Arthritis Joint Symptoms

Arthritis is the most common pathology of articular structures. Depending on the cause of the disease, 5 of its main forms are distinguished: rheumatoid, reactive, infectious, gouty and psoriatic. Symptoms of arthritis and its manifestations in each case will depend precisely on the clinical variant of the disease.

Ailment can affect different joints

Symptoms of reactive arthritis

Reactive arthritis is an inflammatory disease of a non-purulent nature, which manifests itself after an acute genitourinary or intestinal infection. This pathology often affects young men.

The first signs usually appear in the form of a general malaise: weakness, increased fatigue, headache. Sometimes there is an increase in total body temperature, which rarely exceeds 38 ° C.

A characteristic symptom of this form of the disease is asymmetric damage to the joints of the legs (for example, ankle, knee or hip), which appears a few days after non-specific signs (that is, signs of the disease that are not associated with joint damage). Sometimes the joints between the pelvic bones are involved in the pathological process. Often inflamed ligaments and tendons (for example, damage to the Achilles tendon). The pains have varying degrees of severity, but are rarely intense.

These symptoms in parallel can be accompanied by an inflammatory process in the organs of the genitourinary system. In this case, there is constant urge to urinate (a sharp desire to urinate) – there may also be a burning sensation and pain at this moment.

Soreness, irritation and redness of the eyes, as well as a violation of visual acuity, are associated with the appearance of conjunctivitis (the inflammatory process of the mucous membrane covering the eyelid and eyeball), which can occur both before the onset of joint damage and at the same time.

Red eyes may be a sign of arthritis, although at first glance, damage to the eyes and joints is in no way related.

Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic chronic disease, the symptoms of which lead to a significant decrease in the quality of life, primarily due to pain and changes in the shape of the joints. This pathology often becomes a causal disability.

Classical rheumatoid arthritis (it may be erroneously called rheumatic) has quite characteristic symptoms:

First signs: metacarpophalangeal joints on the middle and index fingers become swollen and inflamed. Often this is combined with a similar lesion of the wrist joint.

In almost every case, the joints are affected symmetrically (that is, the same, for example, on the right and left leg).

Arthritis pain intensifies at night, closer to the morning. It is quite intense until noon, and then almost stops. If the pathology is at the initial stage, then the painful sensations disappear after exercise. But the feeling of relief is never long – after a few hours or in the morning, the pain attack resumes.

Stiffness of the body in the morning, feeling of weakness. A patient may complain of a “feeling of a numb body,” “tight gloves on his hands,” or “a tight corset on his body,” with which people describe their condition. These sensations disappear 1-2 hours after waking up, but in the case of a severe form of the disease, they can disturb a person throughout the day.

Often along with the inflamed joints of the hands, the small joints of the feet that are at the base of the fingers are also affected. The process is also symmetrical. On examination, the patient notes pain while pressing on the toes of the toes.

If the disease progresses, then the inflammation passes to larger joints (for example, knee, shoulder, elbow or ankle). But it happens that at the initial stage, the calcaneal tendons and larger joints become inflamed, and after this the process spreads to the feet and hands – this form of the disease is often manifested in elderly people.

Rheumatoid nodes arise – small dense formations under the skin in areas where elbows, hands and feet are bent. These nodules can constantly change in size, then disappear, then reappear, and sometimes not change for years. They do not cause any sensations, they simply create a cosmetic defect.

With the advanced stage of the disease, the symptoms intensify, severe deformation of the hands and fingers occurs. Such a violation can occur when the hands and fingers begin to deviate outwards, and the wrist is fixed in the wrong position – because of this, mobility in the wrist joints decreases. As a result, blood circulation and innervation * of the hands are disturbed: they turn pale, muscle atrophy appears.

* Innervation – the connection of organs and tissues with the central nervous system through nerves.

The disease is accompanied by periodically occurring signs of intoxication of the body, which include the following symptoms: weakness, chills, weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite, fever up to 38,5 ° C.

Over time, the disease affects all articular surfaces. The larger ones can become inflamed without significant discomfort, but their mobility is noticeably worse.

A Baker cyst may appear – a symptom that occurs when an excess fluid accumulates in the knee capsule, which stretches it. If there is a lot of this fluid (exudate), then this can lead to rupture of the cystic formation. As a result, the liquid impregnates the tissues on the back surface of the lower leg, there is swelling and pain in this area.

There may also be other signs accompanying rheumatoid arthritis:

  • inflammation of the salivary glands,
  • numbness of the limbs
  • pain in the eyes
  • chest pain while breathing.

Rheumatoid joint damage differs from rheumatism in that the inflammatory process is more persistent, because the painful sensations and swelling of the tissues can bother for many years. The disease differs from arthrosis in that the painful sensations do not intensify under exertion, but rather subside after active exercises.

Symptoms of Infectious Arthritis

An infectious variant of the disease, also called septic or pyogenic, is a serious infectious disease. It is based on the penetration of microorganisms into articular structures, followed by active inflammation of the latter. This condition needs emergency medical attention.

