As a separate type of diseases of the musculoskeletal system, arthritis of the hip joint is included in the list of pathologies of the International Classification of Diseases of the Tenth Revision (ICD-10). This disease is fraught with rapid development and damage to all joint tissues, leading over time to reduced mobility and even disability. Only timely qualified diagnostics and effective methods of therapy allow the patient to avoid the dangerous consequences of this pathology.
Brief Description of the Disease
A feature of this disease is that it develops from within the joint cavity, and not from the outside, as occurs with arthrosis. In other words, the focus of the disease is at the very center of the joint. Although the causes of its origin may be external factors.
This pathology is characteristic of patients of almost all age groups. However, the most frequent episodes of its manifestation occur at a later age. The intensity of the manifestation is affected by a number of reasons that provoked it. For example, injuries and their consequences are becoming a common cause of arthritis in the younger generation. In people older than 45 years, which account for about 65-70% of all cases of this disease, the causes may be internal in nature, or caused by the action of pathogenic microorganisms.
Arthritis of this part of the legs is characterized by a risk of inflammation. But most of all, this anomaly is characterized by signs of abrasion and wear of the cartilage tissue and bones of this joint.
Classification of pathology
The vast range of classification points in ICD-10 indicates the diversity of forms and varieties of this anomaly.
The differences relate to the course of the disease:
As well as healing predictions:
In addition, differences are manifested in the symptomatic signs of the disease. In different circumstances, they can manifest themselves to a greater or lesser extent, accompanied by a certain severity of the disease.
This has identified several types of arthritis during its development in the hip joint:
- Purulent or – pyogenic form;
- Post-infectious form;
- Specific; provoked by certain strains of harmful microbes (with tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, brucellosis or leptospirosis).
These varieties are contagious forms of the disease. However, there is a classification of the disease, suggesting non-contagious causes of the disease – autoimmune diseases, arthritis of psoriatic origin, gouty forms of pathology (with deposition of salts in the structural tissues of the joint) and transient.
They arise against the background of the absence of infection and often exclude the likelihood of an inflammatory process. The presence of inflammation also classifies two categories of the disease – with or without an inflammatory focus. But in most episodes of going to doctors in the hip joint, it is precisely the inflammatory arthritis that is diagnosed.
Causes of appearance
The most common causes of the disease are pathogenic microbes. Penetrating into the articulation tissue, they provoke an inflammatory process, the formation of exudate (purulent deposits), and also violate the composition of the synovial fluid with their waste products.
It is microorganisms that selectively affect the most vulnerable tissues of the joint. Therefore, most often the disease in this joint develops from the synovial inner shell of the joint cavity.
Another etiological factor provoking this abnormal condition of the joint is a consequence of injury. Violation of the integrity of the tissues is inevitably accompanied by swelling, which eventually causes inflammation first in the membrane of the joint, and then in the cartilage tissue. Later, the process extends to the bones that are part of the articular apparatus.
In addition, in medical practice they diagnose such causes that affect the development of the disease:
- Anatomical changes in the entire elements of the joint or its individual components;
- The effect of overweight in obesity;
- The consequences of enhanced training;
- Excessive physical exertion;
- Orthopedic abnormalities characteristic of young patients;
- Genetic factors.
Indirect factors that affect disorders in the physiology and anatomy of the hip joint and cause its disease can be autoimmune diseases, disorders of endocrine physiology, as well as an incomplete diet, the predominance of harmful ingredients in food. In many cases, the disease develops as a secondary disease against a background of progressive diseases with inflammatory signs in the digestive tract. Being in close proximity to the focus of inflammation, the joint risks becoming infected with pathogenic microflora.
Other forms of the disease with localization in other joints, as well as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis can also provoke arthritis of the hip joint.
A complex symptomatic picture helps to identify this pathology and distinguish it from identical anomalies with similar signs. In some cases, the patient is able to identify primary symptoms by characteristic pain in the inguinal region, discomfort from the inside of the thigh. Pain is characteristic of this disease – it usually worsens at night and subsides somewhat during the day.
A slight swelling and hyperemia (redness) are characteristic for stages 1 and 2 of this disease. Pain in the early stages is weak, have a periodic nature.
Already in the third stage, puffiness develops into a significant tumor, the pain intensifies, and in the gluteal muscles weakness is felt first, and then tremor and innervation disturbance.
A person becomes clumsy, his walk is shaky, signs of lameness appear. In the joint in the third stage to the touch, it is possible to determine increased compaction. In places of the disease, the skin becomes hot, first local, and then the general body temperature rises.
The fourth stage is the most difficult, and an unfavorable prognosis is established with it. The patient can no longer move, the pain becomes intense and systematic. It is almost impossible to rely on the leg, from which the disease develops. At the fourth stage, the patient is given a disability group.
Diagnosis of the disease
More accurately, only an experienced doctor can establish a diagnosis. Diagnostics and treatment of this disease are performed by orthopedists or rheumatologists.
Initially, the doctor conducts a clinical examination, establishing by probing and visual examination the possible seals in the joint, the degree of swelling, the presence of extraneous sounds (crunching), muscle atrophy.
To confirm the initial diagnosis, the doctor prescribes an axial radiograph, as well as the following diagnostic procedures:
- Computed tomography (CT);
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (VHN) $
- Puncture of the contents of the joint cavity and selection of synovial fluid.
Laboratory methods examine the blood for the content of antibodies, as well as the structural composition of the synovial fluid, its density and estimated volume.
Methods for effective treatment of hip arthritis
To relax the articular muscles, medications of the muscle relaxant group are prescribed.
This group of drugs consists of:
They, in combination with local anesthetics (ointments, balms, creams, tinctures) help relieve swelling and soreness, restoring mobility to the joint. Valtare-emulgel, fir oil, Fastum gel demonstrate an excellent effect. The use of chondropathic drugs contributes to the same goal. To remove the inflammatory process, anti-inflammatory drugs (Ketoprofen, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac) and drugs of the corticosteroid group Voltaren, Apizatron, Fastum are used.
The main cause of the disease – infectious microbes – can be eliminated by using a course of antibiotics. Medications such as tetracycline, amoxicillin, gentamicin, indomethacin are recommended.
In addition, cytostatics that affect the normalization of metabolic processes and immune physiology are included in the course of therapy. Recommendations more often relate to drugs such as Xefocam, Nise and Ortofen.
At the same time, the result is fixed by the method of physiotherapy, ice compresses, auro therapy (the use of gold salts).
Despite the effectiveness of each of these drugs and their complex use, the patient should not independently decide which medications and procedures will be more appropriate. Moreover, it is unacceptable to independently determine the dosage, the intensity of the procedures – this can lead to the opposite result, causing complications or secondary pathologies. Follow the doctor’s recommendations clearly – the main task of the patient throughout the course of treatment. And then hip arthritis will be remembered as an unpleasant memory.
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