achieve persistent and prolonged remission, so do not delay the treatment, and if the first symptoms of joint inflammation occur, you should consult a profile physician.

Types of pathology and features of the course

The following varieties of inflammatory joint damage in a child are distinguished:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis. The disease is characterized by joint damage due to ingestion of streptococcus. As a result, the articulation swells, pain appears, movements become constrained, and body temperature rises.
  • Reactive. Often the development of this pathological condition contributes to a viral infection or any other disease that the baby has suffered. This form of arthritis is manifested after 7-14 days, when the symptoms of the underlying disease have already begun to subside.
  • YURA. An autoimmune systemic disease, usually occurring in people who have experienced severe stress or are actively involved in sports. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most severe forms, which, with untimely treatment, has unfavorable prognoses, up to disability.
  • Infectious arthritis. The disease is extremely dangerous for relapses, and with late-onset therapy, persistent deformation of the joint. This form of joint inflammation manifests itself in children from a sharp jump in body temperature to high values. Immediately disturbed and mobility.

Main reasons

The following factors contribute to the appearance of inflammatory joint disease in childhood:

  • hereditary predisposition;
  • trauma;
  • hypothermia;
  • decrease in the body’s defenses;
  • pathology of the nervous system;
  • violation of metabolic processes;
  • vitamin deficiency.

Often, an infection transferred in infancy can cause the development of arthritis of the knee joint when the parents did not take appropriate measures and did not consult a doctor. Therefore, it is extremely important not to start even ordinary colds and treat them in a timely manner according to the recommendations of qualified doctors. In order for the treatment of childhood arthritis to be as productive as possible, it is important to identify the cause of its appearance and fully examine the baby. Only after this will a long and complex treatment follow.

Main symptoms

Typical manifestations of knee arthritis in children are:

  • stiffness
  • soreness of the knee, aggravated by tension of the tendon;
  • accumulation of fluid in the joint cavity;
  • dropsy on the leg;
  • inflammation of the lower extremities, as a result of which the leg becomes like a spindle;
  • redness of the skin around the knee;
  • local increase in body temperature;
  • displacement of the calyx of the knee down when the limb is straightened;
  • fever, chills;
  • increased sweating;
  • decreased appetite;
  • lethargy.

Diagnosis of knee arthritis in children

To diagnose childhood arthritis, the doctor will need the following information:

  • data on rheumatism, viral and bacterial infections;
  • features of the course of the disease;
  • results of ultrasound examination of joints, x-rays, MRI or CT scan of the vertebral section.

In addition, for an accurate diagnosis, the child will need to undergo laboratory tests, pass stool and urine. When diagnosing arthritis in children, it is important to puncture the joint, examine the synovial fluid and biopsy the inner layer of the joint bag. If tuberculous arthritis is suspected, the results of a chest x-ray, Mantoux reaction, and information about BCG vaccination are needed.

Effective treatment

It is permissible to start arthritis therapy only after a complete diagnostic examination and only under the strict supervision of a qualified physician.

Arthritis of the knee joint in children needs an integrated approach, and the therapeutic regimen directly depends on the type of disease. Despite the type that was identified, the patient with an exacerbation of the inflammatory process in the joints is prohibited from any load and bed rest is laid. In addition, the child is prescribed medications that eliminate the symptoms of intoxication, and diet food. Thus, the treatment consists in taking basic and symptomatic medications and, according to indications, surgical intervention. To accelerate the healing process and alleviate the condition, children should perform physical therapy, massage and attend physical therapy.

The drug treatment of arthritis in children is based on the use of drugs that have the ability to directly affect the cause of the pathology. It can be antibiotics, rheumatoid drugs, glucocorticosteroids and necessarily non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Surgery involves opening and draining an inflamed joint, flushing it with an antiseptic, and administering an antibacterial drug directly into the joint. They resort to surgical treatment if conservative therapy is ineffective or an infectious form of knee arthritis has been identified.


In order to prevent the development of such a serious illness in children as knee arthritis, parents should worry in advance and take all kinds of preventive measures. Thus, it is important to strengthen the immune system, temper the baby, conduct timely rehabilitation of infectious foci and teach the child the rules of personal hygiene. It is extremely important to consult a doctor in a timely manner and not delay the treatment, only in this way will it be possible to overcome the ailment and prevent complications.

