A neurologist is a doctor who treats what

The term “neuropathologist” is an outdated wording of such a specialist as a neurologist. Therefore, many people confuse the names of the same doctor, looking for a nonexistent difference between them. Patients should understand that a neurologist is a doctor who treats problems of the nervous system in the same way as a neurologist. These specialties do not differ from each other, just the term “neuropathologist” becomes obsolete and is used less often.

Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic Shishkevich Vladimir, orthopedic and traumatologist, project editor-in-chief ExpertNews.

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What diseases does a neurologist treat?

Determining what a neurologist treats, patients often can not remember anything but a back pain, which is not always due to pathology of the nerves or bone-joint apparatus. The competence of a neurologist includes the following nosologies:

  • various forms of meningitis (an inflammatory process in the meninges that can be caused by any microorganism that can penetrate the encephalic barrier);
  • encephalitis (a severe lesion, which is accompanied by severe focal symptoms with signs of malfunctioning of certain centers of the cortex);
  • congenital malformations of the nervous system (medical examination should be conducted from childhood);
  • hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes (characterized by acute violation of cerebral circulation with the formation of zones of necrosis);
  • transient ischemic attack (a stroke clinic without the formation of necrotic sites and an independent return to normal);
  • Alzheimer’s disease (in adults, a neuropathologist treats this specific pathology, in which degeneration of the cerebral cortex occurs);
  • Parkinson’s disease (a specific pathology in which tremor of the extremities and demyelination of fibers are noted);
  • sciatica (inflammation of the nerve roots emerging from the spinal cord);
  • pathology of the joints of the spine, including: osteochondrosis, hernia, osteoporosis and others;
  • various variations of neuropathies (most often represent idiopathic lesions of nerves);
  • neuralgia (a local problem in the nerve fiber, which is accompanied by soreness);
  • symptomatic lesions of the nervous system (for example, a neuropathologist treats nerve problems associated with anemic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, vitamin B deficiencies, and so on);
  • a variety of neuritis (inflammatory processes, for example, in the sciatic nerve);
  • oncological neoplasms of the brain and (or) spinal cord (together with an oncologist);
  • migraine (a woman-specific disease that is accompanied by headache attacks of unknown etiology);
  • vegetovascular dystonia (functional diagnosis for the nervous, cardiovascular systems);
  • sleep disturbances and chronic fatigue syndrome.

The list of pathological processes includes many more diseases that a neuropathologist must know and remember in order to correctly diagnose.

When to contact a neurologist?

It is not enough to understand who a neuropathologist is and what nosologies he is involved in order to contact him in time. Determining disorders in the nervous system can be quite difficult, so patients are left without qualified medical care for a long time. Self-diagnosis in the presence of central nervous system problems is useless, since specific studies are required to make a diagnosis.

Patients consult a neurologist with the following symptoms:

  • headache (any area may hurt, and the nature of the pain often does not differ);
  • dorsalgia (pain, localized in the back);
  • sleep disturbances (insomnia or excessive drowsiness, also the nature of sleep, problems with falling asleep);
  • speech disorders, asymmetry of facial expressions and unilateral paralysis (a neuropathologist checks the clinic of a stroke and confirms the diagnosis using instrumental studies);
  • convulsive syndrome (psychiatrists mainly deal with epilepsy, but there are various causes of seizures);
  • unmotivated violation of cognitive functions (oppression of emotions, memory, impaired perception, and so on);
  • problems with motor activity (for example, with problems with the spine);
  • impaired coordination;
  • fatigue;
  • weakening of muscle tone;
  • sensitivity disorders in the form of paresthesia (numbness, burning), hypesthesia (decreased tactile and pain) or hyperesthesia (increased sensitivity).

If there is even one of the listed symptoms for a week or more, you should contact a neurologist.

A typical stroke clinic requires an immediate emergency call.

How is the doctor’s appointment?

