There may be several, one of the most possible is a congenital anatomical defect in the umbilical ring. Often diagnosed with a hereditary predisposition to such anomalies, such disorders require immediate treatment in infancy.
Often, umbilical hernia occurs in pregnant women with bearing two or more children, as well as in the second and subsequent pregnancies. The pressure that increases inside the walls of the peritoneum breaks the umbilical ring and squeezes out the internal organs. Such an anomaly does not require special treatment and does not have a characteristic clinical picture; it requires a bandage to support the abdomen and compression underwear.
The next most common cause of the development of the disease is a sharp weight gain, as well as the associated sedentary lifestyle. The abdominal muscles are relaxed, the emphasis of the umbilical ring weakens, the organs begin to press outward. With frequent constipation and problems with the digestive tract, complications of umbilical hernia in adults and a deterioration in the general condition of the patient are possible.
Such a pathology can cause an advanced form of prostate adenoma, when urination is painful and requires some effort, which causes tension of the peritoneum and protrusion of the intestine.
Various diseases of the abdominal cavity can provoke a hernia, for example, cirrhosis of the liver, lead to the accumulation of excess fluid in the surrounding organs. Under the influence of adverse factors, the liver can begin to expand, while expelling the intestine through the umbilical ring.
Attention! Do not forget that the constant wearing of weights can eventually provoke a hernia, as well as various mechanical injuries of the abdomen. All causes are both temporary and permanent, help to correctly establish the diagnosis for a comprehensive treatment of the disease.
Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.
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- Signs of illness
- Medical events
- No surgery
- Abdominal Muscle Exercise
- Bandage Application
- Prevention of pathology
- Epigastric hernia in adults: symptoms and treatment
- clinical picture
- Varieties of pathology
- Causes of
- Features of treatment
- Possible complications and prevention
- How to identify umbilical hernia in adults
- Transaction price
- Umbilical hernia in adults: symptoms, treatment, surgery
- Causes of umbilical hernia
- The first symptoms of the disease
- Umbilical hernia treatment in adults
Signs of illness
The clinical picture is characterized by external manifestations of protrusion of the growth in the navel. At an early stage, the swelling can be pressed independently, and also disappear in a horizontal position. During a cough or a strong sneeze, the hernia increases in size and becomes painful.
When the pathology gains impressive size, then additional symptoms of the disease can be observed:
- Acute pain in the navel, with tension becomes unbearable;
- The skin of the abdomen turns red, eventually acquire a bluish tint;
- There are attacks of nausea, vomiting, an increase in basal temperature;
- Jumps in blood pressure;
- Dizziness, loss of consciousness;
- Lack of appetite;
- Sudden weight loss;
- Fluid stool of light color;
- Difficult passage of feces through the intestines.
Such an infringement is dangerous for the development and effective functioning of many internal organs, in the absence of treatment it can cause death
Improving the body during the elimination of a hernia can occur in several forms.
- Conservative treatment, including wearing a bandage, limiting physical activity, massage, body weight control.
- Surgery is performed to eliminate a hernial defect and improve the overall well-being of the patient.
As well as traditional medicine and physiotherapy, will help reduce pain during the development of the disease.
When the hernia is small, there is a chance that the pathological protrusion can resolve itself over time, if you contribute to the strengthening of connective tissue in the umbilical ring.
In severe forms, treatment can only be surgical, performed by several methods:
- Traditional hernioplasty, closes the hernial space with the patient’s own tissue. The method is great for eliminating small formations.
- Tension hernioplasty involves a complex process, when a hernial sac is removed through an incision in the umbilical region and a mesh implant is strengthened. The operation is expensive. Depends on the type of material from which the artificial insert is made.
These treatments do not have serious flaws, both effective and appropriate. They have excellent cosmetic results, the patient in a short time completely restores his vitality and returns to able-bodied activities.
Laparoscopic plastic surgery of umbilical hernia is also isolated, the operation is performed on expensive equipment, and is contraindicated for people with cardiopulmonary pathology.
The recovery period after surgery for the treatment of hernia is quite short, getting out of bed is allowed 3-4 hours after surgery. After 2 weeks, moderate physical activity is shown, wearing an elastic postoperative bandage.