Symptoms and treatment of knee arthritis in a child

Mechanisms for the development of arthritis in children

Arthritis can be a primary or secondary disease, developing against the background of other pathologies. In the first case, the provoking factors are:

  • infections penetrating the joint cavity;
  • traumatic lesions of the knee;
  • congenital malformations of cartilage.

Most secondary disorders are of autoimmune origin. The exact reasons for their development are unknown to science. The most likely include:

  • inadequate immune response to foreign objects and substances: allergens, viruses, bacteria, components of vaccinations and vaccines;
  • hypothermia;
  • prolonged exposure to the sun or other sources of ultraviolet radiation;
  • climate change.

A healthy immune system recognizes and destroys pathogens. With arthritis, it reacts more sharply to their invasion and produces a large number of anti-inflammatory antibodies that damage the cartilage, synovial membrane and connective tissue of the articular joint.

The cause of inflammation can be:

Sometimes the disease develops due to stress and hormonal disorders.

Knee arthritis in children accounts for 30% of all identified cases of arthritis. Such selectivity is explained by:

  • complex joint structure;
  • a large number of nerve endings and small blood vessels;
  • high loads on the knee area.

Secondary inflammations are often combined with other autoimmune disorders, for example, rheumatism, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, ankylosing spondylitis (ankylosing spondylitis).

Prolonged inflammation of the knee joint provokes arthrosis, inflammation of the serous membranes of the heart and lungs, choroid, eye muscle. Many patients have an increase in the size of the spleen.

Disease classification

The acute process begins suddenly and lasts less than 3 months. If recovery does not occur during this time, the child is diagnosed with chronic arthritis of the knee joint.

Depending on the localization, the following forms of pathology are distinguished:

  1. Monoarthritis. 1 knee joint affected.
  2. Oligoarthritis. The disease affects both knees and other joints, often ankle.
  3. Polyarthritis. All joints are involved in the pathological process.

With a symmetrical cartilage lesion, the autoimmune nature of the inflammation can be suspected.

According to the etiological factor, the violation is divided into the following types:

  1. Infectious. It develops due to the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms into the synovial fluid.
  2. Reactive. It occurs after acute infections of the genitourinary tract or intestines, sometimes against the background of parasitic infestations.
  3. Rheumatoid or juvenile ideopathic arthritis (JIA). It has an autoimmune origin.

Parents are advised to listen to the child’s complaints about knee pain, since timely treatment of acute inflammation in most cases leads to recovery. If arthritis goes into a chronic stage, it is difficult to cure it. The neglected form is characterized by an alternation of exacerbations and remissions.

Symptoms of the disease

It is quite difficult to detect the disease in young patients, because the kids are not able to accurately voice complaints. Often, parents confuse arthritis with ARVI, not knowing what the difference between the manifestations is. As a result, the child is treated with antipyretic drugs that mask the real clinical picture of the disease and make diagnosis difficult.

Typical signs of acute infectious inflammation include:

  • swelling and redness in the knee;
  • strong pain;
  • stiffness of movements;
  • the inability to fix the leg in a bent position;
  • high body temperature up to 39 ° C;
  • neurasthenia (neurosis)
  • weakness;
  • fever;
  • headache;
  • nausea and vomiting.

An exacerbation of the reactive form is manifested by a similar clinic, but the greatest discomfort is noted in the area of ​​the affected joint. General symptoms are less pronounced. Young children behave uneasily and refuse to eat.

The early stages of a chronic disease in remission occur without expressed complaints. When bending the knee, many patients experience crunching and stiffness, especially in the morning. With exacerbation, the clinic is more pronounced.

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Arthritis usually begins with minor pain. Ill child:

  • not in a hurry to get out of bed;
  • complaining of knee pain;
  • plays outdoor games less.

Young children often cry for no apparent reason, ask for their hands, become lethargic and passive.

As cartilage breaks down, negative symptoms intensify. The child appears lame and improper support on the foot. This is due to leg dragging due to the inability or unwillingness of the patient to bend it in the knee, as this enhances the pain.