At the neurologist’s appointment, first of all, the patient’s complaints and medical history are studied. Their specificity is usually sufficient to determine the direction of the lesion and its possible causes. During the initial examination, the neuropathologist studies the following features:

  • muscle tone (using a special apparatus or a simple hand shake);
  • active and passive movements in the limbs;
  • coordination (the patient alternately with closed eyes touches the tip of the nose with his index fingers);
  • superficial and deep reflexes (a special hammer is used);
  • eyeball movements (their presence, symmetry, correspondence to each other);
  • cognitive functions (some tests borrowed from psychiatry are used);
  • sensitivity (by pressing, acupuncture);
  • meningeal signs (stiff neck, Kerneg and Brudzinsky symptoms) for the diagnosis of meningitis;
  • specific signs of encephalitis, strokes.

During the examination, the neuropathologist makes assumptions about the diagnosis, and then directs the patient to additional studies. These may include: determination of laboratory parameters (blood, urine, biochemistry, proteins, coagulograms), puncture of cerebrospinal fluid with its subsequent study, electroencephalogram (determination of the activity of individual parts of the brain), MRI (imaging of tumors, ischemic lesions), angiography of cerebral vessels and other specific studies that are prescribed depending on the nosology (for example, the definition of thyroid hormones).

After making a clinical diagnosis, the neuropathologist is engaged in the development of a set of therapeutic measures. Therapy may include lifestyle correction, medication, the use of physiotherapy and manual treatment, surgery.

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Neurology is a branch of medicine that studies the human nervous system. Its features and complex structure dictates its approaches to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of identified pathologies. Thanks to the nerve endings with which all organs are equipped, a person receives the information necessary for normal, full-fledged life activity. The slightest deviations and inflammatory processes in this harmonious system of the body lead to dangerous diseases and complications. They can be triggered by stress, overwork, a sedentary lifestyle, and other causes. Neurologists help solve problems and prevent neurological diseases.

Neurology is very closely associated with neurosurgery, pediatrics and psychiatry. These branches of medicine have much in common and very often the treatment is complex, with the interaction of doctors. Neurologists specialize in the so-called nervous diseases, study them, diagnose and choose the best treatment options. Doctors of this profile help with depression and neurosis, but the main subject of study of neurology are functional, degenerative, inflammatory and vascular lesions of the nervous system. This area of ​​medicine is at the junction of several specialties.

Many doctors, before making a final diagnosis, send patients to the neurologist’s office. Thousands of patients need the services of this specialist. Neurologists are referred upon admission to universities, employment, in cases where certificates, examinations and medical reports are required. This is a very popular specialty in medical practice. What and how are neurologists treating, what is the peculiarity of this profession and when should you turn to professionals in this field? Let’s try to understand these issues.

What does a neurologist do?

A certified neurologist who has undergone specialized training thoroughly knows the structure and all the features of the central nervous system (CNS). He is able to recognize characteristic symptoms, conduct the necessary tests, make diagnoses and prescribe treatment.

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In order to realize oneself in this field of medicine and become a neurologist, it is necessary to receive a medical education in the specialty of “medical business” or “pediatrics”. Postgraduate education should be supplemented by internship training. This gives the right to independently carry out medical activities and confirms the qualifications of a specialist in the field of “neurology”.

There are a lot of diseases associated with disorders of the nervous and peripheral systems. A neurologist should know the specifics of each. Typically, disorders are associated with developing infectious inflammation of the brain and malfunctioning of biological neural connections. The most common neurological diseases are migraines, strokes, neuritis, tumors, epileptic seizures, encephalopathy (See also: causes and symptoms of encephalopathy).

Among neurologists there is a separate category of specialists whose activities are exclusively related to children’s problems of a neurological nature. The nervous system of children is different from the adult. Many of the chronic diseases develop precisely at a young age, are quite complicated and have dangerous consequences. One such serious illness is epilepsy. Children with deviations and obvious signs of a malfunction of the nervous system need special medical attention and control. The approaches to treatment differ, all this confirms the validity of the existence of pediatric neurology as a separate area of ​​medicine.

