Neurologist and neuropathologist are specialists in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the nervous system. In modern medicine, both terms are used in the same meaning, but one of them is official, the other is not. They are equally used by both patients and the doctors themselves, which often causes confusion. Therefore, if you want to make an appointment with a specialist in the nervous system and are trying to understand who is who, we inform you: a neurologist and a neuropathologist are the same doctor.
The Otradnoye Clinic uses the official name of the specialty – a neurologist. The staff employs highly qualified specialists, including doctors of the highest category. You can make an appointment with one of them by phone number or using a special online form.
- What does a neurologist treat
- Differences in terminology
- What does a neurologist treat? Diseases of the nervous system
- Who is this?
- Why go to a neurologist
- Causes of Nervous Diseases
- Vascular diseases
- Detection of nerve diseases
- Neurology in children
- Scheduled inspection
- Neurological symptoms in newborns
- Neurologist – what the doctor treats
- Who is a neurologist?
- What does
- What diseases are treated by a neurologist and neuropathologist?
- What is watching
- What tests appoints
- What are the complaints to a neurologist?
- What are the symptoms of a neurologist?
- What problems are being addressed
- What does a neurologist treat in children
- General characteristics of the direction
- What is included in the list of duties doctor
- What symptoms should ask for help
- Methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention
What does a neurologist treat
The term “neurologist” is the officially approved name of a specialist in neurology. It is he who you will see in the lists of medical specialties, in the list of practicing doctors, on the signs of cabinets. The competence of this doctor includes everything that can be attributed to the category of “nervous pathologies”:
- cerebrovascular diseases – atherosclerosis, strokes;
- infringement of the spinal nerves as a result of a violation of the structure of the spinal column with spondylosis, osteochondrosis, radiculitis;
- infectious and inflammatory processes – meningitis, myelitis, polio;
- autoimmune reactions in nerve tissue – multiple sclerosis;
- dystrophic and degenerative diseases – muscular dystrophies, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases;
- perinatal hypoxic nerve pathologies – cerebral palsy, encephalopathy;
- injuries to the central nervous system;
- tumors of nerve tissue;
- inflammation of the peripheral nerves, etc.
Go to a neurologist with sleep disorders and severe headaches, chronic fatigue and loss of sensation, with coordination failures and cramps, muscle weakness and dizziness.
Attention! People very far from medicine with all its attributes should pay attention to the consonance of the terms “neurologist” and “nephrologist”. These are two completely different specialties: the first, as we found out, is a specialist in nerves, and the second in the kidneys.
Differences in terminology
The term “neuropathologist” is currently considered obsolete. He was in use during the Soviet period of domestic medicine, until the beginning of the 80s. For this reason, many old-timers continue to use this name even in professional activities. The field of competence of a neurologist is the same as that of a modern neurologist – diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system (spinal cord and brain, nerve fibers and receptors).
On a note! In medical prospectuses and reference books targeted at older people, the authors specifically use the old term so as not to cause unnecessary questions.
To take a close interest in how a neurologist differs from a neuropathologist makes sense to those who are being treated abroad. In Western countries and America, these are two different specialists.
A neurologist is a doctor who treats nervous diseases in the absence of anatomical pathologies, that is, deals with nervous disorders of the inflammatory, traumatic, dystrophic spectrum. It treats neuritis, neuralgia, encephalitis, injuries of the central nervous system and migraines, common insomnia and chronic fatigue.
A neuropathologist is a narrow specialist who studies pathological processes using a scientific approach: he sits with a microscope and delves into especially the structure of the nervous tissue, its deviations and their causes. His main field of activity is pathomorphology (anatomical pathology) and neurosurgery. His consultation will be required in the treatment of epilepsy, genetic diseases, tumors. In domestic medicine, the tasks of this specialist are performed by a neurohistologist.
In medical circles, there are those who consider the principles of separation described above to be fundamentally wrong. The reason for this is the literal interpretation of words. The terms “neurology” and “neuropathology” are of Greek origin. The first consists of the words “nerve” and “teaching”, the second – “nerve” and “disease”. From this point of view, it is appropriate to call the attending physician, as in Soviet times, a neurologist, and a scientific specialist studying nerve structures – a neurologist.