The most common signs of arthritis of infectious origin:

  • A sharp start. In rare cases, a gradual increase and intensification of symptoms over three weeks (for example, the disease in infants).
  • Symptoms of intoxication: fever (usually above 38,5 ° C), chills, pain in the muscles, headache. Young children may have vomiting or nausea.
  • Severe swelling of the affected joint, constantly growing and causing a change in its shape.
  • Most often affected are the knee, elbow, shoulder, hip, wrist joints and articular surfaces of the fingers.
  • Increased pain during movement. For example, when the hip joint is affected, the pain radiates to the inguinal region and intensifies during walking.
  • Movement becomes limited, and the position of the limb is forced: one in which pain is felt the least.
  • An increase in temperature in the area above the affected joint (skin is hot).
  • In older people, the symptoms may be more erased, and in young children, on the contrary, the clinic is very stormy.

Hip Joint Reactive Arthritis

Symptoms of Gouty Arthritis

Gout – a disease associated with metabolic disorders and the accumulation in the body of an excessive amount of uric acid salts. As a rule, the disease affects the joint tissue.

The following symptoms are characteristic of this form of the disease:

  • A sharp onset of a pain attack, most often at night and after a significant error in the diet – eating large amounts of meat and alcohol.
  • Most often, the first joint of the big toe is affected, less often the knee or elbow is inflamed.
  • The affected area becomes red, swollen, touching it causes severe pain.
  • Fast resolution of the attack. Even without treatment, all clinical manifestations disappear after a few days.
  • The general condition of the patient is not greatly disturbed, body temperature does not rise.

A typical manifestation of gout is damage to the joint of the big toe.

Symptoms of Psoriatic Arthritis

The psoriatic variant of the disease develops against the background of a specific lesion of the skin and nails. It can affect absolutely any joint in the human body, but most often its manifestations are found in the fingers.

Inflammation in the joint tissues develops gradually, with swelling and redness of the affected areas (when the fingers are damaged, they become “sausages”), as well as a local increase in temperature. In the initial stages, pain and limitation of mobility are not characteristic. As the process progresses in the morning hours, stiffness of movements appears, which disappears during the first hour. Inflammation can also spread to the periarticular structures, causing damage to the tendons and ligaments.

Joint manifestations of the disease are accompanied by the appearance of red scaly spots, itching and discomfort on the skin and scalp.


In addition to the common forms of arthritis considered in this article, there are more rare variants of arthritis: for example, idiopathic, endocrine. For more information about them, see the section “Arthritis”.

As you can see, arthritis is a serious disease with a variety of manifestations. It is important to diagnose the disease on time, and treatment should be carried out under the guidance of qualified specialists. Self-medication can lead to serious complications or even disability.



Arthritis is a condition in which an inflammatory process occurs in a person’s joints. In patients diagnosed with arthritis, the symptoms are manifested by pain during movement or when lifting weights. The joints gradually become less mobile, they can change shape. Sometimes with arthritis, tumors appear, redness of the skin over the joint, fever may occur.

With a sharp manifestation of the disease, the patient is diagnosed with acute arthritis, with its gradual formation – chronic arthritis.

Arthritis can be an independent disease, and arise as a manifestation of another disease. According to statistics, arthritis is observed in every hundredth person in the world. The disease is diagnosed in people of different age groups, but most often arthritis affects the elderly and middle-aged women.

Among the risk factors for the disease, genetic (sex, the presence of hereditary problems with the joints) and acquired (obesity, smoking, allergic tendency) are distinguished.

Signs of Arthritis

The symptoms of this disease are most often a feeling of some stiffness in the joints, as well as an increase in the temperature of the tissues over the joint. A person feels pain in a joint affected by arthritis, later a swelling appears, the joint begins to move less clearly.

If the patient has pronounced acute arthritis, the symptoms may be more diverse. Under such circumstances, the patient has bouts of fever, a constant feeling of general malaise and weakness, leukocytosis. Inflammation is manifested primarily in the inner lining of the joint. Sometimes in the joint cavity there is an accumulation of inflammatory effusion – exudate. Later, the pathology grows on the joint bones, cartilage, joint capsule, spreads to the tissues near the joints – ligaments, tendons.

Types of Arthritis

By the number of affected joints, arthritis is usually divided into monoarthritis (one affected joint), oligoarthritis (two or three affected joints), polyarthritis (many affected joints).

Acute arthritis is characterized by fairly intense pain in the joint. Chronic arthritis, which develops gradually, is accompanied by periodically manifested pains, less severe than in the acute form of the disease.

According to the types of joint damage, several types of the disease are distinguished. Traumatic arthritis is manifested in the presence of open and closed joint injuries and in the case of regularly occurring minor injuries.

Dystrophic arthritis is manifested due to changes in metabolic processes, with strong cooling, excessive physical stress, vitamin deficiency.

Infectious arthritis manifests itself under the influence of a specific infection.