Recipes of traditional medicine:
- Drink 50 g of milk twice a day on an empty stomach with a few drops of turpentine oil. Wipe the hernia with the same mixture externally. The course of recovery is a week after a week.
- To relieve pain, make compresses with salt, which must be put in a dense cloth and moistened with water. Apply to the protrusion during acute pain.
- Ash acts as an antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agent. 1 tsp stir the product in a glass of boiling water, strain and drink a third of the glass a day after meals.
- To reduce the formation, larch bark is used. To prepare a compress, you need to take 6 tbsp. l raw materials, place in a thermos and pour 4 cups boiling water, leave for a day. Wipe the sore spot three times a day with the resulting infusion, and also take orally 3 times after a meal.
- Plantain seeds have proven themselves well, they need to be crushed to a powder state and consumed every day until they feel better and pain symptoms are eliminated.
- It is recommended to do an onion compress every day for one month. Cut the onion in half and place on the hernia, fix on the belt with a scarf. Stand for half an hour.
- A small umbilical hernia can be eliminated with fern leaves, placing them every day in a troubled place. The duration of treatment is 1 month.
Abdominal Muscle Exercise
With umbilical hernia, daily stroking, kneading, rubbing the damaged area is recommended. As well as simple exercises under the supervision of a specialist.
- Tilts back and forth, left and right.
- Position – lying on your back, tilt your knees alternately in different directions, while keeping your feet together.
- Holding on to a chair, take your foot to one side, and then to the other.
- Rotational movements in the hip joint.
- Squats, no more than 10 times a day.
- Light exercises with dumbbells in the healing position.
- Raising the pelvis, lying on your back.
- Breathing exercises without the participation of the abdomen, inhaling fully, exhaling with short shocks.
These exercises will not lead to the disappearance of the hernia, but will significantly improve the general condition of the patient. Also shown swimming, light jogging in the morning, gymnastics, cycling. It is important to conduct classes after consultation with your doctor!
An effective treatment for umbilical hernia has a bandage that can prevent the appearance of unwanted bags inside a person. It is prescribed for sprains, weakening of the abdominal muscles. It is used for prevention and has its significant advantages.
- Invisible when worn, the applicator is attached to the hernial sac, the bandage is put on and fixed.
- It can be worn for a long time, without harm to health.
- Relieves pain symptoms and improves the course of the disease.
- It is selected indiv >
Appointed after the operation, the bandage can be freely bought at each pharmacy at an affordable price. It consists of an elastic material and acts as a secure fit.
Pregnant women are also shown a bandage for umbilical hernia in adults, an effective design allows you to wear the device for a long time and not experience significant discomfort.
May cause irritation, especially in summer. To prevent this, you must remove the product every two to three hours and give the body a little rest. To improve the effect when wearing a bandage, you should massage the umbilical cord, performing it yourself under the supervision of a specialist.
Prevention of pathology
To prevent infringement of an umbilical hernia, it is important to adhere to simple preventive rules. First of all, it is an active lifestyle, easy running in the evenings, morning exercises, swimming, non-intense aerobics. Daily exercises to strengthen the abdominal cavity.
Normalization of weight, and therefore, nutrition control, which will help keep the body in good shape, saturating it with useful vitamins and minerals.
During pregnancy, do not refuse to wear a bandage, especially in the third trimester. This will help reduce the load on both the spinal column and reduce pressure inside the abdominal cavity.
Special attention to the prevention of recurrence of hernia should be given to those people who have already undergone surgery to eliminate protrusion of the internal organs. It is important to adhere to all the instructions of your doctor and monitor your own weight. Always wear a postoperative bandage and in no case do not lift weights.
Epigastric hernia in adults: symptoms and treatment
Epigastric hernia in men of working age is a fairly common disease. This pathology is slightly less common in women. The epigastric hernia (code for ICD K43) appears in the abdomen and refers to defects in the white line.
Epigastric hernia in women and men may not have pronounced symptoms. In the presence of a small defect, the following symptoms appear:
- aching pains in the upper abdomen;
- the appearance of a burning sensation in the stomach, which gives off to the neck;
- disruption of the intestines, which is manifested by increased gas formation, bloating, dyspepsia, constipation;
- the appearance of a feeling of heaviness, nausea and belching after each meal.
When performing a palpation of the abdomen, the doctor manages to identify an epigastric hernia. It is a rounded protrusion of different sizes. On palpation of the defect, the patient may feel pain, which intensifies during exercise, when walking.