Isolated inflammation of the joint bag – bursitis, is characterized by the preservation of joint mobility or its slight decrease. Arthritis leads to a gradual thinning of the articular cartilage, so as you progress, the ability to bend the knee is lost.

Parents should carefully monitor the behavior of the babies, especially if unusual behavior was preceded by transferred infectious diseases or injuries, since the timely detection and treatment of pathology plays a decisive role in recovery.

Methods of diagnosis

An accurate diagnosis requires a thorough history. It is important for the doctor to determine the relationship of arthritis with infections, genetic predisposition and other factors that led to the development of the disease.

The list of diagnostic measures includes:

  • Ultrasound, X-ray or MRI of the affected knee, which will help to see structural changes;
  • immunological studies;
  • rheumatological screening;
  • clinical and biochemical blood analysis;
  • electrocardiogram (ECG);
  • synovial fluid puncture.

Rheumatoid arthritis is treated by rheumatologists. If the connection with autoimmune disorders is not confirmed, then orthopedists and traumatologists. In addition, consultation with other specialists — an ophthalmologist, cardiologist, and nephrologist — will be required, since chronic or acute JIA often causes complications in the organs of vision, heart, and kidneys.

Conservative treatment

Any form of pathology requires complex treatment. The following groups of medicines are used to relieve inflammation:

  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): diclofenac, naproxen, meloxicam;
  • glucocorticoids: hydrocortisone, betamethasone, prednisone.

To suppress immune aggression, immunosuppressants are used – sulfasalazine, methotrexate, leflunomide. This is the main group of drugs used for all types of JIA.

Reactive arthritis is treated:

  • antibiotics: gentamicin, clarithromycin, ceftriaxone;
  • immunomodulators;
  • NSAIDs.

If the cause of the disease is helminthiasis, prescribe antiparasitic drugs. When trichomonads and other protozoa are detected, metronidazole is indicated.

After removing acute inflammation, the following physiotherapy procedures are connected:

  • UHF;
  • phonophoresis with glucocorticoids;
  • paraffin therapy;
  • magnetic therapy.

These methods help to accelerate the restoration of joint functionality and prolong remission. To increase the effectiveness of treatment, they are combined with a set of special exercises. Children with a chronic form of the disease are recommended to perform them every day.

Massage of the knee joint helps to improve blood circulation and restore the mobility of the affected area.

Indications for operation

The decision on the need for surgery is made based on the results of the examination. The main indications include the inefficiency of conservative methods, the rapid progression of pathology, osteoarthritis and other serious complications.

Surgical recovery techniques:

  1. One-muscle prosthetics. Returns mobility to the damaged joint due to partial replacement of the joint with artificial elements.
  2. Total arthroplasty or arthroplasty. Complete replacement of the affected joint with an implant.
  3. Synovectomy Removal of the inflamed shell of the joint.

A timely operation allows you to eliminate negative symptoms, improve the quality of life of the child and prevent damage to other joints and organs.


Arthritis has long been a group of incurable pathologies with a high risk of disability. Modern diagnostic methods and new drugs that suppress the production of autoimmune antibodies reduce the risk of developing irreversible effects and increase the duration of remission. The detection of the disease in the early stages significantly improves the prognosis, therefore, a child with suspected rheumatoid or other arthritis should be shown to a rheumatologist as early as possible.

Causes of knee arthritis in children, symptoms and treatment

Arthritis of the knee joint is less common in children than in older people. Kids can not explain why they are capricious, what exactly hurts, why they refuse to eat, therefore it is difficult to detect the ailment in the early stages of development, and it becomes more severe, accompanied by the appearance of various complications.

What are the causes of arthritis in children?

Arthritis in children is characterized by inflammation of the articular-cartilaginous tissues, accompanied by swelling and edema, which leads to deformation and destruction of bones. In babies, such an ailment is rare, but it is difficult. It is important to identify the cause of the development of the disease in the child, so that the prescribed treatment methods are effective. Causes of joint disease in children:

  • lack of vitamins;
  • hypothermia;
  • stress;
  • weak immunity;
  • disorders of the nervous system;
  • hereditary factor;
  • knee injuries;
  • negative reaction to previous vaccination;
  • lack of calcium;
  • infectious diseases.