At the same time, confusion with the terms neurologist and neuropathologist is the smallest thing that a patient in the neurological department may encounter. In deep research, theoretical specialists of a narrow profile – neurophysiologists, neurochemists, neuropsychologists, can join the problem. Their fields of study of the nervous system, at times, intersect in the most intricate planes.
What does a neurologist treat? Diseases of the nervous system
Everyone knows that nerve cells cannot be restored, but in the bustle of our lives we deal with stressful situations and other negative factors every day. In order to correct or prevent the serious consequences of this, a neuropathologist comes to the rescue. What this specialist treats and what complaints should be addressed to him, we will understand.
Who is this?
A neurologist (neurologist) is a person who has received a medical degree in neurology. A neuropathologist deals with the treatment and diagnosis of diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system, that is, the brain, spinal cord, nerve roots and peripheral nerves. It can be neuritis, neuralgia, tumors, various circulatory disorders (strokes). This also includes inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) and epilepsy. Mental abnormalities and disturbances in the behavioral reactions that very often accompany such pathologies are not corrected by a neuropathologist. What treats these phenomena as a psychiatrist or psychotherapist, few know. In addition, diseases related to the field of activity of a neurologist include pathologies associated with the spine.
Why go to a neurologist
As you know, the human nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord, as well as the nerve roots and the most complex system of peripheral nerves. With their help, the normal functioning of all body systems is regulated, and even the slightest violation can lead to serious problems. The cause of nervous diseases is a pathological process that affects a certain part of the nervous system.
As a rule, patients of a neurologist note the following symptoms:
- headache, dizziness;
- noise in ears;
- pain in the neck, back, arm, or leg;
- restriction of movement in the spine;
- increased anxiety;
- memory impairment;
- trembling, weakness, numbness of the limbs;
- disturbances in the functioning of the sensory organs – vision, hearing, deception, touch.
Diagnoses of a neurologist are not simply necessary for patients with such complaints; they can save their lives.
Causes of Nervous Diseases
The cause of nervous ailments can be a variety of both external and internal factors. Here are the most common ones:
- Hypoxia – it should be noted that the nervous system and especially its central departments are most sensitive to lack of oxygen. That is why strokes are so dangerous. It is known that complete restoration of brain functions is possible if blood circulation has been restored within 5-6 minutes. Otherwise, irreversible changes occur, affecting memory and intelligence.
- Metabolic disorders.
- Infectious factor (bacteria, viruses, parasitic or fungal infection).
- External factors – it is proved that a strong pathogenic effect on the nervous system is exerted by ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields, noise, vibration, high or low temperatures, as well as various toxic substances.
- Tumors, inflammatory processes.
- Age changes.
Nervous diseases are very numerous and varied both in their clinical manifestations and in the reasons that cause them, and a good neuropathologist must not only correctly diagnose and prescribe treatment, but also eliminate the cause of the disease. Usually, all neural pathologies are combined into several large groups:
Vascular diseases – this includes acute and chronic cerebrovascular acc >
Vascular diseases are recognized by modern medicine as one of the most dangerous pathologies. They confidently rank second in mortality in the world. In the human body, the brain is most sensitive to insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients. Their uninterrupted delivery is carried out due to constant blood flow due to the ability of the vessels of the brain to narrow reflexively with a decrease in blood pressure and expand with its increase. However, in some cases (most often under the influence of hypertension or atherosclerosis), this process fails and, as a result, circulatory failure, due to which the brain does not receive glucose and oxygen at an adequate level. The result of this process can be a cerebral infarction, the consequences of which are unpredictable.
Detection of nerve diseases
In order to make a diagnosis of pathologies of the nervous system, they use basically the same methods as with other ailments. After collecting an anamnesis and collecting tests, a neurological examination is carried out, according to the results of which additional research methods are prescribed.
- CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) are excellent assistants in the work of such a specialist as a neuropathologist. Reviews indicate the high accuracy and safety of these methods. With their help, it is quite simple to detect abscesses, hemorrhages, microtrauma.
- EEG – electroencephalography.
- Angiography of cerebral vessels.