In the case of infringement of the hernia, many additional symptoms appear. The pains become cramping. Their intensity increases with sudden movements and with physical activity of any kind. The patient feels severe weakness, there is an increase in body temperature. Intensive vomiting also occurs, often with blood.
Varieties of pathology
Depending on the stage of development of a hernia, there are:
- Peritoneal lipoma. At the initial stage of the disease, a protrusion of preperitoneal fatty tissue occurs through a defect in the white line of the abdomen.
- Initial hernia. A hernial sac is gradually formed, which indicates the progression of the disease.
- Formed hernia. Pathology is accompanied by a divergence of the rectus abdominis muscles – diastasis. This leads to the penetration of a part of the omentum, loops of the small intestine into the hernial sac.
Depending on the location of the defect, it can be supra umbilical, para umbilical, sub umbilical.
The appearance of a hernia in the upper abdomen in an adult or a child is facilitated by the absence of moderate loads that support the abdominal muscles in tone. As a result, they are not able to counteract external negative factors that lead to the development of protrusions. A hernia appears in the epigastric zone for the following reasons:
- features of the congenital development of connective tissue;
- the presence of excess weight;
- excessive physical exertion;
- prolonged crying (in children);
- chronic constipation;
- prolonged severe cough.
The female body is particularly susceptible to the development of a hernia during pregnancy (especially multiple, with polyhydramnios), when excessive stretching of the tissues of the abdominal wall occurs. Such a defect can also occur as a result of a difficult birth.
The surgeon is responsible for the study of symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of epigastric hernia in adults. He studies in detail the history and lifestyle of the patient, after which he palpates the defect. The doctor determines the size of the hernial protrusion, its density, the presence inside the organs.
Palpation and auscultation is carried out when the patient has taken a horizontal position. During the examination, the doctor also determines whether it is possible to put the organs or adipose tissue inside the hernia into their physiological position.
To clarify the diagnosis, the patient is assigned an ultrasound and x-ray examination.
Features of treatment
You can completely get rid of a hernia in the epigastrium using surgery. Surgery of this type is called hernioplasty. Surgical treatment is carried out under general or local anesthesia. It includes the following actions:
- The hernial sac is opened.
- The doctor examines the contents of the hernia. If the bag contains only adipose tissue, the formation is removed.
- If organs are found inside the hernia, adhesions are excised. Only after this, the tissues return to their physiological position.
- The hernia gate is sutured. If necessary, fabrics are additionally reinforced with special nets that prevent relapse of the disease.
Surgical intervention in the presence of a hernia is often performed using laparoscopy. Such an operation is less traumatic. It involves performing several incisions 2-3 cm long through which surgical instruments are inserted.
After the operation is completed, the patient is in a medical facility for several days under the supervision of doctors. He is prescribed bed rest and a diet to prevent increased gas formation. If there is a large formation, the patient is recommended to wear a bandage for 3 months. To restore after surgery and prevent relapse, physical therapy is prescribed under the supervision of a doctor.
In the presence of diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscles, it is important to get rid of this defect. Otherwise, the hernia will appear again. If the diastasis is insignificant, special exercises can be used to treat it. In advanced cases, additional surgical intervention will be required.
Possible complications and prevention
Epigastric hernia is dangerous because tissue damage can occur. The organs inside it undergo ischemia and necrosis. This leads to peritonitis, septic shock and death. The patient’s death occurs in 100% of cases if the operation to eliminate the infringement is not performed in a timely manner.
Prevention of hernias of the epigastric zone consists in observing simple rules:
- It is necessary to monitor your own weight.
- Systematic moderate exercise is beneficial. Especially useful exercises aimed at strengthening the abdominal press. When performing physical education, it is important to adhere to the recommendations of specialists, to evenly distribute weight on the body, not to lift excessive weights.
- It is advisable to avoid intense physical exertion, especially in the absence of proper preparation.
- It is important to normalize the functioning of the digestive organs – stomach, liver, intestines, pancreas. In the presence of gastrointestinal diseases, they fulfill all the recommendations of doctors regarding nutrition, lifestyle, and take prescribed drugs.
- Respiratory pathologies should be treated in a timely manner, this will prevent the appearance of a strong cough.