If the patient manifests arthritis, the symptoms of the disease can be reduced to a lower intensity for several days or for a longer time. Most important for patients with arthritis is to prevent the inflammatory process from intensifying again. Therefore, with this disease requires constant monitoring and supervision of an experienced doctor.

arthritis treatment

It is important to consider that the treatment of arthritis is time-consuming and difficult. The main task in the treatment of arthritis is the reduction of the manifestations of the disease, the resumption of metabolic processes in the joint. All efforts should also be directed towards preserving the functions of the joints affected by arthritis to the maximum.

A number of factors that negatively affect the healing process are also highlighted. They should be anticipated during treatment. So, it is important to carry out effective treatment of the disease that has become the root cause of arthritis, or the cause of arthritis should be eliminated.

Today, some types of treatment for arthritis are used, which are selected depending on the type and characteristics of the disease. Therapy of arthritis can be complex, long-term, systematic.

In this case, the treatment of this disease without fail includes methods aimed at restoring processes in the cartilage tissue, as well as methods of complex effects on the patient’s body.

In the treatment of the disease, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods are used, as well as surgical methods. When using the pharmacological method of treating arthritis, the patient is prescribed local therapy using non-steroidal ointments or creams with anti-inflammatory effects. Glucocorticosteroid drugs are also administered intraarticularly or periarticularly. If the pain in the joints is not too severe, then the periodic use of conventional analgesics (for example, paracetamol) is possible. Of great importance in the process of treating arthritis with the help of pharmacological agents are drugs that not only anesthetize, but also slow down or reverse pathological processes in the joints. These drugs, called chondroprotectors, stop the production of an enzyme that destroys cartilage, and at the same time improve the synthesis of the main substance of the cartilage. Such drugs significantly reduce pain and practically do not cause side effects.

As non-pharmacological methods of treatment, the use of special orthopedic shoes, knee pads, arch support, a cane while walking is used. It is recommended that the patient minimize the load on the joints, if necessary, lose weight, exercise physical therapy and undergo a course of individually selected physiotherapeutic treatment. In no case should you perform exercises that include squats, as well as exercises on bent knees. The latter is especially important for those who are diagnosed with arthritis of the knee joint. The ideal sport for arthritis patients is swimming.

An important step in the treatment of arthritis is the fight against bad habits. So, a patient with arthritis should stop smoking, do not abuse coffee.

As a surgical treatment, the method of joint replacement is used. Such treatment is advisable exclusively in severe forms of the disease.

Read the article:  Hip pain when walking causes

If a person has already developed arthritis, he should be very competent in choosing exercises for sports. No need to stand too long. Particular attention must be paid to the selection of products for everyday diet. Animal fats, flour, spicy should be excluded. At the same time, cereal fiber is an extremely useful food for arthritis.

What is joint arthritis: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment methods

Arthritis is one of the diseases of the century. It affects the joints of a person and his internal organs.

The disease appears in young and old, accompanied by a general unpleasant condition.

Arthritis Affects All Ages

The appearance of the disease is not associated with low mobility, these are internal malfunctions of the body, as a result of which infection penetrates into the bone tissue. How to diagnose joint arthritis, and is it necessary to treat the disease?

Arthritis – what is it?

This is a disease of the body in which the joints become inflamed.

They swell (increase in size), are unable to bend and straighten, hurt.

Arthritis Joint Inflammation


The causes of arthritis are different – infection, hypothermia, immune failure, neurology or stress.
Also, the emergence of arthritis is facilitated by malnutrition, metabolic disorders, injuries (often in athletes or people whose profession is associated with constant overload and trauma to joint joints).

Inflammation of the articular bags is clearly visible to the naked eye. Other manifestations of the disease are not always visible (inflammation of the internal organs in the initial stage occurs without symptoms).

Joint Bag Inflammation

The main prevention of painful inflammation is maintaining immunity, good nutrition, rejection of hormonal contraception, a healthy lifestyle. And the main treatment is anti-inflammatory drugs, antimicrobials and anesthetics (painkillers, ointments, powders).

Types of joint inflammation

The classification of arthritis types is based on differences in their course, localization of inflammation, and the number of affected joints:

  • Monoarthritis – inflammation of one joint;
  • Oligoarthritis – 2 or more joints are inflamed, but not more than 4;
  • Polyarthritis is a lesion of several joints.

With the widespread spread of infection, arthritis of the hands or feet may or may not be symmetrical.
If the symmetrical spread of the disease affects the same joints on opposite limbs (two ankles, or joints of the fingers, or arthritis of the knee joints), then such a disease is often rheumatoid arthritis. At the heart of the immune process.
You will learn more about rheumatoid arthritis from the video:

If the joints are affected asymmetrically, then it may be reactive arthritis. With it, inflammations in various articular joints are possible, for example – arthritis of the ankle joint of the right leg and the hip of the left.

The reason is the incorrect reaction of antibodies to joint cells.