Diseases treated by a neurologist

Neurological diseases have their own characteristics. In most cases, they are accompanied by numerous symptoms. This is a whole complex of signs and manifestations that can be caused by a variety of reasons.

We distinguish pathological conditions that belong to the competence of a neurologist:

Headache, facial pain (migraines, nervous tics, tremors, Bell’s palsy, etc.);

Convulsive conditions, epileptic seizures, impaired consciousness;

Pain in the back (hernias, radiculitis, osteochondrosis, etc.);

Stroke and its consequences;

Injuries, consequences of injuries to the back and head;

Parkinson’s disease, etc.

At the appointment with a neurologist

Admission to a neurologist traditionally begins with a survey of the patient and clarification of complaints. In order to get the most accurate clinical picture and prevent mistakes in the diagnosis, the patient should help the doctor: describe his condition in detail, talk about symptoms that worsen well-being, their regularity and severity.

A neurologist must study the medical history and conduct an examination. If there is insufficient data for diagnosis, additional studies may be prescribed. The goal of the doctor is to get a clear and correct idea of ​​the work and condition of the human nervous system. For this, all its departments are examined, from muscles to the brain. The patient’s reflexes, coordination, gait, cranial nerves, etc. are studied. Such an integrated approach makes it possible to determine the anatomical features of the body and prescribe the best treatment option. It can be conservative and surgical. Everything is individual, the choice of therapeutic tactics depends on the type of disease, the general condition of the patient and the stage of the revealed pathology.

When is it necessary to visit a neurologist?

Many of the known neurological symptoms accompany diseases of other systems of the human body. Not everyone knows about their affiliation and seriousness. Postponing a visit to the doctor, you can bring the condition to serious complications. Any deviation associated with the nervous system should not be ignored.

A neurologist is consulted if the following symptoms appear:

Frequent, prolonged, severe headaches;

Back and lower back pain;

Bad sleep (frequent awakenings, insomnia);

Numbness, loss of sensation, tingling of limbs;

Dizziness, tinnitus, fainting;

Weakness, fatigue, impaired gait and coordination of movement;

Disorder of memory and perception, distraction.

Symptoms such as facial asymmetry, frequent mood swings, and voice changes can result from neurological diseases. To an ordinary person, these manifestations may seem commonplace, but for an experienced neurologist, these are typical symptoms that often result from the development of a serious illness. Any of the listed symptoms of the disease should be an occasion for a visit to the doctor. It can be directly a neurologist or therapist, who will determine which specific specialist should be consulted.

What does a neurologist look at?

A trip to any doctor is accompanied by excitement, anxiety and fear of the unknown. If you have never been to a neurologist, and do not know what awaits you at the reception, drop all fears. Awkward situations are excluded, it is just a collection of information necessary for accurate diagnosis. Specialist consultation includes an initial examination and a survey with a set of standard questions. The doctor must accurately determine the neurological condition of the patient. To do this, he can take an interest in his age, marital status, place and schedule, history of taking medications. The list of compulsory questions includes clarification of all points regarding the genetic predisposition and the general state of health of the patient

What is included in the appointment of a neurologist?

Among the medical services provided by a neurologist, the following types are mandatory:

A medical history, which involves a thorough study of the medical history: injuries, previous diseases and operations, especially labor, living, etc.

Visual examination and palpation examination of the patient.

Study of sensitive function and motor system.

Ultrasound of the brain may be included in the complex of medical services. The final stage is the appointment of treatment. This can be drug therapy, dietary recommendations and a therapeutic regimen suitable for the identified pathology.

What does a neurologist treat a doctor and what symptoms should he be treated with

Chronic lack of sleep, severe mental and physical stress, stress, the pursuit of elevation, unfavorable environmental conditions, poor nutrition and bad habits – all this plagues the human nervous system, which ultimately crashes. We live in an age of technology and permissiveness, but, nevertheless, our organisms are weakening, and diseases are getting younger, and becoming more sophisticated.