Women during pregnancy are advised to purchase a special corset. It helps to keep internal organs in position, reduces tension in the abdominal cavity. For the same reason, a corset bandage is recommended to be worn after surgical interventions in the abdomen.
How to identify umbilical hernia in adults
There are several types of hernias located in the abdomen (epigastric, inguinal, femoral). But the most common is umbilical hernia, due to weakness of the connective tissue of the anterior wall of the abdominal cavity, the complete absence of muscles and subcutaneous tissue (fat) in the umbilical ring. Up to 10% of the population are subject to the development of this pathology, most of which are women.
An umbilical hernia is a pathological condition in which prolapse of organs and tissues of the peritoneum occurs through a gap in the umbilical ring and the formation of an aesthetic, rather large tubercle or tumor in the umbilical region.
A hernia consists of three components:
1 Hernial gate – a hole formed in the connective tissue through which part of the tissue or organ falls out.
2 Hernial contents – an organ or part of the subcutaneous tissue, which, under the action of intra-abdominal pressure, is advanced through the hernial gate.
3 Hernial sac – tissues covering the hernial contents and forming a protrusion similar to a tumor.
An umbilical hernia occurs if the balance between the pressure exerted by the organs and body fluids on the walls of the peritoneum and the ability of the muscles of the abdominal wall to withstand this pressure is disturbed. Or other factors appear that contribute to an increase in the load on the muscles of the peritoneum. In adults, there are several reasons leading to the appearance of an umbilical hernia:
1 Congenital structural feature of the umbilical ring. Normally, the umbilical ring in newborns is open and closes only by 2 to 3 years. But it happens that the connective tissue is weak, the hole cannot completely heal and a small hole remains, which is invisible in childhood. Over time and under the influence of other factors, the hole may gradually expand.
2 Hereditary pathology. The most rare reason, but in some cases, there is an inherited underdevelopment of the connective tissues of the body due to a lack of mineral trace elements and vitamins for the allocation of the required amount of collagen.
3 Pregnancy. For 9 months, the tissues of the abdomen of a pregnant woman are stretched, and the growing baby puts pressure on the walls of the uterus and other organs, thereby increasing intra-abdominal pressure. Women with multiple pregnancies and a large amount of amniotic fluid are at risk for umbilical hernia loss. The situation can be aggravated by frequent constipation and severe prolonged attempts during childbirth during pregnancy.
4 Overweight or obesity. An increase in fat mass in the abdomen leads to stretching and weakening of the abdominal muscles, as well as to an increase in intra-abdominal pressure. Most often, the problem of excess weight arises due to malnutrition and a sedentary lifestyle, which can be a decisive factor for the formation of an umbilical hernia.
5 Diseases causing sudden jumps or a constant increase in intra-abdominal pressure. Such diseases include diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, associated with difficulty in defecation and respiratory diseases, causing a strong and frequent cough. With constipation, as with chronic coughing, a person often has to experience prolonged and fairly strong attempts, which dramatically increase pressure on the front wall of the abdominal cavity.
6 Weight lifting or abnormal exercise. If you sharply and without additional training begin to lift any weights, then this can lead to a jump in intra-abdominal pressure and the formation of a hernia.
7 Operations on the organs of the abdominal cavity. A hernia can occur at the site of the postoperative suture if the patient violates the doctor’s recommendations for rest.
8 Injuries. Rupture or violation of the muscle corset and connective tissue can lead to the formation of a gap in the umbilical ring and prolapse of the hernia.
9 Sudden weight loss. Due to the rapid decrease in body weight, which can be caused by a serious illness or an incorrect approach to nutrition (starvation, exhausting diets), metabolic disorders and muscle weakness occur. In particular, the abs muscles supporting the umbilical ring suffer.
Umbilical hernia appears gradually and in its development passes through two stages: free (or correctable) and irreducible. Each stage has its own characteristics:
1 Reinforced hernia is detected immediately, because it can be seen and felt as a small rounded tumor at the navel, which disappears in the supine position and appears when the abdominal muscles are tensioned. At this stage, the hernia does not cause any discomfort, only occasionally mild pain can be felt during coughing and trying.