At risk are infants with weak immunity and active children who often get knee injuries

Varieties and symptoms of pathology

Constantly aching or episodic pain forces the child to go to the doctor. After examination, a specialist identifies one of several forms of arthritis:

    Rheumato >

  • Infectious arthritis is similar to a cold: there is weakness, headache, poor appetite, high fever. Swollen joints that increase in size, redness of the skin, constant pain make people seek medical help.
  • The viral form of the disease progresses rapidly, but with proper complex treatment, the disease recedes.
  • Tuberculous arthritis. One knee is affected, a fever appears. Above the diseased joint, the skin turns pale, fistulas form, and a white caseous mass stands out from them.
  • The post-traumatic type of illness is associated with dislocations, fractures, sprains and other injuries in the knee.

A caring mother will find an approach to find out from the child the reason for the change of mood. Arthritis of the knee has the following symptoms that will help prescribe the correct treatment for a small patient:

  • difficulty walking
  • pain after physical exertion;
  • high body temperature;
  • lameness;
  • refusal to eat;
  • increased pain in the morning;
  • swelling and redness of the joints;
  • rap >

Methods of diagnosis

Children’s knee arthritis is diagnosed by a comprehensive medical examination. Inspection is carried out by the following specialists:

It is necessary to pass blood, feces, urine for laboratory testing. Clarity of the clinical picture is revealed using high-tech research methods:

  • MRI;
  • Ultrasound;
  • computed tomography;
  • X-ray examination.

Having diagnosed, the doctor determines the type of pathology, the severity and the presence or absence of complications. After that, he selects an effective therapeutic course for the patient.

Features of treatment

Pathologies of the knee joint are accompanied by severe symptoms – this facilitates treatment. The first stage of therapy is based on the use of medications. They should be taken only after meals to prevent negative effects on the gastric mucosa. Drug treatment includes taking the following drugs:

  • non-steroidal drugs that relieve pain, inflammation;
  • immunosuppressants (prescribed for rheumatoid type);
  • detoxifying drugs with an infectious form of the disease to remove toxins from the body;
  • antibiotics – penicillin, erythromycin;
  • means to strengthen the immune system – Taktivina, Likopida, Polyoxidonium (we recommend reading: how to use Likopid for children?);
  • medications that improve the drainage function of the body.

Dosage and duration of the course depend on body weight, the age of the baby. In children, drug treatment of knee arthritis is combined with the use of alternative recipes in consultation with the attending physician. After 2-3 weeks, relief comes.

The inflammatory process can be removed using creams, ointments, gels and a number of other medicines for knee arthritis:

The effectiveness of drug treatment is enhanced by a balanced diet and special procedures. The following types of physiotherapy restore joint mobility:

  • laser – treatment with low-intensity light;
  • magnetic – a treatment method based on the use of a magnetic field of different frequencies;
  • shock-wave – creates the effect of microcavitation that occurs when sound waves propagate at the borders of tissues of different densities;
  • Electropulse therapy helps to eliminate pain and restore health.


In addition to performing procedures and activities aimed at getting rid of knee arthritis, it is necessary to improve the immunity of the child. This will prevent the development of the disease and its transition into the acute phase. A few recommendations:

  • follow the healthy diet of your child, include more dairy, fish products, vegetables, fruits in the diet;
  • walk with your child in the fresh air;
  • dress your baby for the weather;
  • cure viral and infectious diseases in time;
  • strengthen children’s immunity with vitamin and mineral complexes;
  • get rid of foci of allergies;
  • physical activity should be moderate;
  • It is necessary to wear comfortable orthopedic shoes;
  • make sure that the child is not overweight.

Signs and treatment of pediatric arthritis of the knee

Knee arthritis in children is characterized by inflammation of the cartilage. It occurs against the background of abrasion or infection. In the initial stages, it is difficult to diagnose, but possible. Therefore, it is important to know how pediatric knee arthritis manifests itself, what causes it, and how to properly treat it. This is what will be discussed in this article.