However, diseases of the nervous system and problems of the brain and spinal cord were encountered even in ancient times, as evidenced by the works of Hippocrates and other scientists of those times. Of course, there were fewer of them, and they happened less frequently, but still they were. That is why there was a need for a separate science that would study in detail the structure of the central nervous system, the functions of its constituent organs and structures, the mechanism for the development of disorders in them, and also suggested solutions to the pathologies that arose. They called it neurology, and doctors called neurologists. In the eighties of the twentieth century, changes occurred in the Ministry of Health, and the neurologist was renamed a neurologist.

Now you will find out what the neurologist is treating, and what symptoms to use with him, but first find out who he is.

Who is a neurologist?

A neurologist is a specialist who has graduated from a medical institute in medical business, is well versed in therapy, and at the same time, has undergone a re-qualification in the neurological direction.

The human nervous system is a complex set of structures, including:

  • Brain;
  • Spinal cord;
  • Nerve plexus;
  • Bunches;
  • Endings and fibers.

They all consist of nerve cells called neurons. When their work fails, inflammation develops in the central nervous system, which is fraught with serious problems for the body as a whole.

The doctor of this profession should be able to find the right approach to patients, conduct a survey to reliably determine the cause of the violation, and select a research plan based on which one can assume a diagnosis. Let’s see what a neurologist does and what he heals.

What does a neurologist treat a doctor?

Its competence extends to any kind of neurological disorder. There are a huge number of them, and for each of them there is a characteristic symptomatology, contributing causes, predisposing factors, and also possible complications.

Often, a disease of the nervous system can be characterized by paralysis, mental breakdowns, convulsions and loss of all sensitivity. The most common conditions to be treated by a neurologist are:

  • Migraine – attacks of severe headache. It is noted that about 70% of the world’s population suffers from this phenomenon to a greater or lesser extent;
  • Nervous tic – muscle contractions on the face, repeated with a certain frequency;
  • Tremor – trembling of fingers and hands;
  • Paralysis – Bell’s most known paralysis, which affects the nerve on one side of the face;
  • Osteochondrosis – against the background of dystrophic changes in the cartilage of the spine, nerve endings can get pinched;
  • Intervertebral hernia – a similar situation associated with the proximity of the vertebral discs with the spinal cord and its processes;
  • Radiculitis is a disease in which nerve roots in the spine become inflamed;
  • Epilepsy – refers to a serious disease of the central nervous system, which is chronic in nature and manifested by seizures, loss of consciousness and convulsions;
  • Stroke – as a result of this acute violation, the brain may not be adequately supplied with blood, which causes paralysis;
  • The consequences of injuries to the skull and back;
  • Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease – occurs due to the active death of neurons, which entails irreversible consequences for the nervous system and psyche.
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This is not the entire list of pathologies, but the main list of what a neurologist treats in adults.

What does a neurologist do and what does he do?

An experienced neurologist always tries to hear his patient, learn all about complaints, examine him well, starting with gait and movements, ending with facial features, find out if there were similar cases in his close relatives, and listen to the patient’s assumptions about possible causes of pathological disorders.

Provoking factors can be:

  • Infectious lesions of the main system by fungi, bacteria, viruses or other parasites;
  • Vascular disorders, most often inflammation, blood clots or tears;
  • Chronic diseases affecting the central or peripheral part of the NS;
  • Genetic abnormalities and hereditary mutations;
  • Injuries associated with bruising or damage to the head or back when brain structures are affected;
  • Poor child bearing, when the mother during pregnancy uses alcohol, tobacco and / or narcotic substances, does not monitor her health and does not eat well.