2 Irreversible hernia increases in size, does not disappear in a horizontal position, which indicates the formation of fusion and tissue tightening. Visually, the hernial sac changes: it becomes edematous and acquires a reddish hue. The patient begins to worry about pain, the nature of which depends on which organ got into the hernial contents and whether the inflammatory process has begun. If a loop of the intestine is inside, then the patient will be disturbed by constipation, nausea, vomiting and other problems in the digestive tract. If part of the bladder is found in the hernial contents, then the patient will have difficulty and painful urination.
Photo umbilical hernia in an adult male.
At first glance, diagnosing an umbilical hernia is easy and simple, because it can be independently seen and felt. But other serious diseases have a similar appearance – tumors of hypodermis (subcutaneous tissue), secondary manifestations of cancerous tumors of the stomach and deviations in the development of tissues of the umbilical region. To be sure of the correctness of the assumptions and know the exact diagnosis, you need to seek help from a surgeon who will conduct a number of necessary studies:
Inspection and conversation. During the examination, the patient will need to take a standing position and lying down. Before the examination, you need to remove clothes to the waist so that the surgeon can make sure that there are no other hernial protrusions in the abdomen. The doctor palpates the navel, while asking the patient to strain or cough in order to understand the changes characteristic of a hernia. During the conversation, the surgeon finds out all the circumstances that will help to prescribe the most effective treatment: does the patient have immediate relatives who have been diagnosed with a hernia; whether operations on the organs of the abdominal cavity were previously transferred; are there any other changes in the general condition of the body and in the work of the digestive tract; determines the time and circumstances of the appearance of a hernia; whether pain syndrome is present (and how often). Ultrasound examination (abdominal). Ultrasound is prescribed in order to determine the size of the contents, whether any organ is present in the hernial sac, whether there are seals and adhesions of the connective tissue. Herniography. The patient is anesthetized, then a contrast solution is injected with a needle, they are asked to roll over on the stomach and strain or cough so that the solution penetrates the hernial sac. Then do x-rays. This study is carried out in order to determine which organ penetrated the hernial contents if the doctor has any doubts. Sometimes this diagnostic method is replaced by radiography of the stomach and duodenum using a contrast fluid (in this case, barium sulfate is given to drink).
In rare cases, the doctor also prescribes computed tomography and endoscopic examination of the stomach.
The only effective way to completely get rid of this pathology is an operation that should not be postponed, since there is a high probability of infringement, which threatens with serious consequences and a more expensive and complex healing process. None of the methods described in traditional medicine can guarantee complete disposal of a hernia. Contraindication to surgery can only be the presence of an infectious disease, which can become a risk of even greater harm to the patient’s health.
According to the methodology of the operation, they are divided into those that are performed in an open way and which use endoscopes with devices for visual monitoring of the operation (laparoscopic operation).
An open method consists in cutting the necessary sections of the umbilical region to access the hernial sac. The duration of such an operation is about 30 minutes and may vary depending on the complexity of the situation.
An operation using endoscopes is performed without serious injury to the tissues (which greatly simplifies the rehabilitation period), several small incisions are made to enter the endoscope into the abdominal cavity. The endoscopes have surgical instruments and optical instruments that allow you to control the process from the inside. The duration of the operation is 10 to 15 minutes.
The operation is carried out in three stages:
I An incision is made in the tissues to provide access to hernial contents.
II A hernial sac with contents is excised or set.
III Fixation (or suturing) of the hernia gate. There are two methods of suturing: tension – after the bag has been repaired, the suture is sutured with the patient’s own tissue, non-tension – the gates are sutured using a synthetic mesh implant with a margin that creates an additional barrier and helps prevent relapse until the hernia is completely restored and cured. Most surgeons prefer a non-tensile method of suturing, because the sutured implant does not cause discomfort for the patient and guarantees a positive result of the operation
When calculating the cost of the operation, the complexity and urgency of the operation, the method of carrying out, the quality of the materials used, the qualifications of the operating specialist are taken into account. Prices are in rubles.
Umbilical hernia in adults: symptoms, treatment, surgery
Umbilical hernia – the exit of the abdominal cavity to the navel. The protrusion that appears with the naked eye is called a hernial sac. Hernia is a common occurrence among newborns, however, there are cases of its occurrence in older people.