For concomitant diseases, psoriatic inflammation is distinguished, which occurs against the background of psoriasis. It is always asymmetrical, often affects the fingers, destroys the nail plate.
Almost always, inflammation is acute. But sometimes it can turn into a sluggish chronic form with periodic exacerbations.
Such a chronic course of the disease is fraught with complication – irreversible destruction of the joints.

Especially often this applies to arthritis of the legs, which experience maximum motor load.

Diseases are also classified according to the time of manifestation and the age of the patient.
In the age classification, joint inflammation in children is called juvenile arthritis. Arthritis in children is a consequence of a previous infection, it often occurs against a background of allergies or trauma. It is also formed against the background of hormonal changes (due to a decrease in immunity). Therefore, it is considered a teenage disease.

Symptoms of the disease

We list the symptoms of arthritis:

  • Pain.With arthritis, severe causeless pain forms. They do not subside at rest and often intensify at night. The pain can also “wander” over the body, manifest in different limbs, ankle, knees, hips, shoulders, fingers, spine;
  • Deformation: Apparent deformation of the joint occurs due to severe swelling. Articular tissues themselves do not change their size (cartilage is not worn, not depleted, not destroyed). Also, the joint turns red and becomes hot (to the touch);
  • Crunch. A strong dry crunch appears due to the destruction of the cartilage layer and friction of the bones inside the joint.

Since arthritis is a disease of the whole organism, in addition to articular changes, symptoms of a general disease are observed:

  • temperature;
  • weakness;
  • with certain types of arthritis, there may be discharge from the eyes and genitals;
  • chills.

Acute inflammation often affects large joints. So inflammation of the knee or hip joint is formed more often than arthritis of the fingers or ankle.

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Methods of diagnosis

Modern diagnostic methods make it possible to determine the presence of articular changes in the early stages.
Diagnosis of arthritis uses the following methods:

  • Visual inspection – the presence of edema, redness;
  • Blood test – determines the number of leukocytes and ROE, which indicates inflammation;
  • Blood test for rheumato >

Arthroscopy allows you to accurately diagnose

Read more about hardware diagnostic methods in this article.

Treatment: general principles

When diagnosing any arthritis, the doctor prescribes a comprehensive treatment:

  • Pharmacy anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of arthritis (non-steroidal and hormonal). Nonsteroidal drugs – reduce the temperature and treat inflammation (aspirin, diclofenac);
  • Hormonal drugs or glucocorticoids – prescribed for severe general inflammation and allergies. They should be used only in case of urgent need. If glucocorticoids can be dispensed with, they try not to prescribe them (especially if they treat teenagers and children);
  • Anesthetics – used for severe pain, to reduce pain in arthritis;
  • Digestion Enzymes – Improve the absorption of food and nutrition of depleted tissues.

The doctor’s recommendations for the treatment of arthritis can be found in the video:

It is important to know: untreated joint inflammation can cause the development of arthrosis, which is often an age-related disease and is formed due to wear of the cartilage of the joint.


Arthritis is an acute inflammatory disease. It requires immediate treatment. Otherwise, it becomes chronic.

The neglected forms of the disease are the causes of arthrosis, which causes dystrophic (destructive) changes in the joints. Which deprives a person of joy and adds pain.

It is necessary to treat acute and chronic inflammation. It is important to choose the right remedies for treatment so that as little as possible harm other organs of the human body.

The most common signs of arthritis are arthritis symptoms.

In this chapter, I will tell you about special “alarming” symptoms that are uncharacteristic for arthrosis, but typical for arthritis. These symptoms can serve as a hint and direct your diagnostic search in the right direction.

Signs of arthritis.

1. You feel increased pain in the joints at night, between three and five in the morning – increased pain at this time often indicates their rheumatic, inflammatory origin, and may be a symptom of some kind of arthritis. You should especially be wary if the pains are so severe that they wake a person in the middle of the night amid complete rest. But if the pain occurred in the middle of the night from movement, when you roll over from side to side or stand in the toilet, then such pain is not an indicator of inflammation. It can be a symptom of any disease – from arthrosis to tendon inflammation.

2. You should be wary if you feel stiffness in the whole body and joints in the mornings, immediately after waking up, which disappears within an hour or during the first half of the day — such stiffness is characteristic of inflammatory joint diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis, Ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatic polymyalgia. A very alarming sign is the morning stiffness of the hands, the feeling that tight gloves are put on the hands. The symptom of “tight gloves” is one of the manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis. However, the same sensations occur with some non-inflammatory diseases of the hands – in particular, with carpal tunnel syndrome.

3. You should be wary if you have inflammation and swelling of the metacarpophalangeal joints, that is, the joints located at the base of the fingers (bulging bones of a clenched fist). Swelling and inflammation of these joints are most often a sign of rheumatoid arthritis, less often a sign of psoriatic arthritis. Unless, of course, it arose as a result of an injury or a punch against the wall.

4. You should be wary if your wrist joints are inflamed and swollen. Inflammation of the wrist joints is most often a sign of rheumatoid arthritis, less often a sign of reactive or psoriatic arthritis, rheumatism, or a peripheral form of ankylosing spondylitis. Particularly alarming is the inflammation of two wrist joints at once. Such inflammation in 99% of cases is a sign of arthritis.