It can be concluded: the first thing a neurologist does is diagnose a patient. If necessary, he resorts to various analyzes and other research methods. Based on their results, he works out a therapeutic course, monitors the patient’s condition at all stages of treatment, helps the body recover, and gives the patient preventive advice.

What symptoms should be treated?

Disturbances in the functioning of the central nervous system occur slowly and imperceptibly. Because of this, a person very often does not suspect a serious danger until he or she develops paralysis, mental disorders, or weak intellect. In older people, the risks of these diseases increase at times.

Even such minor manifestations as tingling and numbness of the fingers should not be ignored, especially if they are combined with frequent dizziness, headaches and loss of consciousness.

What the neurologist treats, and what symptoms to treat:

  • Weekly migraine attacks, accompanied by deterioration of the visual apparatus, irregular blood pressure and nausea;
  • Severe dizziness;
  • Short-term loss of vision or consciousness with their subsequent return;
  • Unconscious seizures with convulsions;
  • Progressive muscle weakness;
  • Stiffness of body movements;
  • Tremor of arms and legs;
  • Pain along the back (spine);
  • Numbness of the tissues, tingling or loss of sensation in certain areas;
  • Memory impairment;
  • Chronic insomnia, or vice versa, around the clock drowsiness;
  • Hot flashes or chills;
  • Heart palpitations;
  • Bouts of panic and depression;
  • Disorders of taste buds and smell.

What treatment methods are used in neurology?

As mentioned earlier, the danger of neurological diseases is that they can be absolutely asymptomatic for a long time. But if you notice any characteristic signs, it is important not to miss the moment, and immediately seek qualified help from a neurologist.

Based on your complaints and diagnostic results, the doctor will be able to prescribe a treatment complex, which must be strictly followed to avoid complications. It is based on:

  • At the reception of medicines;
  • On manual therapy – effectively used for diseases of the spine;
  • On acupuncture – an effective method that positively affects the functionality of the central nervous system;
  • On physiotherapy, as an auxiliary tool on the path to recovery;
  • On psychotherapeutic techniques, for the treatment of neurosis and other mental disorders resulting in a nervous system disease.

Neurologist Tips

The health of the nervous system is a guarantee of normal functioning and conscious old age. The central nervous system is related to all internal organs of the human body, so it must be protected and protected from any kind of disease. If a pathological violation still develops, then do not hesitate in contacting a doctor, otherwise negative consequences can be allowed.

From the article you can understand what the neurologist does, and that the treatment methods give good results. But if you use them out of time, the effect may not be achieved. Therefore, in order not to run into troubles, and not to test your nervous system and body for strength, it is better to avoid the disease.

This can be done only by observing basic rules:

  • Sleep 8 hours a day;
  • Eat healthy foods
  • Refuse alcohol and cigarettes;
  • Spend in the open air for at least 2 hours a day;
  • Go in for sports (at least do basic exercises).

And let you know that a neurologist treats adults, but we wish this to be avoided.

Neurologist (neurologist)

Not sure which doctor to go to?

We will quickly select the right specialist and clinic for you!

A neurologist is a generalist who is engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, as well as conditions that are somehow related to the work of the central and peripheral nervous system. Some know this doctor under the obsolete name of a neuropathologist.

What does a neurologist treat?

The basis of all the diseases that this doctor deals with are inflammatory processes of the spinal cord and brain, malfunctioning of neurons, weakening of the connections between them. Conventionally, such diseases can be divided into groups:

  • Inflammatory (radiculitis, neuritis, encephalitis of different origin).
  • Autoimmune (polymyositis, neuropathies, Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis).
  • Tumors (malignant and benign tumors).
  • Degenerative (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, intervertebral hernia, dementia, osteochondrosis).
  • Convulsive disorders (epilepsy).
  • Congenital changes (cerebral palsy, hydrocephalus, syringomyelia).
  • Diseases caused by vascular pathologies (strokes, vegetovascular dystonia, migraines, vascular defects of the spinal cord and brain).
  • Consequences after traumatic brain injury.
  • Encephalopathy of an alcoholic nature.
  • Neurological diseases of unclear etiology (narcolepsy, Meniere’s disease).