- If an infectious disease is suspected, lumbar puncture of the spinal cord.
- X-ray contrast study.
Neurology in children
In our life, we often have to turn to such a specialist as a neuropathologist. What he treats in adults and elderly people is understandable, but it is equally important to examine children in a timely manner. Unfortunately, recently the birth of babies with one or another nervous pathology has ceased to be a rarity. That is why literally in the first months of life, it is necessary to undergo an examination with such a specialist as a pediatric neurologist. In the early stages, he diagnoses diseases caused by disorders of the central nervous system, as well as functional disorders resulting from them. First of all, he is interested in the brain and its work. The neuropathologist carefully studies all the features of the development and life of the child, starting from the moment that pregnancy and childbirth took place, and to the data on past diseases.
Since in the first months there is an active development of various brain structures, a pediatric neuropathologist should identify the pathology as soon as possible and prescribe adequate treatment. Otherwise, this can lead to serious delays in development, and in the future – be manifested by behavioral disorders such as hyperactivity, attention deficit disorder, emotional instability.
During the first year of life on the part of parents and doctors, careful monitoring of the condition of the child is required. According to statistics, half of cases of childhood disability are associated with diseases of the nervous system, and 70% of these pathologies appear during the period of intrauterine development and neonatality. Therefore, to reduce the risk of their occurrence or to correct the problems manifested in time, the services of a neurologist will be needed approximately every three months.
Modern medicine recommends making planned visits to this specialist on the following dates:
- three months;
- six months;
- nine month;
- year, and then – annually.
Neurological symptoms in newborns
Of course, scheduled examinations are a must, but sometimes you need to urgently take measures without waiting for a scheduled visit to the doctor. If you paid attention to the following features, then a visit to a neurologist should not be postponed:
- if the newborn has sleep disturbance, he often wakes up, cannot fall asleep, sleep is superficial;
- if the baby periodically shakes his chin, arms and legs;
- if he often spits up a lot;
- if with an increase in temperature the child begins to twitch;
- the child draws his fingers at the moment when he is placed on the foot – this may be the norm, but a neuropathologist should dec >
In older children, neurological disorders can be suspected in the following cases:
- if the child is quickly tired, irritable;
- often complains of headaches;
- poorly contacts with peers;
- sleeps poorly;
With these symptoms, you should not postpone the visit to the doctor, because the sooner the examination is carried out and the reason is identified, the faster the treatment will begin. Accordingly, there is a greater chance of correcting the situation without further complications for the child.
As you can see, do not neglect the visits of such a specialist as a neurologist. What he cures those diseases that in the future, if the process is not stopped in the early stages, can significantly worsen the quality of life, is also beyond doubt. That is why it is easier to undergo preventive examinations on time, because it is always easier to prevent than to cure.
Neurologist – what the doctor treats
If you are often tormented by causeless anxiety, you become very nervous, inability to stay in stuffy rooms, prone to fainting – which means you need to pay close attention to your health. Such complaints, even from small loads – this is an occasion to contact a neurologist.
Who is a neurologist?
Before contacting a medical institution, you need to figure out who the neurologist is and what he treats. This doctor may be needed by both an adult and a child. A neurologist specializes in diseases of the autonomic system and disorders of the functioning of the nerves of the spinal cord and brain. He is engaged in careful consideration of complaints, the subsequent treatment of identified diseases. Such a specialization can only be obtained by a person with a diploma of a higher medical institution.
Among the diseases that this doctor treats, one can note the following: neuralgia, brain or spinal cord tumors, neuritis, strokes, circulatory disorders, cramps, head injuries, back pain, sciatica, Alzheimer’s disease, migraine, tremor in newborns, impaired concentration, motor disorders, mental disorders and others. Often, to stabilize the condition of such patients, it is necessary to involve a psychiatrist and psychotherapist.
Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.
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A neurologist diagnoses and treats diseases associated with the work of nerve fibers. It identifies the primary causes of diseases, their impact on the general well-being of a person. A good doctor quickly, effectively prescribes competent treatment, which can significantly improve the quality of life of the patient. Neurologist – which treats chronic overfatigue, is the most sought-after doctor in modern medicine.