5. You should be wary if at least one of your fingers or toes is red and swollen from the base to the very tip and looks like a sausage. This “sausage-like configuration” of the fingers is most often a symptom of psoriatic arthritis, sometimes reactive arthritis. Less commonly, a similar deformation of the fingers, with redness and swelling, occurs with gout – but then it is combined with inconceivable acute pain in the affected finger. Whereas with psoriatic arthritis, the pain can be quite bearable.

6. One should be wary if inflammation of the joints is “volatile” – when one joint swells at first, then after a few days its inflammation passes without a trace, but immediately after that the other joint becomes inflamed, then the third, etc. Such alternate “flare-up” of the joints with their complete subsequent recovery is most often the result of articular rheumatism. Or a sign of gouty arthritis – but then joint inflammation is almost always combined with inconceivable acute pain and redness of an inflamed joint. With articular rheumatism, reddening of the joints is almost non-existent.

7. You should be wary if you experience bouts of severe pain in the joints of the big toes, or in the knee joints or ankle joints, accompanied by their swelling and obvious redness, which occur for no reason and also suddenly disappear after 3–7 days, and then again regularly repeated at approximately the same intervals. Such attacks are 90% a sign of gouty arthritis. With gout, the pain is usually so severe that the patient is ready to “climb the wall” because of them.

8. One should be wary if joint pain is clearly reduced by active, energetic movements. Most often, joint pain from vigorous movements decreases precisely with arthritis. But with arthrosis and other non-inflammatory joint diseases, too energetic movements often lead, on the contrary, to increased pain in the damaged joint.

9. One should be wary if joint pain is quickly and almost completely eliminated by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Such a tangible effect of taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs occurs only with certain types of arthritis: most often with ankylosing spondylitis, and less often with gout. In these diseases, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs sometimes reduce pain by almost 90-100%. With arthrosis and other non-inflammatory joint diseases, such a pronounced effect from taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is rare, pain decreases only by 50-60 percent. With arthrosis, it almost never happens that the pain in the affected joints from anti-inflammatory drugs goes away completely.

10. You should be wary if for several months or years you feel a clear stiffness in the lower back and sacrum, and a severe restriction of mobility in the lumbar spine or in the entire spine. This limitation of spinal mobility may be a sign of ankylosing spondylitis. With ankylosing spondylitis, the ability to turn in both directions, to the right or left, and to lean forward, backward or sideways is sharply reduced. A sick person usually turns or leans with his whole body, with a “straight back.”

11. You should be wary if dense pea-sized nodules appear under the skin of joints in the elbow area under your skin – they may be the result of rheumatoid arthritis. Sometimes gouty tofuses also form in the elbow area.

12. You should be wary if the inflammation of your joints is combined with a prolonged increase in temperature to 37 ° C or higher (for more than 4 weeks). A combination of prolonged fever and joint inflammation can be a sign of rheumatoid or reactive arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or articular rheumatism.

13. You should be wary if inflammation of your joints is combined with prolonged inflammation of the eyes, a sensation of itching or “sand” in the eyes. Such phenomena are often an additional symptom of reactive arthritis, or, less commonly, ankylosing spondylitis.

14. You should be wary if your joint inflammation is combined with your skin disease – psoriasis. Or if your next of kin gets psoriasis. In this case, joint inflammation may be due to psoriatic arthritis.

15. You should be wary if you have a clear weakness during your illness. Especially if, in addition, you have dramatically lost weight, despite the fact that your diet has not changed. Or if you have a sharp decrease in appetite or a clear change in eating habits during your illness. Such symptoms, coupled with severe weakness, are often a symptom of polymyalgia rheumatism or a complication of rheumatoid arthritis.

16. You should be wary if inflammation of the joints has been combined for a long time with chills or frequent “torrential sweat” – this combination is often the result of reactive or rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis or articular rheumatism (unless “torrential sweat” and chills are a consequence of menopause body restructuring).

17. You should be wary if inflammation of the joints is combined with abnormal discharge from the genital tract, or if the onset of the disease was preceded by a prolonged violation of the intestines (we are talking only about loose stools). Or if your joint damage is combined with inflammation of the skin of the feet, without itching, but with the formation of blisters and redness on the skin (of course, we are not talking about fungal infections of the feet – it is most often present with fungal infections). All of these symptoms can be a manifestation of reactive arthritis.

An article by Dr. Evdokimenko © for the book Arthritis, published in 2003.
Edited in 2011.
Все права защищены.

Arthrosis and arthritis – what is it. What is the difference between arthrosis and arthritis. Arthrosis and arthritis are diseases in which joint damage occurs. That is why, and also because of the consonance of the names, many people do not understand the difference between arthrosis and arthritis, and perceive them as something similar in nature. Meanwhile, arthrosis and arthritis are far from the same thing.