Causes of umbilical hernia
The reason for this may be weakness of the abdominal muscles, a sharp increase in body weight, or, conversely, a sharp weight loss, weight lifting, injury to the abdominal cavity, some diseases of the internal organs. Most often, umbilical hernia is diagnosed in women who have had several pregnancies in their lives. In the presence of weak abdominal muscles, the impetus for the development of the disease can be a strong cough, sneezing, straining while visiting the toilet for constipation.
An umbilical hernia in an adult can be straight or oblique. In the first case, we are talking about the entry of organs (small, large intestine, stomach) into the hernial sac due to thinning of the tissue adjacent to the umbilical ring directly through this ring. In the case of an oblique umbilical hernia, a protrusion of the hernial sac is observed either under the navel or just above it.
The first symptoms of the disease
The first symptom of the development of the disease is the appearance of a small spherical formation in the navel. Such a formation can increase in size, for example, with a strong cough. It is completely painless and easily set inward. Over time, commissures are formed inside the abdominal cavity between the hernia and the anterior abdominal wall, making it impossible to reverse the formation.
The appearance of certain symptoms depends on the size of the hernia, the speed of its development. The presence of a slight protrusion in the navel usually does not bother the patient and does not lead to a decrease or loss of his ability to work. A small hernia may be accompanied by minor pain, a feeling of discomfort in the abdomen while walking. Umbilical hernia, which has reached a large size, can become an obstacle to the movement of feces through the intestines. In this case, the patient has constipation, nausea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite.
A frequent complication of umbilical hernia in adults is its infringement, that is, squeezing the organs that make up the hernia sac, against which intestinal obstruction can develop. Overweight, a sharp increase in weight contributes to the damage. Compression of any internal organs leads to disruption of the circulatory process in them, which in turn leads to the death of their tissues. Therefore, medical care for suspected infringement of a hernia should be immediate.
The main signs of infringement of an umbilical hernia are:
- severe pain in the navel;
- redness, then darkening of the skin around it;
- bouts of nausea;
Umbilical hernia treatment in adults
The surgeon is involved in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Diagnosis is usually not difficult. To determine exactly which organs were in the hernial sac, an ultrasound examination and an x-ray of the abdominal cavity are performed. An umbilical hernia should be diagnosed from a different type of hernia (white line of the abdomen), umbilical endometriosis, and cancer of the stomach (its metastasis to the umbilical region).
The main method for the treatment of hernia in adults today is its removal by surgery. This disease is not life threatening, although it is very unpleasant and can significantly reduce its quality. In addition, the consequences of hernia, such as intestinal obstruction, pose a real threat to human health. Therefore, you should not build the illusion that an appointment with a doctor is not necessary at all, that a small hernia can be treated independently using traditional medicine methods.
Such methods do not have a significant positive effect in the treatment and can only help eliminate the unpleasant symptoms of the disease. To entrust own health in this case is still recommended to a specialist.
A hernia surgery (hernioplasty) is usually prescribed in advance (the exception is its infringement). Before it is carried out, the patient passes a number of tests, undergoes a thorough examination of the body. This procedure involves the return of the internal organs that have fallen into the hernial sac to the correct location. After the organs are removed from the hernial sac, the anterior abdominal wall is strengthened by tensioning tissues located in the immediate vicinity of it or by establishing a mesh polypropylene prosthesis. The second method is considered more reliable, relapse of the disease after the establishment of an artificial mesh in the abdominal cavity is extremely rare.
The main contraindications for hernioplasty are:
- the presence of diseases of the internal organs;
- chronic infection
- malignant tumor of abdominal organs.
In the event that the operation is impossible for any reason, the patient is recommended to wear a bandage – a special device that is worn on the stomach. The bandage prevents the occurrence of infringement of the hernia, supports the muscles of the abdominal cavity, helps eliminate the main symptoms of the disease.
However, prolonged wearing of the bandage can adversely affect the condition of the abdominal muscles, this device must be removed at bedtime. The bandage is selected strictly individually, depending on the size of the human body.
If the umbilical hernia is infringed, surgery should be performed immediately. In the event that the death of tissues of the internal organs has already begun, these tissues must be removed. The rest of the operation does not differ from the planned one. The duration of the postoperative period depends on such factors as the patient’s well-being, his age, the presence or absence of complications. Persons who have undergone surgical treatment of a hernia are not allowed to lift weights. The prognosis of treatment is generally favorable.