Types of Knee Arthritis

Pathology also has other names – gonarthritis and chases. If we consider the classification of knee arthritis in children, then the disease can be of the following types:

  • An acute course of pathology and chronic. In the first case, arthritis appears unexpectedly, exacerbation occurs for a maximum of 3 months. If timely measures are not taken, it develops into a chronic form. In the chronic form, the disease manifests itself for a long time, periodically worsening.
  • Arthritis can be primary and secondary. In the primary form of arthritis, cartilage infection occurs suddenly with the direct penetration of bacteria into the tissues. This can happen in the presence of torn wounds, during surgery, etc. The secondary form occurs against the background of infection of other internal organs. In this case, pathogens enter the joint cavity through the bloodstream. Also, aseptic inflammatory processes are attributed to this type.
  • Arthritis of the knee joint can be septic and aseptic. Septic is characterized by the presence of infection, aseptic – by the absence of the pathogen.
  • The disease is classified according to the etiology of occurrence – post-traumatic form (after injuries), post-vaccination (as a complication of vaccination), metabolic (inflammation occurs due to metabolic disorders), infectious, immuno-and infectious-allergic.


Any age category can be affected – from newborns to adolescents. The main reasons for the development of knee arthritis in childhood:

  • Infection with fungi and other bacteria.
  • A significant weakening of the immune system, due to which pathological disorders occur in the joints, a person undergoes allergic reactions.
  • Metabolic disease. In this case, salt, uric ac >


Depending on the cause of gonarthritis, the disease has different names and has special symptoms. But there are common signs that are characteristic of all types of knee arthritis in children:

  • pain syndrome;
  • swelling of the knee;
  • cup deformation;
  • impaired motor ability in the knee.

Septic form of gonitis (infectious)

The child’s body temperature rises, the skin is characterized by redness and compaction, as well as hotness. With any infection, intoxication of the body occurs, so the corresponding signs are manifested – nausea and vomiting, lack of appetite, lethargy, drowsiness.

Pain syndrome of acute and bursting nature, which is constantly present. It becomes painful for the child to even move his knee. You can stop the pain only when the child bends his leg at the knee.

If the disease is not treated in a timely manner, then exudate accumulates inside the joint, that is, pus, serous fluid. This leads to balloting of the patella. For example, if you touch the affected knee with your hand, then this organ will begin to move, as if floating.

Reactive Gonarthritis

This arthritis develops against the background of infection of other organs, most often the stomach, intestines and urogenital system.

It manifests itself as a slight increase in body temperature, general weakness. Special signs – the visual apparatus is affected, as a result of which a fear of light develops, lacrimation is noted, and a foreign body in the eye is felt.

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JuRA)

With Jura, there is a febrile condition. Pain occurs most often in the morning, after the child wakes up. But after a few hours, the stiffness of the knee joint completely disappears. The skin is covered with a rash, and nodules form, as with rheumatism.

Allergic form

Special symptoms are a runny nose, lacrimation, a specific cough, skin rashes, etc., which is typical for an allergic reaction.

Rheumatic drive

It occurs against the background of streptococcal infection. It is characterized by redness of the skin, lameness during movement. Pain and swelling also occur in other joints. Feature – two knees are affected simultaneously.

How does the disease progress, depending on the age of the child?

In young children – from birth to school – it persecutes any form and is quite difficult; complications often arise in the form of intoxication and purulent lesions of the joint cavity.

But in school and adolescence, on the contrary, the disease can be called “dry” and serous. Exudations of the knee joint are not noted.

Possible complications and consequences

Children’s knee arthritis is a dangerous disease that leads to complete disability and even death. Therefore, you need to immediately carry out comprehensive treatment.

If you do not take measures to treat knee arthritis, the following complications may follow:

  • polyarthritis and synovitis;
  • bursitis and arthrosis;
  • suppuration of arthritis;
  • violation of the functionality of the supporting and motor apparatus;
  • damage to other internal organs and systems;
  • blood poisoning.


For adequate treatment of knee gonitis in children, it is important to undergo a comprehensive examination. To do this, you have to visit such specialists:

  • initially you need to contact a pediatrician;
  • then he will refer you to a rheumatologist;
  • then to the neurologist and cardiologist;
  • then to the ophthalmologist and dermatologist.