Signs of arthrosis (symptoms of arthrosis). Osteoarthritis most often affects the knee and hip joints, as well as the joints of the big toe. A little less often – the ankle joints and those joints of the fingers that are closer to the nails (distal interphalangeal joints).

Examinations required for differential diagnosis between arthritis and arthrosis. Clinical blood test, biochemical blood test and analysis for rheumatic tests, joint x-rays, X-rays of the sacroiliac joints, in some cases, spinal X-rays, radioisotope skeleton scans, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (CT or MRI).

Other causes of joint pain. Sore tendon pain. Pain with blockade or pinching of the joint. Joint pain due to circulatory disorders.

Symptoms and methods of treatment of arthritis of the joints

Arthritis of the joints: symptoms, treatment, diagnosis, prevention.

A widespread disease that has no tendency, the incidence has always been high.

Complications are critical, disabling joint mobility and leading to disability.

Due to tolerable primary symptoms, periodically appearing and not dominant, the disease is diagnosed late and begins to be treated.

Mostly the lower limbs are affected, which explains the greater load and small joints in connection with a wide range of movements: knee, elbow, ankle and interphalangeal.

More often women suffer from arthritis.

Arthritis is a generalized concept of the inflammatory process in all elements of the joint: bone elements, articular bags and cartilaginous disc surrounding the ligamentous apparatus.

Causes of Arthritis

Etiological factors have a local and general predisposing effect on the development of the disease:

  • Infectious damage – with specific infections: tuberculosis, gonorrhea, brucellosis, borelliosis, hepatitis. Bacterial infection with postoperative complications. With frequent colds, viral diseases – tonsillitis, adenoiditis and tonsillitis, cystitis.
  • Metabolic disorders – gout (deposition of uric acid salts), overweight (consequences of impaired digestion and absorption of nutrients).
  • Acute or chronic injuries – habitual subluxations and dislocations, bruises and open wounds. The consequences of domestic and sports damage.
  • Autoimmune processes – connective tissue diseases: rheumatism, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus.
  • Blood diseases – cellular disorders – hemochromatosis, granulomatosis, purpura (coagulation disorder).
  • Chronic general and local hypothermia – freezing tendency, inappropriate clothing for the season, staying in a cold room during work, sports conditions (figure skating, hockey, speed skating).
  • Immunosuppressive conditions that do not allow defensive forces to maintain the health of peripheral organs and tissues are long-term debilitating chronic diseases.
  • Endocrine disorders – diabetes, premenopausal and menopausal period.
  • Allergic arthritis – in response to local exposure to an allergen or as a result of ingestion.
  • Disturbance of peripheral blood circulation and impaired lymphatic drainage.
  • Diseases of the central nervous system that violate the adequate innervation and proper transmission of the impulse to the organs are post-stroke disorders of proprioceptive sensitivity.
  • Occupational hazards – among masseurs, seamstresses, hairdressers, athletes (gymnastics) and builders.
  • The effect of age affects thinning and loss of tissue elasticity, impaired absorption of mineral components and a lack of vitamins.
  • Imbalance of water-salt balance – swelling of the body and limbs.

Arthritis Classification

There are several classifications.

By the number of affected joints:

  • monoarthritis;
  • polyarthritis.

On the side of the lesion:

  • symmetric;
  • asymmetric.

By time of occurrence:

  1. primary – osteoarthrosis, spondylitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Still’s disease;
  2. secondary – due to adherence to the underlying disease.

By nosological importance: as the main independent disease and reactive arthritis (as a manifestation of another disease).

Symptoms of Arthritis

Symptoms of arthritis are characteristic at all stages of inflammation:

  1. Pain is a periodic aching, at rest and intensifying with movement, the intensity of which depends on the stage and severity of the process.
  2. Redness of the skin from pink to burgundy.
  3. Increased local temperature in the joint. The skin is tense, dry macerated.
  4. Perifocal (surrounding the area of ​​inflammation) edema of varying intensity.
  5. Impairment of joint function: inflammatory contracture of the surrounding soft tissues and a degenerative destructive process in the articular elements.
  6. Morning stiffness, heaviness and stiffness, which in the process of “walking” turns into soreness.
  7. Weakness in legs, uncontrollability when walking, technical difficulties when trying to get out of a sitting position.
  8. Often there is a violation of the general condition – subfebrile temperature, weakness and chills.

Arthritis Diagnosis

To make a diagnosis, a laboratory test is necessary: ​​a general and biochemical blood test for various specific factors and indicators of the state of the body, a general urinalysis.