A neurologist treats diseases affecting the work of peripheral nerves, the brain and spinal cord, the innervation of the nervous system organs, and their blood supply.

Neurologist Specializations

General neurology deals with a fairly wide range of diseases, but sometimes to clarify the diagnosis, you have to consult doctors with a narrower specialization:

  • Children’s neurologist. It treats the same problems as an adult, only taking into account the age characteristics of their patients.
  • Vascular neurologist. He is engaged in the treatment and prevention of vascular diseases of the nervous system, for example, carries out rehabilitation after a stroke.
  • Neurologist-osteopath. Simply put, an osteopath treats neurological disorders with his hands.
  • Neurologist-vertebrologist. He is engaged in spinal problems associated with impaired innervation in the vertebrae, and heals strangulation and intervertebral hernias.
  • Neurologist-somnologist. Investigates the pathology associated with sleep disturbance, affecting human health.
  • Neurologist-vegetologist. Helps patients with autonomic disorders, who have a wide variety of complaints, ranging from heart palpitations and ending with chest pains, a “lump” in the throat. A veterinarian is a psychiatrist and neuropathologist in one person.

When to go to the reception?

Here are some of the symptoms and situations that may suggest that it is time to go to a neurologist for a consultation:

  • traumatic brain injury;
  • fatigue;
  • frequent headaches;
  • sleep disorders;
  • the gait became unstable, it is difficult to coordinate movements;
  • condition after a stroke;
  • memory decline, changes in mental activity, social behavior;
  • convulsions;
  • fainting, loss of consciousness;
  • limbs go numb, their sensitivity decreases;
  • pain in the neck, behind the sternum, in the lower back;
  • noise in ears;
  • deterioration in smell, vision, hearing;
  • nerve tics;
  • toothache not related to dental disease;
  • urinary incontinence, feces.

When do they go to a pediatric neurologist?

Make a child an appointment with a neurologist is necessary for the following symptoms and cases.

  • handles, chin are shaking, both during crying and in a calm state;
  • standing on the legs, the baby tightens his fingers;
  • with an increase in body temperature, convulsions are observed;
  • the baby is often agitated, sleeps poorly;
  • frequent regurgitation;
  • when the baby fell and hit his head.

In older children:

  • poor sleep, naughty when falling asleep;
  • restlessness, quick fatigue;
  • the child lags behind in speech development, stutters, there are nervous tics;
  • problems with vision;
  • urinary incontinence;
  • the child is sick with transport;
  • frequent nosebleeds.

At the reception, the doctor checks vision, muscle strength, motor coordination, sensitivity, reflexes. For children with congenital pathologies, special examination and treatment tactics are used.

You can get to the office of a pediatric neurologist in the direction of a pediatrician for an additional consultation. Children up to a year every three months are brought for a routine inspection. Further examination is carried out once a year.

What does a neurologist at the reception do?

First of all, he listens to complaints, asks about the nature of the pain, how long they appeared, how often they bother. After that, the doctor conducts an external examination of the patient. On examination, the sensitivity of the skin integument is established, reflexes are studied, the doctor determines whether the coordination of movements is disturbed, whether the patient maintains balance.

What diagnostic methods are used?

There are special specific methods that help the neurologist make an accurate diagnosis. Among them:

  1. Electroneuromyography is a test of muscle potentials.
  2. Angiography of cerebral vessels (X-ray examination using the introduction of a contrast medium into the body).
  3. Doppler ultrasound of the brain vessels.
  4. Studying cerebrospinal fluid.
  5. X-ray of the spine, skull.
  6. MRI, computed tomography.
Morozov Georgiy

Rheumatologist. For more than 20 years, he has been involved in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of joint diseases. Specialization: diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases and deformations of the musculoskeletal system.