Neurology is a science that studies the relationship between the nervous system and human well-being. Neuropathology is an object of study, the study of all neuroneurologists. Absolutely with all diseases associated with impaired functioning of nerve fibers, you can contact this doctor. Neurosurgery is a section of surgery that deals with the surgical treatment of such diseases.
What diseases are treated by a neurologist and neuropathologist?
Is there a difference between these specialties? In fact, a neurologist and neuropathologist treats diseases of the nervous system. Just the term “neuropathologist” was used in the 80s of the last century. In domestic medicine, these concepts are identical. But in foreign practice, a neuropathologist specializes in pathomorphology of the nervous system, and a neurologist is involved in the detection and treatment of nervous diseases.
What is watching
Neurologist looks at the functioning of the nervous system. Makes an initial examination, checks unconditioned reflexes. The inspection also includes a visual examination, palpation. The main task is to identify deviations in the sensitive or motor activity of a person. In case of visible violations, he appoints an additional examination or treatment.
What tests appoints
When assessing the patient’s condition and to facilitate the diagnosis of the disease, the neurologist prescribes tests. To accurately determine the disease, you may need a test of vision or hearing. The specialist can be assigned the following types of analyzes:
- general blood analysis;
- Doppler ultrasound of the neck, head;
- MRI of the brain;
What are the complaints to a neurologist?
This doctor establishes a causal relationship between the nervous system and the pathological condition and prescribes treatment. Sometimes it’s worth only adjusting a person’s lifestyle to achieve the desired effect. The abundance of stressful everyday situations, poor environmental conditions are important factors in the manifestation of neurological diseases. The most common complaints to a neurologist with whom people come are:
- frequent dizziness;
- poor concentration;
- constant bad mood;
- behavioral disorders;
- mental disorders;
- sleep quality disorders;
- constant feeling of fear, anxiety.
What are the symptoms of a neurologist?
The most important thing is to detect early symptoms in yourself, this will prevent the development of serious diseases. The set of negative factors acting on a person, with untimely appeal to a specialist, can aggravate the situation. A neurologist is treated with symptoms such as:
- regular bouts of headache;
- soreness in the chest on the left;
- fluctuations in blood pressure;
- increased nervousness;
- disruption of the sweat glands.
What problems are being addressed
The reasons for contacting a neurologist are a deterioration in the quality of human life. Chronic fatigue and overstrain in everyday life causes disorders of the cardiovascular system. And this carries with it hypotension (low blood pressure), hypertension (high blood pressure). It is fraught with the development of various metabolic disorders. The most important thing is to consult a doctor in time for help. The specialist will prescribe professional therapy, drug treatment.
What does a neurologist treat in children
The difference between a pediatric neurologist and an adult is that an adult doctor approaches the child with other methods of treatment. Parents of a child come up with such problems: impaired concentration, inability to concentrate, poor performance at school. Any deviations or changes in behavior are the reason for visiting a child specialist. This is the first obligatory doctor who examines a newborn baby. It eliminates the risk of developing postpartum pathologies. A pediatric neuropathologist will help to identify early problems in the development of the child, to prevent their appearance.
A neuropathologist is a doctor who diagnoses / treats diseases of the nervous system. The competence of a specialist includes working with the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
Since 1980, the direction has been renamed to neurology, and the specialist, respectively, to a neurologist. What you need to know about the discipline, under what symptoms should refer to a neurologist and what to expect from therapy?
General characteristics of the direction
Neurology is a group of scientific disciplines that studies the norms and pathologies of the nervous system. A doctor who has received basic medical education and has undergone specialized training is called a neurologist.
He works with diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system, deals with issues of developmental mechanisms, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
A neurologist often works in conjunction with other specialists. Most pathologies are accompanied by changes in mental functionality and behavior. In this case, psychiatrists or psychotherapists are attracted to therapy.
Until the XIX century, neuropathology was part of the program of private pathology and therapy. She was later singled out as an independent clinical discipline. In the last decade a new branch has been formed – animal neurology. It is actively developed abroad.
Neurological diagnoses are most often detected in dogs and cats, but veterinarians claim that it will soon be a common practice for any kind of animal. The only caveat – veterinary psychoneurology has no evidence base, since it is impossible to interview a patient.