Instrumental methods: ultrasound examination computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

arthritis treatment

Arthritis treatment at home

  • Reducing the load on the joint – the use of auxiliary immobilization elements – dressings, bandages, sticks, tires, heels and kneecaps, orthoses.
  • Therapeutic gymnastics and self-massage after professional coaching.
  • Traditional medicine methods – compresses, lotions, rubbing, ointments and gels on a natural basis: mummy, clay, medicinal herbs.
  • Weight loss, normalization of water-salt balance and metabolism.
  • Correction of the diet – the exclusion of alcohol, a decrease in the consumption of salty spicy foods, an abundance of protein products.
  • Juice therapy – such freshly squeezed juices in the morning are recommended: spinach with carrots, salad and cabbage leaves with carrots, and optimal trio-carrots, cucumber and beets.
  • Dry heat – put on knitted socks or gloves soaked in concentrated salt solution (200 ml of water and so many grams of table salt) on the hands or feet.
  • Self-massage with essential oils – the first composition: to 15-20 g of grape seed oil add 4 drops of eucalyptus and lavender, and 5 drops of lemon oil. The second composition: in 15-25 g of any neutral oil (sunflower, olive or sweet almond oil) squeeze 3 drops of lemon and lavender oil, and 5 drops of pine. After the massage, dry heat is required, for example, woolen mittens for the whole night.

Arthritis Medication

It consists in the appointment of conservative treatment, which involves several main areas:

  • Elimination of the cause – treatment of the underlying disease (with specific drugs or antibiotics), which led to the development of arthritis.
  • Reception of multivitamins and minerals.
  • Reducing pain with various painkillers: solpodein, analgin, aspirin, paracetamol.
  • Elimination of the local inflammatory process with non-stero >

They develop in stages and slowly, with each stage becoming less reversible:

  • Dystrophic contracture of ligaments and joint capsules.
  • Joint deformation and irreversible violation of its function.
  • Arthrosis and ankylosis leading to disability.
  • Degenerative atrophy of the muscle apparatus, due to which constant dislocation of the articular head from the joint is possible.
  • When suppuration occurs, inflammatory exudate accumulates in the articular bag itself and surrounding tissues, there is a symptom of fluctuation – “swelling”, confirming the presence of effusion in the interstitial spaces, a sharp pulsating pain, blueness of the skin, the formation of an abscess and further phlegmon, which can lead to septic necrosis limbs, osteomyelitis or sepsis.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis has its own specific consequences – the formation of nodules on small joints, looseness of the joint bag with chronic subluxations, osteoporosis and ostearthrosis. Concomitant skin lesions in the form of rash, pericarditis and myocarditis, conjunctivitis, atherosclerosis also join.

Arthritis Prevention

It is easier, with the aim of prevention, to prevent the development of arthritis, knowing a predisposition to it.


Arthritis is a collective term, which is manifested by damage and inflammation of the joints, can be diagnosed in both adults and children.

According to statistics, approximately 70% of the population suffer from arthritis of the lower body, compared with diseases of the upper body: elbows, shoulder joints. The female half of humanity is most affected by arthritis of the upper extremities, men more complain of pain in the knees and legs.

People often go to the doctor late, more when arthritis makes itself felt and patients cease to walk. Then arthritis passes into arthrosis, and this is a more serious disease.

Often in medical practice, an error is made in the diagnosis of arthritis. Without understanding the patient’s complaints, the doctor can diagnose arthrosis, when in fact the disease is at the stage of arthritis. This phenomenon is called “overdiagnosis” – an overestimated estimate of the disease, the patient is not prescribed adequate treatment, but even the operation in general.

Symptoms of Arthritis

Symptoms of arthritis are manifested primarily by the limited mobility of the inflamed joint, its swelling. Often, changes in the shape of the joint, redness and fever are added to the symptoms of arthritis.

If the body temperature is elevated and pain is felt throughout the body, we can talk about infectious arthritis.

Arthritis can be both an inflammation of one joint, monoarthritis, and several joints – polyarthritis.

If the symptoms are pronounced and the pain is severe and the patient feels great pain, then they speak of the development of symptoms of acute arthritis.

If the pain with arthritis is not expressed, dull, aching and develops gradually – this is more a chronic form of the course of the disease.

Chronic arthritis is somewhat similar to pain with a bad tooth, it also aches and hurts. The movement of the joint is most often constrained and impaired.

  • Stiffness of the joint
  • Swelling
  • Pain
  • Redness and heat in a sore joint

Video: Arthritis – Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

The difference between arthritis and arthrosis

Arthritis is an inflammation of the joints, from the Greek it means “arthron” – a joint. With arthritis, the surface of the joints remains intact. The joint may hurt, the person is lame, the joint does not bend, it flows, but the joint is whole on the x-ray.

With arthrosis, the so-called starting pains are characteristic, when the pain in the joint increases at the beginning of the movement, and then decreases or disappears. Such pain can occur in the morning when getting out of bed. Then the patient “diverges” and the pain disappears.

As the disease develops, the pain appears after a load on the joint, and soon becomes permanent. The patient may complain of lameness, difficulty climbing stairs, stiffness in the joint. If you put your hand on the joint and at the same time make movements in it, a peculiar crunch is felt.

With arthrosis, an x-ray shows violations and deformation of the joint (violation of congruency). The joint is badly bent and unbent, it hurts with severe pain. Only then can the doctor prescribe an operation, preparing the joint for replacement with an endoprosthesis.