The choice of an additional specialist is based on the etiology of the origin of the pathology.

Thanks to diagnostic measures, not only the pathology itself is determined, but also the form of the disease. The doctor visually and palpation examines the child and usually prescribes such an examination:

  • collection of blood, urine and feces – for laboratory research;
  • magnetic resonance and computed tomography;
  • ultrasonography;
  • X-ray;
  • synovial fluid biopsy.

Traditional treatment

Therapy of knee arthritis in children is carried out as follows:

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are mandatory, due to which the symptoms are neutralized and the inflammatory process is eliminated. It can be such drugs: Naproxen, Ibuprofen, Indomethacin or Amidopyrine.
  • With infectious arthritis, antibacterial drugs are mandatory: “Erythromycin”, “Penicillin”, etc.
  • In juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, cytostatic and hormonal drugs are used. Among glucocorticosteroids, the most popular are Celestine, Prednisolone, Metipred, and Diprospan.
  • Necessarily immunomodulating medications: Polyoxidonium, Likopid or Takvitin.
  • Immunosuppressant drugs: Sulfasalazine, Azathioprine, Methotrexate, Cyclophosphamide or Leflunomide.
  • Parents should take their children to special massage and gymnastics.
  • Physiotherapeutic procedures are also indicated by means of electric pulses, a magnet and shock-wave action.

Learn from this video about what each parent needs to do if they have a diagnosis of juvenile arthritis. As well as what constitutes this disease, and what complications may follow.

Folk remedies

Since the treatment of childhood gonarthritis should be complex, folk remedies are also used. They are quite simple but effective.

Lotions and compresses:

  • You can use ordinary white cabbage. To do this, tear off a large sheet, put it in the oven for several minutes, so that it becomes warm. Beat the sheet with a special hammer for chops and spread on top with honey. Attach to the affected knee and secure with a bandage. Next wrap with a warm scarf. Hold for 6-8 hours. The duration of treatment is at least 2 weeks.
  • Instead of cabbage, you can use a fresh burdock leaf or coltsfoot grass. Compress put in a similar way.
  • You can use blue cosmetic clay, which additionally destroys bacteria and removes toxic deposits after the death of microorganisms. Clay is diluted with warm water. The mixture should be creamy. Put on the knee and wrap with plastic wrap, fix. Hold for 4 hours.
  • Take 2 potatoes, peel, rinse and grate on the smallest grater. Attach to the knee for the night.
  • Squeeze the juice from the black radish and chop the aloe. Mix in equal proportions and soak the gauze dressing with this mass. Apply to the affected joint and hold for 30-40 minutes. Do not forget to warm the child’s knee with a woolen cloth.

Means for oral administration:

  • Combine in equal proportions liquid honey, chopped celery and lemon, minced through a meat grinder. Transfer the mass to a glass container and let it brew for 5-6 days in the cold. Take orally daily 1 tablespoon 3 times. The course of treatment is determined by the doctor.
  • Make a useful tincture of lingonberry leaves. They need to be taken in the amount of 30 grams per 200 ml of boiling water. Boil for 15-20 minutes and strain. This amount of tincture is evenly distributed throughout the day.
  • Brew in an arbitrary ratio of berries and leaves of black currant. Give your child a tea drink instead.

Preventive measures

In preventive measures, parents should do the following:

  • strengthen the child’s immune system, monitor a sufficient amount of vitamins in the body;
  • Let your child go in for sports and temper;
  • after any infection, immediately proceed to treatment in order to timely extinguish the focus;
  • monitor the health of your own child.

If parents strictly observe all measures to prevent inflammatory processes in the knees, as well as periodically take the child to the pediatrician for an examination, then there will be no problems with arthritis of the knee joint. Well, if the first symptoms are already detected – contact a specialist immediately.

Shishkevich Vladimir
Shishkevich Vladimir
Orthopedic doctor, traumatologist
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I have been treating joints for many years. I can say with confidence that the joints are always treatable, even in the very ripe old age.

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Rheumatologist. For more than 20 years, he has been involved in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of joint diseases. Specialization: diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases and deformations of the musculoskeletal system.