There is a misconception that a neurologist treats psychological disorders. In fact, a specialist works with disorders of the nervous system, as with the causes of the underlying disease (encephalitis, Alzheimer’s disease), and a psychologist works with mental problems (depression).
What is included in the list of duties doctor
The doctor identifies the cause of violations of the body, sets the focus and degree of damage to the nervous system, issues directions for additional diagnostics and makes up a therapeutic course.
A neurologist is treated with the maximum range of symptoms – from frequent headaches to visual impairment, since all internal changes are somehow related to the functioning of the nerves.
The incomplete list of diseases with which the neurologist works:
- mechanical damage to the back / head, infectious diseases and their consequences for the body;
- Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s;
- stroke, its consequences and possible relapses;
- episodic back pain (osteochondrosis, hernia, sciatica);
- epileptic seizures and convulsions;
- impairment or loss of consciousness without a certain etiology;
- frequent headache, migraine, tremor, nervous tic;
- sleep disorders, failure of biological rhythm;
- oncological tumors in the spinal cord or brain.
In a separate category distinguished pediatric neurologists. The nervous system of a newborn child is almost no different from an adult, but some of its departments remain underdeveloped. As the child adapts and grows, these differences smooth out – the surface of the cerebral cortex increases, the ratio of the brain and spinal cord is regulated, the speed of passage of impulses is normalized and so on.
Experts emphasize that the majority of chronic pathologies of the nervous system is formed precisely in childhood.
It is very important to develop the child correctly, to regularly examine his health and nerve functionality.
What symptoms should ask for help
Migraine, frequent unreasonable headache, sleep problems, disruptions of biological rhythm, insomnia, apathetic condition should encourage a neurologist to go on a trip. So the body is trying to tell us about internal problems that need to be resolved rather than ignored, attributing to temporary fatigue or the common cold. Attention should be paid to tingling or numbness of the extremities, tinnitus, problems with coordination, occasional pain in different parts of the body.
Disorders of consciousness, memory impairment, anxiety, dizziness, or frequent loss of consciousness should also prompt the patient to seek help. Additional consultation with a neurologist will not prevent pregnant women, people with hereditary and chronic diseases, mechanical injuries of the body or vascular disorders.
Do not know which specialist to contact? Make an appointment with a general practitioner (GP). He will listen to your complaints, determine their etiology and redirect them to a specialized specialist.
Methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention
The consultation of a neurologist is no different from an appointment with an ordinary therapist. First, the doctor collects anamnesis, asks the patient about complaints, general health, hereditary diseases and so on. Then the specialist conducts a visual examination, palpation of the affected areas of the body, checking reflexes and brain activity. If the information received is not enough, the neurologist gives the patient a referral for diagnosis. The diagnostic method depends on the area being investigated and the severity of the condition.
Computed tomography detects areas of hemorrhage, malformations of veins / arteries, tissue changes after mechanical damage or a heart attack. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered a more modern diagnostic method.
The study provides more detailed information about the state of health and does not harm the human body. An ultrasound is prescribed for the diagnosis of large vessels of the neck, and lumbar puncture is necessary for meningitis, tumors or internal hemorrhages. X-rays are prescribed for the detection of intervertebral hernias, proliferation of vertebrae or tumor processes. Angiography can detect diseases / changes in the blood vessels of the brain, and electroencephalography is most often used in cases of suspected epilepsy.
In some cases, the examination with other doctors – an ophthalmologist, a cardiologist, an endocrinologist. This will help to form a clear picture of the disease, confirm or deny the diagnosis.
The therapeutic course is based on the diagnosis. The treatment of traumatic brain injury and lumbago (acute back pain) will be radically different. Clear follow medical instructions and refuse self-treatment or folk remedies. Unlike therapy, preventive measures are the same for most patients. A neurologist advises to go on a healthy lifestyle, sleep on 8 hours per day, join in with feasible physical activity and eat more fresh vegetables / fruits. Another important component of prevention – regular inspection. Visit a neurologist according to medical prescriptions or 1-2 times a year for a routine physical exam.