Causes of Arthritis

The causes of arthritis are usually a sedentary lifestyle, especially in people whose profession is related to sedentary work, cashiers, accountants, programmers, etc. With a sedentary lifestyle, over the years, the joints lose their mobility, a person ages and the joints age.

The process of aging joints begins after 40 years,

  • the joints dry out
  • muscles lose their former flexibility
  • crunch and creak
  • then the first symptoms of arthritis begin to manifest.

As the saying goes, a man becomes decrepit not for years, but for his feet. Legs dry out, muscles do not develop. The legs should normally be stronger than the arms, 2-3 times, and not vice versa. Sometimes you see a man with developed arm muscles, but his legs are flimsy.

What the joint represents, first of all, is the muscle and ligament, plus joint fluid. If the muscles and joint work and move, then the joint receives the necessary fluid, the joint works, while the clock.


To prevent arthritis, you need to perform physical exercises, jumping, squatting, swinging legs. Even if you work as an accountant or an official and do physical exercises, it means that arthritis does not threaten you, if not, you are at risk for developing arthritis. Arthritis often occurs after joint injuries, frequent bruises, or joint surgery.

Of course, arthritis has several causes; among them can be noted:

  1. Traumatic arthritis
  2. Infectious arthritis
  3. Dystrophic arthritis

In total, up to 150 types of arthritis are currently recognized. Spurs (bone growths), gout (cones on the feet) are also types of arthritis of the lower extremities.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease.

first of all, damage to the joints with rheumatoid arthritis – one or many joints can be involved in the process.

Joint inflammation

Any joints can become inflamed: most often the small joints of the hands and feet, but also the knee, elbow, hip, temporomandibular joints, intervertebral joints of the cervical spine and others.

Causes of Rheumatoid Arthritis

The impetus for the development of this disease can be one of the following factors or a combination thereof:

  • genetic predisposition – the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis is increased by about 4 times in blood relatives of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It is not the disease itself that is inherited, but the disturbed reaction of the immune system to the action of infectious and other agents, during which arthritis develops.
  • infectious agents – several infectious agents have been identified that can trigger the development of rheumatoid arthritis (rubella, herpes, Epstein-Barr viruses, retroviruses, cytomegalovirus, mycoplasma, etc.). However, none can be the only reason for the development of rheumatoid arthritis. They are only the trigger mechanism of the pathological process.
  • psycho-emotional stress and excessive physical activity – childbirth or abortion, trouble in the family or social sphere, the influence of chemical, radiation, toxic factors on the body – also provoke the development of rheumatoid arthritis.

Reactive arthritis

Reactive arthritis is an inflammatory, non-purulent joint disease that develops after an acute intestinal or genitourinary infection.

Causes of reactive arthritis

One of the most common causes of reactive arthritis is chlamydial infection. In childhood, chlamydial arthritis is up to 80%.

Children and adults can become infected with chlamydia in contact with people who are carriers of the infection, as well as from animals (cats, dogs), birds. Infection occurs by airborne droplets, airborne dust, sexual, contact-household, as well as during the passage of the fetus through the infected birth canal of the mother.

The second most common causative agent of reactive arthritis is intestinal microorganisms. Yersinia, salmonella, shigella, campylobacter are among the causative agents of intestinal reactive arthritis.

Often doctors and private clinics that are not conscientious at hand find the alleged causes of arthritis in the infectious nature of the disease. Chladidia are detected and a very expensive course with antibiotics and immunomodulators is prescribed.

In practice, infectious arthritis is very rare and should be treated with some skepticism.

It is better to re-take tests in another clinic to confirm the diagnosis.

There are rheumatoid arthritis, but they are not infectious diseases, but as an autoimmune disease. With rheumatoid arthritis, phagocytes, cells of the body’s immune system, come to the fore. Phagocytes act as protectors for any inflammation and therefore are not the cause, but the result of arthritis. Often, phagocytosis can be a complication after antibiotic therapy.

Does arthritis occur in children

The appearance of arthritis in children is often manifested as a complication after an infectious disease and antibiotic therapy; it can be a complication after vaccinations.

Arthritis in children should not be in nature, in children a disease such as Perthes disease can occur.

The disease is associated with the death of the femoral head (necrosis of the femoral head) because of this, the joint may not work well.

Here parents can be advised not to immediately agree to the operation and all kinds of antibacterial therapies, and hormonal drugs. It is not an adequate treatment that can be the cause of the appearance of rheumatoid arthritis in children, already at 12 years old.

Antibiotics often destroy the child’s self-regulation system and joints can be affected as a side effect of such treatment. With children, you need to do hardening, exercise, develop their immunity, then there will be no issues with joints. Treat everything reasonably and without fanaticism.

Shishkevich Vladimir
Shishkevich Vladimir
Orthopedic doctor, traumatologist
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I have been treating joints for many years. I can say with confidence that the joints are always treatable, even in the very ripe old age.

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Rheumatologist. For more than 20 years, he has been involved in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of joint diseases. Specialization: diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases and deformations of the musculoskeletal system.